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Translations from the Chinese translation of the Ekottaragama by Sramana Tao 
Ngan, as appeared in Buddhist Studies Review Vol.1.2 to 22.1 

Up to the twelfth fascicle, part 21 

Chapters 1-14 translated into French by Thfch Huyen-Vi 

Chapters 15-34 translated into English by Thfch Huyen-Vi and Bhikkhu Pasadika, in 
collaboration with Sara Boin-Webb 

Followed by the obituary of Thfch Huyen-Vi 



126 



Buddhist Studies Review 1,2 (1963-4) 



i, 
i. 



v 



in teaching by saying, 'here there is no trumpeting of his own Dhamma {sadhammu- 
kkamsana) , no depreciating of another h s Dhamma {paradhammapasadana} but just 
teaching Dhamma {dhammadesana ) in its proper sphere'. 

4 This can be seen from various parallel passages on atta and on citta. For 

example, Dhp 160 says, 'For with a well -controlled self {atr.anS'va sudantena) , 
one gains a protector hard to gain', while Dhp 35 says, 'a controlled (daneam) 
citta is conducive to happiness'. Again, A II 32 talks of 'perfect application 
of self' ( atta-sairaS-panidhi ) as one of the four things which lead to prosperity, 
while Dhp 4 3 aces 'a perfectly applied (samma-panihit.am) h citta as doing for 
one what no relative can do. That c-itta is not an atta in a metaphysical sense 
(i.e. it is anatta) can be seen from the fact thai S V 184 sees it as dependent 
on nama-rQpa , mind-and-body . A metaphysical atta , on the other hand, would 
be an Independent, unconditioned entity. 

5 flturoo is the archaic word for atta. Thus Nd I 69 says Stuma vuccati atta. 

6 Although MA II 361 sees him as an Arahant, being without attachment, hatred 
and delusion, which are 'productive of the measurable', as seen at M I 298. 

M I 298, however, does not limit 'immeasurable' states to that of the Arahant 's 
'unshakeable cetovimutt i * but says only that this is the 'chief' of these. 
Others it mentions are the four Brahmaviharas , and the Corny, HA II 354, adds 
the four maggas and the four phalas to the list . 

7 Ka~ya, or 'body' here, may refer to the n3ma-*aua, i.e. to the components of 
nama , or to nama-rUpa as a whole, A 'developed kaya ' must be a person's 

'body' of mental states or their 'sentient body' when developed by Buddhist 
practice . 

6 Cf. A II 38-9. 

9 Cf . Ps II 220 on five kinds of viveka, the last, again, being Nlbbana. Simi- 
larly, Nd II 251 explains the vivekadh aitwam of Sn 1065 as Nlbbana. 

10 See Chapters 10 and 11 of author's dissertation (see Note 1). 

11 As quoted and translated by Har Dayal in his The Bodhisattva Doctrine in 
Buddhist Sanskrit Literature (London 1932: repr. Delhi 1978), p. 15-16. On 

the abhififias as overcoming various barriers, see A HI 27-8. 

12 See Vism 307-8 and Sn 368 and 705. 

13 Buddhist Thought in India (London 1962), p. 37. 

14 The Heart of Buddhist Meditation (London 1969), p. 68. 



127 

AVANT-PROPOS(I) 

PRESENTATION DU RECUETIL D'EKOTTARAGAMA (2) 

Par le bVamana (3) Che Tao Ngan [ $fy ^ ^- ), 

Dynastie des Tsin ( -%~ ) 

Trsduit dn Chinois par THfCH HUYfTN-V! 

tl existe quatre recueils d'Aqama (4). La definition dp J'appellation "Agama" a ele 
exposed dans le deuxieme recueil, le Marihyamagama et il nous parail inutile de la 
rappeler ioi. 

Pr§risons seulement la definition du terme "Ekottara". Litteralement il signifiu 
" [dbd augments de un". Uue veut dire "augments de un"'' "Dix" represcnte Enumeration 

complete des sujet.s Lraites, complete dans leur nnmbre el dans leur classification par 
categories, et Ja dizaine augmenlee de I'unite symbolise la progression susceptible 
de s'Stcndrc vers I'infini. Ainsi chaque regie SdictSe par I'enseiynemenl progresse chaque 
jour, tendanl vers la perfection. Pour cette raison, le present Recueil des RSgles de la 
Doctrine et des Rites' servira pour I du jours comme des mesures et des mode les en 
or el en jade pour le salut des etres vivanls. 

A I'exterieur du continent indien, les quatre Recueils d' Agama onl Ste accueillis avec 
respect par les habitants das agglomerations ciLadines ainsi que par les religieux retires 
dans les bois et les montagnes. 

l.e v£n6rable Sramana Dharmanandin (b), originaire de Taksas'ila (ft), elait entrS assez 
lard en religion. II a consacr£ le resle de sa vie a Studier les Agama et il en possSdail 
parfaitemenl. la lettre et I'esprit. Partout a 1'et.ranger ses conferences elaient suivies 
avec enlhDusiasme. 

Fn Tan 20 de I'ere KienYuan ( ifc JL ) des Is'in ( ^_ ), i! arriva a la eapilale Tch'ang 

Ngan et t.ous les habitants, aussi bien les natifs du pays que les residents Strangers le 
louerent pour ses explications des textes des Agama, Le gauverneur miljt.eire Tchao 
Wen Ye ( j£$ j^ *j!iL ) ^ pria de rendrc la connaissance des Agama accessible au pcupic. 

A I'entreprisc gigantesgue de transcription (en langue chinoise) participaient le vSnSrable 
Buridhasmrti comme traducleur et le S'ramana Dharmanandin comme correcteur. Elle 
commenca des la retraile d'£te de I'annce Kia Chen ( ^ >Jp ) pour se terminer a la fin 
du printemps de I'annee suivante. Le rccueil[d'fc.kottarigama]a etS reparti en quaranle-el 
-un fascicules formanl deux tomes. Le premier tome comptant vingt-six fascicules est 
complet par rapport aux texles originaux. Le deuxieme tome de quinze fascicules est 
incomplet : il y manque les gatha (courts poemes resumant le contenu de etiaque 
sutra) (7). 

Moi, Dharmanandin, j'ai participS a la correction avec d'autres religieux. Les vensrables 
5eng lio ( $ ]&■ ) el Seng Meou ( i% J^ ) ont pu reconstituer et traduire les parties 



128 



Buddhist Studies Review 1,2 (1983-4) 



manquantes. Ce travail ft pris quarante jaurn6es. Durant cette annee, la capitale a ele 
encerclSe par I'armSe rebelle dR Nqo Tch'eng ( faf J-&, ) el les tam-tam de guerre 
rgsonnaient de lous les cote's, cependanl nous poursuivions notre oeuvre avec ferveur. 
Finalement nous avons complete la traduction des deux Agama en portant leur nombre a 
cent fascicules (8). 

Les v£n£rables Vaidurya, Sunirmita el. Sanghapala ont reussi a diffuse? ces recueils 
de I'lnde aux nations orientates, 

Les quatre recueils d'Agama ont et.0 retranscrits par un comity d'e>udits de quarante 
mcrnbres elus par le Sahqha, el repartis en quatre sous-comit£s de dix membres, charun 

s'occupant d'un recueil d'Aqama. I es sujets trailOs et classifies ont ele fidelernent 
r^sum^s dans les qatha en prevision des erreurs ot des pertes commises lors des relran- 
scriptions ulterieures. Cette precaution s'explique par I'enqouement qui reqnait en 
ce moment dans ce pays pour la diffusion des recueils de sutra. Deux recueils d' Agama 

ont connu parliculieremont des aventures reyrettables, dues 5 la melhode d^fectueusr 
ijduptee pour la retranscription : chaque ^ruriit avail la rcsponsabilitO entiere d'un 
volume. II sc bornait a recopicr !t;s ecrits ancicns. Lea explications etaient incompletes 
ot quelque*fois inexislanles. 

La premiere ot la deuxieme series d'Aqama contlennent au total quatre cent soixante- 
douze sutra, et les textes oriqinaux ont e-te fidelernent traduits par les e>udits. 11 
s'aqit. ries regies essentielles de la Doctrine, d 1 importance capitale pour le Sangha. Dans 
certains pays bouddhiques, les novices de m£me que les laVques residents (a tunique 
blanche) ne sonl. pas auforises a £tudier les r£glements et les riles. Dans ce pays an 
contraire, la connaissonce des regies de conduite par tous les adept.es de la Docttine 
est unc pratique eucouraqee. C'est la one oriqinalite remarquable do bouririhisme chinois. 

Toulefois la connaissanoe des rcqles est inutile sans leur pratique et, a oe sujet, certaines 
constatations me conduiscnt a formuler quelques regrets, I es 6rudits ont mis I'accent 
sur ries chapitres importants, tcl cclui du Grand Amour pour la Doctrine, mais certains 
adcptcs nan avertis les ont considers comme les sutra "reserves" aux seuls initios. De 
memo, les rcqles de conduite pour les bhiksunT soot, import.antes, mais certains les 
considerent comme neqligeables. VuilS quelques exemples regrettables a propos de 
1'etude des Agama. 

En resume, ces deux tomes de recueil ne peuvent etre appr£ci£s a leur exacte valeur 
que par ceux qui possddent d£ja une connaissance suffisamment profonde de la Doctrine. 
Ceux qui les lisent d'une fat^on superficielle on! besoin des conseils et des explications 
de la part des aines plus avertis. 



Ekottar agama 



129 



Notes 

1 Let avant-prnpos a etc transcrit conformement a 1'original sous I'ere Yuan-ming 
de la dynastie des Sonq ( ;JL). 

2 I kollaraqoma (sanscrit) ou Angultara-Nikaya (pfili). 

i Che Tao Nqan : Moine buuddhiste renomme pour son erudition. II a traduil de 
nombreux sutra el recueils de la discipline du Sanscrit en chinois. 

<* Les quatre Recueils d'Aqama sont : i. le Recueil Lonq ou Dirghagama (Sanscrit), 
Digha-Nikaya (pali); ii, le Recueil du Milieu un Madhyamaqama (sanscrit), Majjhima- 
Nikayji (pali), iii. Li- Recueil des Varieties ou Ljamyuklaqama (Sanscrit), Samyutta- 
NikSya IpalH; iv. I e Recueil de [Dix] plus tJn ou Lkottaraqama (sanscrit), Anyutlara- 
Nikay.i (pally. Cello deniiere collection est plutot connu eomine "I'Aqarna donl 
chacuno des seel ions s'augmente par un". II s'agit des traites numeriques, ou des 
sujels sont trailed numeriquement. 

' I n ce qui concernc Dharmanandin, cf. "Central Asi ar , f,ntra 1 raqments and their 
Relation to the Chinese Agamas" par E. Waldschmidt, dons The Language of the 
Tarliesl Buddhist. Tradition, 6ri. M. Becherl, Goltingen, 19B0, p. 169, n. 1 Sti : "Hahn, 
I.e., speaks of Gautama Songhadeva as translator of the Tsf'nq-i-a-han-ohing in 
ennrord with the Taisho Tripitaka, whereas the translation is ascribed to Dharma- 
nandin by Nanjio. Acrordinq to Hagchi, Cjout.onia Sanqhadcva acted merely as 
reviser or redactor..." 

(■• Tiiksasila : un petit royaume au nord-uuest du continent indien, I'actuel Taxila, 
a 26 milles an norri-ouest de Rawalpindi, dans le Penjab, Pakistan. 

7 Le numeru reel des fascicules du recueil d'Lkollaraqama se t.rouvant dans 1'edition 
de Taisho est t>1. 



H Le texte ne clarifie pas quel autre Agama hors de l 1 Lkottaragama indiqu^. 

Rcut-etre il s'agit du Madhyamagama traduit par fianqhadeva en db fascicules. 



130 



EKOTTARAGAMA 

VOLUME PREMIER 

Traduil par le Sramarja Gautama Saftghadeva (1) originaire du Ki Pin ( jfj '|r ) 
sous le regne des Tsm orientaux ( jfL^t ) 

CHAP1TRE I 

(INTRODUCTION) (2) 

Nous nans proslemons devanl le Grand Cumpatissant, le septieme Bouddha, qui a preche 
pour les divinites et les sages ainsi que pour tous les £tres sensibles entraines dan?; 
le eyerie infini des naissances et des morts. 

G'est le lathaqala Sakyasnuni qui s'est oonsaere a La liberation des humains. 

Nous rendnns hommagc au grand Kaiyapa (J), le saint Palriarche, au saga Ansnda(4, 
qui pDursuit 1'oeuvTe sacree. 

Le Suqala {b) nous a indique' la voie de la deTivrancc. II a laisse au monde ses reliques 
qui snnt pjeusement reparties entre Kusinagan [6) ct Maqadha (7). 

Le grand Ka^yapa nous a enseigne ley gualre grands incommensurables (8) cumme moyens 
de salut pour rjchapper aux cinq vuies de renaissance (9), II nous a permis de cDmprendre 
la signification du grand Eveil. II nous a fait aimer et pratiquer le veritable Dharma 
enseigne par J 'litre le plus ventre MI}) de tous les etres vivants. 

Le grand Kas'yapa, conscient de la mission que lui avait confiee le Tathagata, jugea 
neccssaire de profiter de i'ere de developpement de la Doctrine pour faire connattre 
aux humains I 'ensemble des enseigncments laiss6s par le Ptre ct Maitre ventre, el 
d'assurer la conservation at la transmission de ces biens precieux (11) aux generations 
futures. 

11 cherchait parmi les pr aches du Tathagata, I'adeple le plus capable, le plus apte 
a repondre aux souffrances des hommes et a ieurs demandes. II le trouva en ia personne 
ri' Ananda a la fois sage el erudit. Ses appels aux reunions (12) et ses propos sont ^coutes 
avec respect par les quatre categories de disciples (13). 

l"!u par quatre-vingt-quatre mille bhiksu, Ananda fut le veritable ariiant (14), le parfail 
lihere, le plus meritant. 

Ce fut ainsi que Kas'yapa s'acquitta de sa gratitude envers le Tathagata etqu' Ananda 
formula le voeu d'accomplir la mission gui lui fut devolue : maintenir la lumiere du 
Dharma pendant trois asamkhyeya de kalpa (15) dans le monde dea humains et faire b€- 
neficier aux quatre classes d'Auditeurs (16) 1'enseignement merveilleux qui leur ouvrirait 
instantanement la Voie de l'£veil. 

Mais tout d'abard Ananda decline cet honneur en gvoquant sa jeunesse, son ignorance et 
son manque d'experience, et souligna que sur la Montagne Sacree KSsyapa avail etS 



Buddhist Studies Review 1,2 (1983-4) 131 

expressement dSsigne par le Talhagala pqur elre son successeur. 

ETn reponse KSsyapa fit valoir son grand age et sa memoire defaillante, insista sur 
le fait comme : "Parmi tous nos freres, vous, Primat Ananda, eles le seul capable de 
mener a bien la mission de propager la Doctrine. Grace a mes penetrations el a ma 
comprehension de la nature humaine je peux affirmer qu'aucun autre adepte ne peut 
vous surpasses" 

I n apprenanl ce fait, Brahmaraja el Maitreya descendant du ciel Tusita (17) et accom- 
puqnc par des milliers de Bodhisattva se rendirent au concile et. proclamerent d'une 
meme voix que le Venerable Ananda, le plus erudit entre tous, elait designe pour 
continuer la mission de tous les etres sensibles du Sarpsara : "Si vous refusez, u sage 
Ananda, la Doctrine sera perdue a jamais. Pour le bien de tous les etres vivants, accepter 
cello mission. Nous nous engageons a vous aider a surmunler toutes les difficult^, l.e 
passage du Tathagata sur la l.erre des hommes o ete relativement court. Mais ses 
reliques demeurent (Slernelles. Tel devra etre son rnseignemenl 1" 

Au nom du Dharma, Ananda accepta entin cotte mission. II cammenga alors a prScher 
et sa vein retentit dans le monde comme le rugissement du lion(IR) reveillant laus les 
hfltes de la foret. 

II ful trSs attristS en constatant qu'aucun disciple du Tathagata n'avait pu surmonlcr 
ses propres difficulies (19) pour parvenir a l'F"veil. [I projeta alors une lumiere eblouis- 
sante semblable a celle du soleil levant. Brahmaraja el le Borthisattva Maitreya leverent 
la tcte et regarderent cet aura, aussitSt retentirent les paroles merveilleuses du Dharma. 
t es qualre categories de disciples enneentrerent leur attention pour Soouter le Dharma. 

Le grand Kas'yapa ainsi que la rnaJDrite des autres disciples regarderent intensemenl 
Ananda pour ne jamais 1'oublier. 

Ananda monla sur la chaire du concile et dgclara : 

"Je m'adresse a vous tous, 6 mes freres, vous gui avez acquis les merites de la perseve- 
rance. j e diviserai la Doctrine en trois parties : 

La premiere partie portera sur les recueils des enseignemenls du Tathagata. Elle sera 
intilulSe la Corbeille des Sutra. 

La deuxieme partie portant sur 1'ensemble des regies et disciplines sera la Corbeille 
du Vinaya* 

La troisieme partie portant sur les developpements des enseignements s'appellera la 
Corbeille de i'Abhidharma (20). 

L'ensemble des Trois Corbeilles s'intitulera la Triple Corbeille de la Doctrine. 
Dans mon expose sur le Sutra-Pitaka, je reserve la priorite aux Quatre Recueils d'Agama. 
Le premier dans I'ordre d'importance est I'Ekotlaragama comportant 10 plus 1 
anseignements. Ensuite vient le Madhyamagama du recueil des enseignements du juste 



1 32 



Ekottaragama 



1 



milieu, puis le Hirghaqama, recueil des enseiqncinenls longs, enFin le Samyuklagama, 
recueil des cnseiqnement.s varies complement les Lrois precedents, eL comptanl pour 
cett.e raison guatro parlies, 

"Mui, Ananda, jn pense qu'il fauf perpetuer cetie doctrine. C'esl une lumiere qui ne 
s'oloindra jamais, I'our les divinii.es cornine jjivir le common des mortels, celui qui 
a la chance de I'etudier parviondra a I 1 ! veil. 

"Lo premiere pari.ie de cell e doctrine on pn r enseignement. (211 est t res difficile 

a cornprenriro, ;i nssimilcr et a praliquer. Insu'e viennent !e deuxieme (22) ct le 
troisir^me '2V; civjciquements dent los ohapitres const ituenl tin I out, comme ties perles 
d'uti ('Oilier. Ice quatneine (24; fit. trinquieuic '.?.'': enseignements Lruiteul des prublcmes 
ices proohes les uns des nulres. I ce sixicme (2f>) el seplieme (27)enseignemenis ypportcnt 
plus de cleric pour noire comprehension. Avi'c le tiuilietno (28) ct le iieuvieme ' 2 1 )) 
enseignements, nous acocdons aux sujels de niveau supra-mondaiti. 1 e dixiemn onsei- 
gnemenl (311) complete noire connaiEsance, tnuis c'esL le dernier enseignement. I e 
unzierne (31), upres en tie di/airic, forme uvec ins dix premiers ronscignornonl supreme 
conlenantja quintessence du Uliarnial' 

An moment uo Ananda allait descendre de la chairs;, le fulur Bouddha Mai troy a 
le complimenla pour son excellente presentation de la Doctrine. 

Apportant. lours points de vue, les Bodhisattva souliqnerenl I'effioacite des six paramita" 
enseiqnees par le Tathaqata, a savoir : I'observation des reqles, la pratique des dons, 
la perseverance, la patience, la meditation et la sagesse supreme. Ce sonl de mervoilleux 
moyens pour purvenir a l't. veil. 

En premier lieu, vient la pratique des dons (32). Los Bodhisattva rappelorent les exemplcs 
de rlnns offeclues par le Tathaqata dans ses innumbrables vies anl.ericures : don do sa 
propre vie, des parties de son corps, de ses yeux, do sdo epouse et de ses enfants, de 
son royaurne, do ses joyaux les plus precieux, pour sauver la vie d'auLrui ou simplement 
pour rendro service a son prochain. Puis vient ['observation des regies (33) qui punnet 
de supprimer tous les peches accumules dans le passe et de parvenir a 1'etat d'un 
etre libSre de toutes preoccupations (34). Fn Iroisieme lieu vient la patience (35) nu plus 
exactement la capacile de supporter les contrarietes de la vie et les offenses de la 
part des autres, jusqu'a socrifier sun lionneur et so propre vie sans un sentiment de 
revoke inteYieure. La perseverance (36) designe 1'effort permanent dans I'accomplisse- 
ment du bien el i'eliminalian du mal dans facte, la parole et la pensee. La pratique 
de la meditation (37) consiste a mailriser la respiration, a concentrer I'esprit pour 
parvenir a. la perspicacity (38). Mais surpassant les cinq moyens precedents en efficacite" 
est le sixieme consistant en i'acquisitioti de la sagesse siTpreme (39) qui permet de 
s'sdapler a toutes circonstances. La pratique de ces six paramita est particulierement 
delicate. Elle pose comme condition essenlielle 1'observance rigoureuse des conduiles 
des Bodhisattva (40). 



Buddhist Studies Review 1,2 (1983-4) 



133 



A cela, Ananda ajouLa que 1'observance des con"duites des Bodhisattva est ires dure a 
pratiquer. Seuls les Arhant ayant un desir ardent et. une volonte tenace peuvent y 

parvenir. 

Ces paroles renforcerent la foi des quatre categories de croyants el dissiperent leur 
doute. Alois le fulur Bouddha Mailreya exprima sa satisfaction a propos de celle 
ouverlure vers le Mahayana qui est le depot des veriles. 



Notes 



1 Gautama bahghadeva (323-398) ne a Kaboul, a Iraduit de nombreux sutra el s'aslra 
du Sanscrit en chinois . 

2 l.n chinois la plupart de cet.Le introduction sous forme d'une interpolation 
mehayanisle est en verse. 

3 Maha-Kasyapa, brahmane vivant en royaume de Maqadha, il sc convertit au boud- 
rihisme et devint i'un des disciples les plus remarquables du Dnuddha. I e Tathagata 
lui confia la mission de conlinuer la diffusion de la [Doctrine sur la Montagne Saoree 
Apres son entree au Par in irv aria, Kas'yapa presida le Sangha, puis reunit le premier 
cor^cile bouddhique. 

4 Ananda fut considere comme lo disciple le plus erudit de Bouddhn. A J 'initiative 
de Kas'yapa, Ananda fut charge do diriger le premier conclle bouddhique de rassem- 
blemenl des sutra. 11 fut le deuxiemc patriarche du Bouddhisme apres Kasyapa. 

5 Suqata : Tun des dix titres du Bouddha. II signifie : parvenu sur I'autre rive apres 
avuir accompli la mission de lihe>er les etres vivants et r6alisc ses voeux. Ne 
revenant plus sur le monde des humains, il ost ri^finitivement sorti du cycle des 
naissances et de mort. 

(• Kusinagari : petit pays de I'lnde ou mourut le Bouddha a i'aye de 83 ans, a 
proximite de la riviere Hiranyavati. 

7 Magadha i grand pays situe sur la rive droit.e du Gauge. C 1 est la ou le Prince 
Gautama parvint a I'ttveil. Le Bouddha y faisait de frequents s^jnurs. Le souverain 
du pays, le roi Bimbisara fut un disciple de Bouddha. 

8 L es quatre vertus incommensurables : la bonte (maitrl), la compassion {karuna}, 
la jaie (muditS) et 1'^quanimite (upeksi). 

9 Les cinq voies de la renaissance : devenir des divinites me^chantes et querelleuses, 
des humains, des animaux, des fanlflmes affames et des inhabitants des enfers. 

10 L'Etre le plus venere (lokajyesUia);l'un des litres de Bouddha. 






134 
1 J 

1? 
1 '■ 

M 

I'j 

16 

17 

1(1 

T.i 
20 
21 



22 



23 



Ekottarigama 

II s'aqil des tresors laisses par le Tathagnl.ii a Lous les etras vivants, les irois 
Corbeilles (tripitaka). 

Signal d'appnl (ghanta; cloche en metal nn on bois dont les sons annoncenl les 
reunions du Sanqha. 

I es quatre categories da religieux : las mmnes (bhiksu), las reliqieuses (bhiksunl!, 
les fideles de sexe masoulin (upasakal at les fideies da sexe feminin (upasika). 

Arhant : le dcgre la plus eleve dp I'ordru ties Auditeurs. 11 siqnifia : diqne da 
veneration, tueur du mal et. libera de la , enai°;sance. 

Asamkhyeyii du kalpa : c'est-ft-dire trair. ';imili% de perinries inrommensurnbles. 

I es quatre deqres de perfect Ionnement. du i'ordre des Auditeurs : 11 srola-apanna 
2) sakrdoqamin; i} anagamin nL 4) arhant. 

Maitreya, Bauddhn du futur y habit a arluellement en attendant sa venue sur 
terre pour conlinuer la mlssian du Hnuddha Sakyamuni, 

Ruqissement du lien : qualifieatif du sermon des Bouddha, des Budhisattva, el 
iei du discours d'Ananda dont la porlee relent it comme la voix du lion qui fait 
trembler tous les autres animaux dans las airs, sur terre et. dans I'aau. 

Surmont.er les prnpres difficulty : dominer ses passions at. ses aU.oehenients, 
etre lihcrr de la souf france, du Somsara. 

Abhidharma : reeueil dcs explications et das eomrnant.airas scoiasUques de la 
Doctrine, 

Le texte sc re-fere ici a I'Lkattaragama. Le premier enseignement compte 14 
divisions : les 1 U invocaliuns - les qrandes references - les bhiksu - les bhiksunl - 
les upasnka - les upasixa - les asura-la fils - la protection du cueur - J'cnerqie 
pcrseverante - premiere entree dans la voia - entretien des vertus - les cinq 
abstentions. 

Le deux i erne enseignement comple 6 divisions : etre et non etre - ax t.i no t.i on 
du feu des passions - la paix du coeur - remords el honte - I'invite" et les amis 
sprirituels. 



Le troisieme enseiqnemenl compte 4 divisions : les trois joyaux 
offrandes - le mattre du foyer el I'esLrade superieur. 



les trois 



24 



T; 



le quatrieme enseignement compte 7 divisions i les quatre verites saintes 

- les quatre concentrations - les quatre verites de niveau inferieur - les Auditeurs 

- la douleur et la joie - I'entrSe du courant et la supe>iorite. 

Le cinquieme enseignment compte 5 divisions : assembles du bien - les cinq rois 

- vues fractionnaires - assemble du mal - 1'ecoule du Dharma. 



Buddhist Studies Review 1,2 (1983-4) 



135 



Z6 
27 

2B 

2^ 
30 

31 

32 

33 

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JS 

36 

37 

3B 
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40 



Le sixieme enseignement compte deux divisions : les six respects et le pouvoir 

miraculeux., 

Le septieme enseignement compte 3 divisions : categories du Dharma, les sept 
jours et ta delivrance de la erainte. 

Le huitie-me enseignement compte 2 divisions : les huit malheurs el le Roi 
Asvarudhira. 

Le neuvieme enseignement comple 2 divisions : les etres vivanls et le Roi Asvaraja, 

Le dixieme enseignement compte 3 divisions : les intardits - le bien et le mal 
et las 10 categories du mal. 

L'un plus dix (on/ieme) enseignement compte 4 divisions : la yarde de la vache 
- la ven£raLion das trois joyaux - le supra-mondain et Nirvana,- e'tage supreme. 

DSnaparamita : la pratique des dons ou ultime ggne>osile comme moyen pour 
parvenir a l'aulre rive, c'esL-a-dire a I'tveil. 

Silaparamita : I'abservaLion des regies de conduile pour parvenir 3 l'aulre rive - 
comparable a La purely du diamant. 

Libert de toutes preoccupations, de tout desir, de toute passion, de la conside- 
ration de la vie el da la mort. 

Ksantiparamita : pratique de la patience et de I'ondurance de toute injustice 
comme moyen pour parvenir sur I'autre rive, 

Viryaparamita : pratique de la perseverance* 

Dhyanaparamita : pratique de la meditation active el juste qui seule peitpermettre 

I'fveil. 

Perspicacite : capacite de percevoir la nature reelle des ehoses. 

Prajnaparamila : acquisition de la sagesse supreme. 

Bodhisallva-carya : la conduile des Dodhisattva entierement anim^e par la bonte 
el la compassion envers tous les etres vivants. 



EKOTTARHGAMA (ID 

Traduit de la version chinoise par 

Thlch Huyen-Vi 

INTRODUCTION (B) 

Ananda ajouta ensuite : "Ayatit eu le bonheur de suivre fid element 
l'enseignement du Tathagata, j'ai pu constater que, selon les 
circonstances , i 1 a du s'adapter a son auditoire pour expliquer 
certains passages, ce qui les rend parfois contradictoires . 
Si je les expose de la meme fac,on, j'ai peur que dans l'avenlr 
les disciples auront des doutes . En consequence, j'estime neces- 
saire de faire preceder a chacun de mes exposes la formule : 



. 2 



Elle sera le gage de ma me moire et de 



'Ainsi al-Je entendu' 

ma bonne f oi . 

"Les fvtnements les plus remarquables du sejour du Tathagata 

dans notre monde remontent a son premier discours a Benares qui 

met pour la premiere fois en mouvement la Roue du Dharma, Ensuite 

3 
vient la conversion en Magadha des trois grands sages KaSyapa . 

De nombreux discours ont Ste prononces a Kapilavastu, KausSmbi , 

Ka£I , Campa, Vaisall , KuSinagarl. lis etaient suivis avec ferveur 

non seulement par les humains, mais aussi par les dlvinites, 

les rois des dragons, les Asura, les Gandharva etc. 

"Ayant eu le grand bonheur de toujours demeurer £ ses cote's, je 
garde un pieux souvenir des deux cit6s de KuSlnagarl et Sravasti. 
Pa r ticu lifer erne nt a Sravasti le nombre de sas disciples s'£levait 
a deux mills, L'offre du jardin de Jetavana faite par le g£nereux 
Sudatta fut un evenement remarquable dans l'histoire de la propa- 
gation du bouddhisme. 

"C'etait a Jetavana que le Tathagata conseillait a son Sangha 
(la Communaute' ) de prendre refuge dans le Dharma (la Doctrine) uni- 
que avec une foi unique, pour factliter cette contemplation, il 
recommandait la pratique des dlx commemorations (anusmrti) portant 
respectivement sur le Bouddha , le Saftgha, la moralite ( Gila ), 
le don (tyaga) sans consideration de sujet ni objet, les dlvinites 
( aevats ), l'arret du souffle , la respiration (3nap3ji5nusnrti), 
le corps (kayaga tanusmrt i ) et la mort (raarananusmrr i ) . 

"Le premier disciple du Tathagata It ait Kaundlnya, et le 
dernier Itait Subhadra qu ' i 1 avait admis quelque temps avant 
son entree au Pari nirvana. 

"Les enseignements que j'ai garde 1 fidelement en memoire con- 



Ekottaragama II 



37 



stituent un ensemble bien coordonnS et logique : le premier en- 
seignment fait corps avec le deuxieme et le troisieme enseignements. 
Les quatrieme, cinquieme, sixieme et septieme enseignements trait- 
ent des sujets a des degres plus 61ev6s. Les huitieme, neuvieme 
et dixieme enseignements terminent le cycle et le tout est complete 
par le onzieme enselgnment qui recapitule et rappelle l'essence 
meme de la Doctrine. 

"Pour cette raison le corps de Sutra que je vais vous commun- 
iquer est d'une signification tres prof onde . Tout particulierement 
je vous engage a reflechir sur le choix des nombres et leur ordon- 
nancement pour en saisir le caractere merveilleux. Ce recueil 
d'enselgnements sera intitule 1 ' Ekottaragama ou Recueil de Dix- 

plus-un . 

"Dans son ensei gnement , le Tathagata a confere un rang et 
un role primordiaux aux bhiksu qu'il comparait a des artisans 
potiers qui faconnent des vases avec assurance. lis enseigneront 
le Dharma a l'ensemble des Trois Vehicules 6 sans se trouper. 

"Le Dharma renferme un sens spirituel tres profond. II a 
pour objectif la suppression du mal . Pour cela il faut parvenir 
a acquerir les trois yeux parfalts 7 qui permettent de supprimer 
lea trois passions 8 inherents a la condition humaine. C'est 
le principe fondamental et unique. Si vous l'appliquez avec 
perseverance et sincerity votre [esprit et] corps ne seraient 
plus troubles par les passions et votre perspicacity serait par- 
faite. Vous decouvrlrez alors le Tresor du Tathagata . 

"Dans l'avenlr, si un adepte de la Doctrine recopie ce recuell 
et fait des offrandes en fleurs et encens et le venere, il benefi- 
ciera des merites i ncommensurables , comparable a une rencontre 
rarissime avec le Dharma" . 

Lorsque Ananda eut termlne son discours, la terre toute en- 
tiere fut secouee. Les dlvinites flrent tomber du ciel des fleurs 
et des encens precieux sur le concile, et manif esterent leur 
approbation en proclamant : "L'enseignement du Bhagavant contient 
l'Ultime Verite. Dorenavant , nous prendrons appui sur les Trois 
Corbellles : les Sutra 11 , le Vinaya 12 et 1 ' Abhldharma 1 3 que complete 
le Samyukta 14 . Ces 'quatre corbeilles' constituent le precieux 
enseignement du Grand Vehicule. Si vous sulvlez l'enseignement 
du Bouddha, le principe de la causality n'existeralt plus". 

Le futur Bouddha Maitreya, les rols des cieux et tousles 
Bodhisattva approuverent ces paroles et offrirent au Tathagata 



38 



Buddhist Studies Review, 2, 1 (1985) 



un collier de f leurs en temoignage de leur joie et de leur 
confiance en Ananda, le sage, 1'erudit, digne de maintenir le 
flambeau de la Doctrine. 

Le Tres Venerable Ananda ouvrit alors 1 ' assemblee en presence 
des divinites suivantes accompagnees [ des autres etres vlvantsl 
ifs Brahmakayika , NirmSnarati, Paranirraitavasavartin , Tusita, 
Yama, Sakradevendra, des Caturmahara jakayika , [ c ' est -a-dire ] 
Dhrtarastra, Valsravana, Virudhaka et [Kuvera], Gandharva, Vetala, 
Naga, Yaksa et Raksasa. 

Le futur Buddha Maltreya invita alors les Bodhisattva de 
l'Ere des Sages de conseiller a tous les fideles de leurs regions, 
de ve"n£rer le Recueil Ekottara et de participer S sa diffusion, 
de faqon a ce que tous, des divinities aux etres humains, en com- 
prennent le sens et le mettent en pratique. 

A ces paroles, les rois des cieux, les humains ainsi que 
les fetres vivants Gandharva, Asura , Garuda, Mahoraga , etc., s'Scrl- 
erent : "Nous faisons le voeu de proteger £ ternellement tous 
les fideles qui vSnerent 1 ' Ekottaragama et qui contribuent a 
favoriser sa propagation". 

Alors le Ire's Venerable Ananda dit au Bhiksu Uttara : "A 
partir de maintenant , je vous confle ce recueil d 'Ekottaragama. 
Tachez de le pratlquer et d'en assurer la conservation a perp£tu- 
itS . Pourquoi? Parce que dans ces Sutra se trouve la quintessence 
du Dharma qui permet d'accSder a l'§tat d'Evellli, de Bouddha . 
Celui qui manquera de consideration pour ce recueil tombera dans 
la condition des profanes sans espoir de s'en sortir. Pourquoi? 
Parce que ce recueil de Sutra nous indlque les trente-sept moyens 
permettant d'obtenir 1 ' Illumination . Tous les autres enseigne- 
meats de la Doctrine out leur source dans ce recueil". 

Le Grand Kasyapa demands alors a Ananda : "Que voulez-vous 
dire par la?" Ananda repondit : "C'est bien cela, 6 Grand Kasyapa! 
L'Ekottaragaraa indique les trente-sept moyens permettant de reali- 
ser 1 ' Illumination; et tous les autres enseignements de la Doctrine 
ont leur source dans ce recueil. Ce qu'il y a de plus remarquable 
encore, c'est que dans chaque gathJt de 1 ' Ekottaragama , nous re* 
trouvons l'origine des trente-sept mervellleux moyens en question, 
come celle de tous les autres enseignements". 

"Quelle partie du recueil serait-alle I l'origine des trente- 
sept merveilleux moyens et celle de toul lea autres enseignements?" 
demanda encore Kasyapa. Ananda ripondit p«r cette gSths : 



EkottarSgama II 



39 



"Evitez de faire le mal, 
Perseverez dans 1 ' accomplissement du bien, 
Gardez votre coeur pur, 

Tel est 1'enseignement de tous les Bouddha ". 
Quelle est la signification de cette gSthSI 

"Eh bien, 's'abstenir de faire le mal' est la source de tous 
les dharma donnant naissance au bien. L'apparition des pensees 
de bien fait naitre la purete et la serenlte de 1 'esprit. Pour 
cette raison, tous les eveilles ont le corps, la parole et la 
pensee merveilleusement purs et sereins" . 

Kasyapa demanda : "Pourquoi seul 1 ' EkottarSgama a ce pouvolr 
de production? Cela signif ie -t -i 1 que les quatres autres recueils 
d'Agama n'en possedent pas?" 

Ananda repondit : "6 Grand KSfiyapa ! Chaque jatha de chacun 
des recueils d'Agama contient la quintessence des enseignements 
des TathSgata. ainsi que les doctrines des Pratyekabuddha et 
des Sravaka. Pouquoi cela? Parce que 's'abstenir de faire le 
mal' englobe toutes les regies de morale et toutes les bonnes 
conduit.es. 'Perseverer dans 1 ' accomplissement du bien et garder 
la purete de coeur' est le remeoe souverain contre les tentations 
et les passions. C'est 1'enseignement habituel de tous les Bouddha. 
Abandonner toute pensee relevant de 1' illusion implique l'observa- 
tion des regies de conduite religieuse, assure la puretG du corps 
qui favorise a son tour la serenlte du coeur. Cette abstention 
et cette perseverance preservent nos pensees de toute agitation. 
L'abaence d'agitation assure la dissipation de 1' ignorance et 
de l'illusion. Les trente-sept moyens de perf ectionnement sont 
alors reussis et permettent l'accession a l'Eveil. Voici done 
la quintessence meme des tous les enseignements". Kasyapa demanda 
encore : "Pourquoi 1 ' Ekottaragama est-il confie a Uttara et 
non pas a un autre bhiksu?" Ananda repondit : ' L ' Ekottaragama 
est l'ensemble des enseignements. L'enserable des enseignements 
est L'Ekottaragaraa". KaSyapa re^ta encore la meme question 
: "Pourquoi le confiez-vous a uttara et non pas a un autre bhiksu?" 

Ananda repondit : "Vous allez comprendre 6 Kasyapa ! Dans 
un passe tres lointain, 11 y avait quatre-vingt-onze k*lpa de 
cela, lorsque le Tathagata VipaSyin apparut dans le monde des 
humains, le Bhiksu Uttara s'appelait alors Sivi-Uttara . Le Tatha- 
gata Vipasyln lui confia 1 'EkottarSgama pour qu'il le venere, 
Trente et un kalpa apres cette pfiriode , le TathSgata Sikhin apparut 



) 






4 



Buddhist Studies Review, 2, 1 (1985) 



a son tour dans le monde des humalns . A la meme epoque vivait 
un religieux du nom de Mukti-Uttara, qui n'ltait qu' Uttara dans 
une nouvelle naissance. Le Bouddha Sikhin confia egalement 
a Mukti-Uttara 1 ' Ekottaragama avec la meme mission de le venSrer. 
Trente et un autres kalpa apres cette deuxieme periods, le Tatha- 
gata Visvabhu apparut sur la terre, II confia aussi 1 ' Ekottaraga- 
ju Bhiksu Naga-Uttara, une autre naissance d' Uttara, dans le 
meme but. Sachez encore, 6 Kasyapa, que pendant cet Ere des 
Sages le Tathagata Krakucchanda confia aussi 1 ' Ekottaragama 
an Bhiksu Gar jita -Uttara, qui n'etait autre qu 'Uttara, pour la 
veneration et la propagation, Le meme processus se produisit 
entre le Bouddha Kanakamuni et le Bhiksu Deva-Uttara, le Bouddha 
Kasyapa et le Bhiksu Brahma -Uttara . 

"Sachez maintenant que c'est le tour de notre Pere et Maitre, 
le Tathagata Sakyamuni , de confier l'Ekottara au Bhiksu Uttara 
qui est son disciple. Le Tathagata est entre au Parinirvatia, 
mais moi, Ananda, je suis designs pour faire perpetuer ses ensei- 
gnements. Je dois done confier, au nom du Tathagata, le recuell 
d ' Ekottaragama 3 notre frfere Uttara. Pourquoi cela? Farce qu'll 
faut Studier tous ces elements de base pour connaltre la nature 
reelle des faits avant de transmettre le Dharma. 

"Re'tournons au passS, au Bhadrakalpa ou le Bouddha Krakucchan- 
da apparalssait au monde des humains . II portalt les £pith&tes 
suivantes : Tathagata, Arhant, Samyaksambuddha , Vidyacaranasampan- 

na , Sugata, Lokavid , Anuttara Purusadamyasarathi , Sasta devamanus- 

2 0- 

yanam, Buddha et Bhagavant . A la mSme Spoque vivait un roi 
none Mahadeva, un tres bon monarque qui appllquait le Dharma 
pour gouverner. II n'avait durant tout son regne commis aucune 
injustice. Son peuple gtait trSs heureux. Sa vie toute entiere 
etait empreinte de saintetfi. 

"Ainsl pendant 84.000 ans , il possedait un corps pur. Devenu 
prince hgritier pendant quatre-vingt-quatre mllle ans encore, 
il donnait 1'exemple de la perfection morale et pendant tout 
son regne qui durait e'galement quatre-vingt-quatre mille ans, 
il ne se servait de son autorite que pour favoriser 1 'application 
de la Doctrine de bonte et de compassion. 

"Un jour, 6 Kasyapa , j 'eta is lux c&tes du Tathagata dans 
le pare de Jetavana . Au cours de sa promenade habituelle apres 
le repas quotidien et avant la diaeoura, Je remarquais que le 
Tathagata se mit a sourire. De aa boucha Jalllit une lumlere 



Ekottaragama II 



41 



Sbloulssante au cinq couleurs. 

"Je me prosternais et lui demandais : *0 Bhagavant, jamais 
vous ne souriez sans une raison importante. Votre sourire a 
toujours une signification supra-mondalne . Pouvons-nous en con- 
naltre les raison s? ' 

"Le Tathagata me dit : 'Dans un passe tres lointain, le Tatha- 
gata Krakucchanda etait venu dans cette cite ou nous nous trouvons 
actuellement pour precher le Dharma a ses disciples et aux fideles. 
A ce meme *alpa , le Tathagata Kanaka ainsi que le Tathagata KaSya- 
pa accomplissaient la meme mission pour le bien de tous les etres 

vivant s ' . 

"Alors je m ' agenoui 1 lais devant le Tathagata et lui dit : 
'6 Bhagavant, nous souhaitons que vous continuiez a faire connaltte 
le mervellleux Dharma aux hommes. En cet endroit , il y a quatre 
tr&nes de diamant 21 , e'est-a-dire quatre Tathagata qui se succedent 
pour enseigner le Dharma sans interruption.' 

"0 Kasyapa, le Tathagata Sakyamuni assis sur son trone me 
disait : 'Sachez, Ananda. il y avait dans le passe un roi appele 
Mahadeva. Pendant son regne qui durait quatre-vingt-quatre mille 
ans, il appllquait le Dharma pour gouverner son peuple. Un jour, 
il dit a Kapila, un de ses dignitaires : 'Si vous voyez des cheveux 
blancs apparaltre sur ma tete , vous devez aussitot m' informer . ' 
Le dignitaire s'inclina, acceptant cette charge. Un jour, il dit au 
roi Mahadeva : 'Sire, j'al vu quelques cheveux blancs sur votre 
tete.' Le roi lui dit : ' Enlevez-les avec cette pince en or, 
mettez-les sur ma main.' Kapila enleva ces cheveux avec une 
pince en or et les presenta au roi. 

Alors le roi Mahadeva prononca cette gathS : 

Aujourd'hui, des cheveux blancs sont apparus sur ma tete; 
L'lmpermanence ne tarde plus a se manifester; 
II est temps que je quitte la famille et entre dans les 

[ ordres , ' 
et il ajouta : 'J'al joui des resultats de mes me-rites passes 
dans le monde des hommes. Je ne compte pas continuer dans l'uni- 
vers des divinites. Je vais entrer dans les ordres. Je couperai^ 
mes cheveux et ma barbe , porterai les trols habits de religleux 
et me consacrerai a l'etude du Dharma afin de me Lib^rer des 
passions et des souffrances' . 

"Le roi Mahadeva s'adressa ensuite a son fils alnfi , le prince 
heritler Longue Vie : 'Sachez, 6 won fils, j'al deja des cheveux 



42 



Buddhist Studies Reviev, 2, 1 (1985) 



blancs. Je vals entrer dans les ordres, couper mes cheveux et 
ma barbe et porter les trois habits de religieux pour me consacrer 
a 1 ' etude du Dharma afin de me liberer des passions et dee souf- 
f ranees. Vous allez me sucoe'der. Vous devez appliquer le Dharma 
pour gouverner le pays et Gduquer le peuple . Suivez fidelement 

o :; recommandations, sinon vous commetrez des actes des profanes 
Pourquoi cela? Parce que si vous me d&sobSissez et adoptez la 

voie des hommes ordinaires, vous n'fichapperez pas aux trois des- 

2 3 2 4. 

tinees et aux huit malheurs 

"AprSs avoir remis la couronne et les tresors au prince hSri- 

tier, le roi Mahadeva quitta la famille, trouva la voie du perfec- 

tionnement, obtint la liberation de son corps et de son esprit. 

Pendant qua tre-vingt -quatre mille ans, 11 observait la conduite 

2 5 
de purification , met t ait en oeuvre les Quatre Immensurables , 

c'est-S-dire : la Bonte , la Compassion, la Joie et 1 ' Equanimity . 

Aussi, il me'ritait une renaissance dans le Ciel de Brahma. Quant 

au roi Longue Vie, il suivait pieusement les recommendations 

de son pere . En une semaine , il devint 'le Seigneur qui met 

en mouvement la Roue de la Doctrine . II jouissait des sept joyaux, 

a savoir : un norabre incalculable de cakra , d'elephants, de che- 

vaux , une quantite innombrable de pierres precieuses, des suivantes 

les plus belles du monde, des tresors bien remplis et des armees 

les plus puissantes. En outre, il avait mille fils, tous de 

vaillants guerriers, intelligents et courageux qui administraient 

en son nom les regions de son immense royaume. 

A l'exemple de son pere, le roi Longue Vie prononca cette 

qathS : 

'Observant le Dharma et obGissant a ion pere, 

Je n'oublierai jamais ma dette de reconnaissance. 

Je respecte les trois karma comme des fleurs preci- 

[ euses , 

Je fais voeu d'acquSrlr la connaissance supr&me'," 
Ananda continua " P&nStre 1 de la signification de cette 
gSthS , j'ai decide de confier 1 ' Ekottaragama a Uttara. Pourquoi 
cela? Pour la raison que chaque dharma a see origines propres ." 
Ananda se tourna vers Uttara ; "Le roi Longue Vie, e'etait vous 
dans le passe. En respectant lea recommandations de votre pere, 
vous deveniez le 'Seigneur met t ant en mouvement la Roue de la 
Doctrine'. Je vous cenfie le recuell des enseignements qui con- 
stitue la Doctrine, en rsp£tant les mimes recommandations : si 



Ekottaragama II 



4 3 



vous laissez perdre ces merveilleux enseignements , vous tomberez 
dans le monde des profanes. Pourquoi cette precaution importante? 
"Regardez l'exemple du roi Mahadeva . Durant sa vie, il avait 
accumule des merites. Mais il n'avait pas pu atteindre encore 
le stade ultime a l'Eveil. C'est pourquoi il renaissait dans 
le Ciel de Brahma, resultat remarquable certes, mais qui ne peut 
etre compare a la parfaite liberation, etape ultime dispensant 
la palx, la beatitude supreme, le respect des divinites et des 
hommes et la beatitude du Nirvana. Pour cette raison, Uttara, 
je ne saurals trop vous recommander la veneration et 1' etude 
perseverante de ce precieux recueil de Doctrine." 
Ananda prononca ensuite cette gatna : 
"Pensez que le Dharma 
Est a l'origine de tous les Tathagata, 
La veneration du Dharma fait aboutir a l'Eveil reel, 
A l'£tal d'Arbant, l'itat de Pratyekabuddha . 
Le Dharma libere tous les etres vivants de la souffrance 
Et permet a chacun d'obtenir la Bouddhe'itfi. 
Pensez au Dharma, ne vous separez pas des Sutra. 
C'est le seul moyen d'acquerlr des mSrites rlels et siirs. 
Celul qui aspire a devenir Bouddha , 
Comme le Tathagata Sakyamuni , respecte de tous, 
Doit pratiquer et venerer les Trois Corbeilles de Dharma 
Qui contiennent les enseignements fidelement transcrits. 
Les Trois Corbeilles sont difficiles a comprendre, 
Mais leur signification est profonde. 
II faut surtout reciter les quatre Agama, 
Si 1'on veut se liberer du karma qui pese sur 
Les humains et les divinites celestes. 
Les Agamas sont difficiles a comprendre, 
Leurs significations sont quelquefois impenetrables . 
Les regies de conduite doivent etre bien observers. 
Voila le Tresor que nous legue le Tathagata. 
Combien est difficile l'observance des disciplines. 
II en est de m&me avec les Agama. 
L'Abhidharma doit etre etudie avec perseverance, 
Afin de combattre et valncre les croyances erronees . 
L'Abhidharma dolt etre comments avec prudence, 
Tant son contenu est difficile a saisir. 
II nous faut reciter les Agama, 



44 



^■H 



Buddhist Studies Review, 2, 1 (1965) 



Sans s'Scarter d'un seul mot des textes . 
Les Sutra rapportSs dans les Agama, 
Ainsi que les regies de conduite, 
Doivent connaitre la plus large diffusion 
Chez les humains comme chez les divinites, 
Pour que les enseignements soient respectSs. 
Ceux qui ne sulvent pas les enseignements des Sutra, 
Ni ne respectent pas les rfegles de conduite, 
Vivotent comme des aveugles dans 1 ' obscuritS . 
lis ne verront Jamais la lumiere . 

C'est pour cette raison que je recommande instamment, 
A vous comme aux quatre categories de fideles , 
De venerer ce recueil conf ormSment a 1 ' instruc tion du 

[TathSgata". 

Lorsque Ananda eut prononce cette gStiiS , le clel et la terre 

2 9 
connurent six types d ' agitation . Les divinites repandlrent 

des fleurs sur Ananda et les fideles. 

Les rois des cieux, les naga, les yaksa, les gandharva, les 

30 

asura, les garuda, les kinnara et les mahoraga exprimferent 
leur enthouslasme en disant : "C'est merveilleux! C'est magnifi- 
que! 6 v6n&rable Ananda! Tout ce vous venez de dire est l'expres- 
sion du blen, du respect au Dharma ; il est conforme a l'enseigne- 
ment du TathSgata. Les divinites et les humains qui venerent 
et appliquent la Doctrine merveilleuse parviendront a la liberation 
supreme. Les mechants seront precipites dans les destinies 
de 1/enfer, des ames affames et des animaux." 

Alors Ananda, de sa voix puissante comme le rug is seme nt du 
lion, recommanda une nouvelle fois aux quatre categories de fideles 
de venerer et pratiquer les prescriptions du recueil d ' Ekottaraga- 
ma . 

De leurs places, les trente mille divinites et fideles con- 
stituent l'auditoire, accederent instantanement a 1'Stat de "£oi 

3 1 
qui accompagne 1 ' intelligence relativement au Dharma" 

A I'unanimite , les quatre categories de fideles, les divini- 
tes et les spectateurs exprimerent leur joie et leur approbation. 



Notes 



Certains enseignements du Bouddha exposS par Ananda sont trop 
difficiles pour le eommun des fideles, lis risquent d'etre mal 



Ekottarigama II 



45 



2 E^aro mayS srutam (sanserif ) ,evam me sutam (pall), formule en tete des sutra 
stgnifiant qu'Ananda rapporte fldelement ce qu'il avait entendu. 

3 Les Trols Freres Kasyapa : ce furent UruvilvI-KSsyapa , Gayl-KSsyapa et 
Madl-Kaiyapa, tous trois des Brahmans reputes pour leur savoir. 

* Autrement connu sous le nom d 'Anathaplndada, en pall Anathapindlka . Le nota- 
ble le plus riche et genlreux de Kosala. II seeourait les malades, les pauvres 
et les esseulls . 

5 En pall dlff element : upasamanussat i , commemoration portant sur le calme. 

6 Triyina, les Trols Vehicules : des Auditeurs (Sravaka). des Pratyekabuddha 
et des Bodhlsatt.va . 

7 Les Trots Yeux : celui des Bouddha, celul du Dharma et celui de la Prajna. 

8 Trols passions ; Les trols passions eachant la nature reelle de 1'Eveil 
qui existe au fond de tout etre huraaln; les trols passions sont : le desir, 
la colere et 1 'Illusion. 

9 Tathagatagarbha : le Iresor que constltue la nature de l'Evell cl-dessus, 
c 'est-a-dire, la nature de Bouddha. 



10 



Tresor rare : la Doctrine enseiRnec par les Bouddha qui ne passent sur 
terre qu'une fois tous les quelques milliers d'annees. 



11 Sutra-Pitaka : le premier recueil des Trols Corbeilles. celui des enseigne- 
ments reconstitues par Ananda et acceptes par tous sans contestation. 

12 Vinaya-Fitaka : le deuxieioe recueil, celui de La Discipline, preside par 
Upali apres 1 'entree au Parinirvana du Bouddha. 



13 



Abhldharma-Pitaka : recueil de Hetaphysfque analysant le bien et le mal. 



14 



Samyukta-Pitaka :( |t jj^ ) recueil r»ele complement aire . II est une 
compilation du recueil des sutra, de la discipline et celui de la mltaphysique 
canonique et po st -canon ique . 

15 Ere des Sages i Bhadiakalpa (lit. perfode fortune) designe 1'ere actuelle 
ou nombreux sages apparaissent sur la terre. 



16 



Condition des profanes (prtfiaffjana) : condition des hommes qui n'ont pas 
recontre ni moralitl ni fol.vlvant sous 1'empire des passions. 



Wl 



4 6 



1 7 



Buddhist Studies Review, 2, 1 (1985) 



Voir E. Laraotte, L' Enselgnement de Vimalaklrti (Louvain 1962), pp.117, 139, 



U* , 201-2, 216, 378 : "les trente-sept auxiliaires de 1 'illumination (.sapta 
trimSad bodhipSksikS dharmSti) , " 



IS 



Voir Dhp 183. 



19 Uttara : le nom d'un bhlksu ayant accuinule des merites durant beaucoup 
d' existences . 

20 Voir E. Lamotte, L' Enscignement de vimalaklrti, p. 375, note 12. 

21 

Vajrasana : Trone de Diamant , siege des Bouddha. 

Habits des rellgieux (Jcasaya) ; 11 y a trois sortes : antaravSsaka (habit a 
5 pieces), vttarSsafiga (habit a 7 pieces) et sanghatl (habit a 9 pieces). 

23 Les trois [mauvaises ] destlnees : celle de l'enfer (narakagati ) , celle des 
esprits affam€s (pretagati ) , celle des animaux (tiryaguanigati ) , 

Les huit malheurs : les 3 destlnees ci-dessus et 1c continent de glace, 
le ciel des sans-pensles (aveugles, sourds, muets), 1 'insensibilite intellectu- 
elle, la periode de vie qui precede et qui succede la venue d'un Bouddha. 



'/ 1. 



27 



Condulte de purification (brahmacarya : purete), mode de vie des rellgieux. 

C'est-a-dire i cakravartin. 

Les trois karma : le bon karma relatiE a notre corps (kayakarma) , a la voix 



(vSkkarma) , aux pensSes (manaiiKaraa) , 



28 



29 



quatre categories : bblksu, bhiksunl , upasaka, upasikS, 



Les six types d'agitation : six degres de violence : le retnous, le souleve- 
inent , l'eruption, le retentissement , le rugissement, l'expulslon. Phat Hoc 
Tu'-Dieft, fioan Trung Con, Tome II, p. 226. 

Ce sont les huit categories d'etres sumaturels assistant habituellement 
aux discours du Tathagata. 

31 dest-a-dire. d/iannavetyaprasadas cf . AbhidbarmakoSa, 386 (Id. Pradhan) ,VI, 
73; L. de La Vallee Poussin, L'AbhidharmakoSa de Vasubantlhu , Tome IV, pp. 192-4. 



47 



BUDDHIST SCHOLARSHIP IN CANADA 



Russell Webb 



The work of scholars domiciled in Canada has tended to be over- 
shadowed by that of their colleagues in the USA. With fewer numbers 
of specialists and facilities, the achievements of the former 
have not been insignificant and the appearance of a volume 
devoted thereto is all the more welcome. 

It is necessary, however, to put such contributions Into 
their proper perspective. First, organised Buddhist studies as 
such originated much later than in the USA. Second, nearly all 
the 'Canadian' scholars are in fact emigrants or visiting profes- 
sors from Europe, Asia or the USA, and it is they who almost 
certainly gave the necessary impetus to such studies in most 

cases . 

Beginning in Ontario, pride of place must be taken by Richard 
K. Robinson (1926-70). Although his life was so tragically cut 
short, he heralded the advent of organised Buddhist coures in 
North America and was Influential in Buddhist circles both there 
and in England. Born in Carstairs, Alberta, he graduated from 
that province's university in 1947 and two years later became 
a founder member of what was possibly the first Caucasian (i.e. 
indigenous) Buddhist group - the Asoka Society - which was affili- 
ated to the (Japanese JSdo Shinshu) Toronto Buddhist Church (from 
vhere he obtained an ordination in that tradition). He enrolled 
at the School of Oriental and African Studies, London (1950- 
5Z) where he studied Chinese, Japanese, Tibetan and Sanskrit 
and obtained a B.A. in classical Chinese. During his stay in 
London he joined The Buddhist Society and became a Council member. 
In 1951 he founded, with Jack Austin, the Dharma Group which 
held weekly meetings at the Society studying Kahayana texts under 
his direction. In the following year he became one of the principal 
founders of the Western Buddhist Order, involving Soto Zen ordinat- 
ions from the American priest, Robert Clifton, at a public cere- 
many in London. 

Returning to Canada in 1954, Robinson served as a lecturer 
in Toronto University's East Asian Studies Department but continued 
to work on his doctoral dissertation which was accepted by London 



* Developments in Buddhist 



ight reviewed on p 



.87, 



3 



liuddhist Studies Review, 3, ] (1986) 



of thn Original Texi of i.he Chinese AgamasJ*, Toyo Gaftujuc.su K^iikijTi |Thc Jour- 
nal of Oriental Studio;;), Vol.XXIll, I, lyb4, p,l02. 



:•(-. 



VI 



58 



59 



6'i 



Cf . Missunn, ' Bel siiyakii. . . ' , pp.486- ( J. 



See RnomoLo, ' Udanavarga . . . ' , pp. 931-3, 



T 125. 



T 1. 



E. WaldschmidT. , 'Drei f"r agmen i.e buridhist i Re: her Sutras aus don Tor Tanhand- 
schriften', NAWfi, I, Phil. -hist. K] . Jg. 1968, St, I, pp. 3- 16. 



6'; 



62 



6 3 



64 



ibid,, p,9. 



T 99, p. 300c. 



T 1, pp. 16c, 74b. 



T 1428, p. 569b. 



Fumjo Enomoto 
(Kacho Junior College, 
Kyot o ) 



31 



EKGTTftRflGAMA (III) 

Traduit de la version chfnoise par 
Thi ch Huyen -Vi 

Fascicule premiere (suite) 

Partie 2 

Les Dix Commemorations 



"Ainsi ai-je entendu, Une fois que le Buddha residait dans 
le pare d ' Anathapindada , dans le bols de Jeta, a Sravastl, il 
conseillait aux bhiksu de pratiquer assidument et de propager 
largenent un dJiarma . . . les dix recommendations suivantes : 

1. la premiere consiste en la commemoration du Bouddha, 

2. la deuxleme concerns la commemoration du Dhartna, 
la troisieme est la commemoration du Samgha , 
la quatrieme concerne la commemoration des regies et des 

discipl ines , 

la cinquieme recommande la commemoration de la generosity, 
la sixieme consiste en la commemoration des divinites, 
la septieme est la commemoration de la serenite de 1 'esprit, 
la huitieme concerne la commemoration de la respiration, 
la neuvlerae recommande la commemoration de 1. ' imperraanence 
du corps humain, 
10. la dixieme consiste en la commemoration de la mort. 

Ces bhiksu pourront, disait le Bienheureux, alors exterrainer 
toutes pensees illusoires, acquerir des pouvoirs surnatuiels 
(rddhi), obtenir des resultats grands, ultimes vise.es de tous 
les moines (Sramana) et enfin parvenir au Nirvana. 

En resume : il faut en premier lieu mediter sur le Bouddha, 
le Dharma, le Samgha, ensuite sur les regies, la generosite, 
les deva , la serenite de l'esprit, la respiration, et en dernier 
lieu sur 1' impermanence de son ptopre corps et sa mort. 



32 



Buddhist Studies Review, 3, 1 (1986) 



Fascicule deuxieme 

Partie 3 

Les Explications Approfondies 

1 . la buddhanusmrti : La c otnmemor at ion du Bouddha 

"Alnsi ai-je entendu. Une fois que le Bouddha r£sidalt dans 
le pare d ' Anathapindada , dans le bois de Jeta, a Sravastl, il 
conseillait aux bhiksu de pratiquer et propager la premiere recom- 
mandation, e'est-a-dire la commemoration du Bouddha ou buddhana- 
smrti . Cette action leur amenera des resussites grandes telles 
que l'obtentlon de la 'rosee d ' immortal it e ' ou amrta , l'accession 
au stade de 1 ' asamskrta ou d ' inconditionne , 1 ' acquisition des 
fondements du pouvoir surnaturel {rddtiipada} et enfin le Nirvana* 

Le Bouddha demanda aux bhiksu : "Pourquol le simple fait de 
mediter sur le Bouddha peut-il apporter des consequences sem- 
blables?" 

Les bhiksu lui repondirent : "Vous nous avez deja explique 
l'origine de toute chose, nous vous implorons maintenant de nous 
donner la merveilleuse signification de ce phenomene. Sous suiv- 
rons consciencieusement vos conseils par la suite." 

Le Bienheureux leur dit alors : "Ecoutez-raoi bien avec votre 
coeur et votre intelligence et reflechissez finement a ce que 
je vais vous expliquer. 

Pendant la meditation, assis en position de lotus, gardez des 
attitudes correctes, l'esprit maintenu dans l'objectif principal, 
sans se laisser perturber par des pensees illusoires, meditez 
alors sur le Tathagata, vos yeux toujours fixes sur sa figure; 
contemplez sa nature et ses merites. 

Comment est fait la nature du Bouddha? Elle est dure tonne 
le diamant, dotee des dix forces ou dasataJa , des quatre assuran- 
ces ou vaisaradya et du courage hors du comntun. 

Le Tathagata possede un regard de droiture extraordinaire qu'on 
peut contempler sans se lasser; ses qualites sont aussi pures, 
aussi dures et parfaites que celles du diamant et du lapis lazuli; 
la stablllte de sa concentration n'a jamais faiblie. II a deja 
externine ce qui devait etre elimine, par example : l'orgueil, 
la passion, la colere , 1'ignorance, la vanite. La sagesse du 



Ekottaragama III 



3 3 



r 



Tathagata n'a pas de limite , ne rencontre pas d 'obstacle. Le 
corps du Tathagata est libere du cycle de la renaissance (samsara} 
du commun des mortels, mats le Bouddha dit souvent qu'il reviendra 
dans le monde des homines pour les aider. Sa connaissance des 
humains est absolue. II salt distinguer celui qu'il peut aider 
de celui qu'il lui est impossible de le faire. Ainsi , il sera 
present la ou ce serait indispensable. 

C'est cela la commemoration du Bouddha ou buddhanusmrti et les 
raervellleux resultats acquis. 

Ayant entendu c«s explications, les bhiksu s ' erapressalent de 
sulvre les conseils. 



LA DHARMANVSMRTI ' 



La commemoration du Dharma 



Le Tathagata recommanda aux bhiksu : "Pendant la meditation, 
sans se laisser troubler par des pensees illusoires, reflechissez 
a propos du Dharma pour eliminer la passion et les troubles nes 
des desirs. Comment comprendre le Dharma? Devant les tentations, 
les desirs ne doivent plus naltre en nous, nous devons nous eloig- 
ner des contralntes issues de ces passions qui obsurcissent [notre 
vue juste] . 

Le Dharma est comme l'essence des parfums. II est d'une purete 
si parfaite qu'aucune pensee illusoire ne peut y trouver sa place. 

Voila ce que la meditation sur le Dharma peut vous apporter. 
Pratlquez assidument la atiarmanusmrti et vous obtiendrez les raer- 
vellleux resultats deja cites vous emmenant au stade ultime de 
l'Eveil." 

3. LA sahchahusmrti : La commemoration du Samgha 

Le Bienheureux conseilla au bhiksu : "Dans la meditation, re- 
flechissez aussi sur le Samgha. 

Le Samgha du Tathagata est constitue de disciples ayant deja 
accompli toutes les bonnes actions necessaires pour acceder a 
la VSrite. lis ne commettent plus aucune mauvaise action. lis 
ont le sens de 1'egalitS [des hommes due a la nature de Bouddha 
qui existe en chaque etre]. lis ont accompli toutes les conduites 
ethiques : ils ont observe toutes les disciplines du Samgha; 
lis ont accompli la concentration parfaite; ils ont acquis la 
sagesse; ils sont parvenus a se liberer [des contralntes des 



34 



Buddhist Studies Review, 3, 1 (1986) 



, 10 



trols mondes] et on su qu'ils sont delivres, c'est-a-dire qu'ils 
ont acquis l'Eveil. 

Qu'est-ce que c'est le Samgha? C'est 1 'Ordre tdes moines et 
des nonnes] qui ont acquis les quatre etats de Salntete 

Vous devez respecter et venerer les [disciples du Bouddha], 
dignes d'offrandes, parce qu'ils constituent des champs fertlles 
ou tous les etres peuvent semer les bons grains. lis ont tous 

le mSrae nut : participer a la delivrance de soi-meme et d'autrui 

1 2 
pour parvenir au Triyana , Ayant accompli toutes ces actions, 

lis sont consider es comme des disciples du Bouddha . " 

4. LA silahusmrti : La commemoration des regies 

Le Bienheureux recommanda aux bhiksu : "Pendant la meditation, 
sans se disperser mentalement, reflechissez sur les regies et 
les disciplines. [Quelle est l'efficacite de ces regies?] Elles 
nous permettent d'exterminer les mauvaises pensees. Elles nous 
dirigent vers la reussite finale qui nous rendra heureux. Elles 
sont comparables a des glands qui nous ornent . Analogues a un 
vase mlraculeux, elles peuvent faire realiser tous nos voeux. 
Tous les [ trente-sept ] auxiliaires de 1 ' illumination ont ete 
ainsi elabores grace a ces disciplines. 

Voila, bhiksu, ce que la meditation sur les regies et les disci 
plines peut vous apporter comme consequences positives." 

5. la tyaganvsmrti : La commemoration de la generosite 

Le Bienheureux conseilla : "Dans la meditation, reflechissez 
aussi sur la gen£rosit4. Si nous soraraes ggnfireux sans regret 
au coeur ni attentes de la reconnaissance d'autrui, nous r£col- 
terons de mervel lleux resultats. Si on nous insulte, nous ne 
devons pas lui rendre pareille; lorsqu'on veut nous nuire et 
si a ce moment-la nous tenons quelque chose dans la main, nous 
ne devons pas nous en servir pour rlposter; raeme lorsqu'on uti- 
lise un couteau, un baton, une pier re pour nous attaquer, tout 
en cultivant de la compassion nous ne devons pas nous facher . 
La generosite' pratiquee de cette facon n'aura pas de fin et vous, 
bhiksu, vous aurez appliqu£ la grande gen£rosit£ et vous recevrez 
de mervellleux resultats." 

6. la devatanusmrti : La commemoration des divlnltes 

Le Bienheureux dit : "Pendant la meditation, en malntenant 



Ekottaragama III 



35 



l'esprit dans l'objectif principal, sans se laisser perturber 
par les pensees lllusoires, reflechissez sur les dew. Gardez 

votre corps, vos paroles, vos pensees dans la purete et la seren- 
ite. Ne creez pas de comportement s malsains, appliquez les disci- 
plines pour le corps et votre corps emettra de la lumiere qui 
eclairera partout. II deviendra alors un corps celeste lumineux. 
Un dcva. est celui qui a accompli toutes les bonnes conduites. 
C'est la consequence de la meditation sur les ileva," 

7. l-vpa'sahahosmrti : La commemoration de la serenite de l'esprit 
Le Bienheureux conseilla : "Meditez assldument sur la serenite 

de l'esprit. Reel consiste a exterminet toutes pensees lllusoires, 
a poursulvre jusqu'au bout la recherche de la Verlte, a ne pas 
commettre des actes de violence, d'actes de cupidite, a valncre 
toutes les passions, a se refugler dans les endroits paisibles 
et d'y trouver le moyen d'acceder a la concentration supreme 
(samatf ni ) . " 

8. L ' ANAPAHANUSHRTi : La commemoration de la respiration 

Le Bienheureux recommanda : "Dans la meditation, n'oubiiez 
pas d'observer votre respiration. Cela consiste a prendre consci- 
ence a tout moment de 1 ' inspiration , de 1 ' expiration, [du souffle 
long, du souffle court], du souffle f roid , du souffle chaud. 
Examinez-vous de la tete au pied, prenez conscience du rythme 
de votre respiration. Coraptez-le et analysez-le. La comprehen- 
sion parfaite de la respiration vous apportera de grandes reus- 
sites." 
9. la KAYAGATAliUSNRTi ; La commemoration du corps 

Le Bienheureux dit : "ha meditation sur le corps concerne la 
reflexion a propos des cheveux, des polls, des ongles, des dents, 
de la peau, des muscles, des nerfs, des os, de la vesicule biliere, 
du foie, des poumons, du coeur, de la moelle, des reins, des 
intestins greles et gros , de la graisse , des excrements, de 1' ur- 
ine, du pancreas, des larmes, de la salive, des crachats, du 
sang, des pus, du pouls, etc. Osez poser des questions sur ce 
corps : Est-i 1 vrajment compose de ' 1 'eau' , de 'la terre' , du 
'feu' et du 'vent' 14 ? D'oti vient ce corps? Qui a cree les yeux, 
les orei lies, le nez, la langue, le corps et 1 'esprit? A quel 
endroit retournera-t-il a la fin de la vie? 

Bhiksu, c'est comme cela qu'il faut mediter sur le corps." 



36 



Buddhist Studies Review, 3, 1 (1986) 



10. LA harananusmrti : La c ommeraora t ion de la mort 

Le Blenheureux enseigna : "La meditation sur la mort necessite 
une reflexion, une analyse approfondie a propos du passage de 
la mort a un endtoit a la renaissance dans un autre monde, a 
ce va-et-vient Incessant par les Hemes voies de souff ranee, a 
1 ' inpermanence de la vie, a la deterioration des sens comparable 
au pourrlssement des arbres morts, a la fin d ' une vie qui provo- 
quera inevltablement la separation d'avec les etres chers, la 
disparition du corps, de la beaute, de la voix, Cette meditation 
exhaustive sur la mort peut vous apporter, bhiksu, des conclusions 
positives vous permettant des realisations grandes. 

Voila les dix recommandations , medltez-les assidument, propagez 
-les autour de vous; vous recolterez de merveilleux resultats." 

Apres avoir ecoute cet enselgnement du Bouddha, les bhiksu, 
fort satlsfalts, s ' empresserent de suivre ces precieux consells. 



Notes 



Voir Taisho (T) 2, 5 52c 9 et sulv.; cf, Ahguttara I 30 (ekadhamiao, bhikkhave, 
bahulikato. .. buddhSnussati. . . ); cf. la traduction anglaise de F.L. Woodward, 
The Book ot Gradual Sayings, Londres, 1932 (reimpr. 1979), I, p. 27; traduction 
allemande de Nyanatiloka, rev, et ed. Nyanaponika, fie Lehrreden des Buddha aus 
der Angereihten Sammlung, Freiburg i. Br., 1984 p. 31; traduction en hindi 
par A. Kausalyayan, Amguttai -uikay , Calcutta, 1957, p. 32. 

2 , 

Tout au long de ces dix recommandations sont repetes les manes conseils, 

seul 1* Intitule change. Pour la derniere, 11 y a en plus un passage apparemraent 
deplace dans 1 'original chinois, car le texte dans T2, 533c5-9 est une repeti- 
tion de ibid, , 551c29-552a4 de la partie introductoire . ifcid., pp.553a9-24 res- 
semble ibid., 552a4 et suiv. ou le roi Mahadeva adresse son fils aine. Dans 
ce passage le roi Longue Vie (Tch'ang Cheou) informe le prince heritler que 
sea etieveux ont blanchi . II veut lui faire comprendre par la son Intention 
d'entrer dans l'Ordre des moines bouddhiques. Le passage termine abruptement ; 
une gatha est annoncee, mals rien ne suit. 

Voir T2, 554a et suiv. 

Buddhanusmrti ou commemoration du Bouddha ne veut pas seulement designer 
le Bouddha en tant qu'entite, mais designe aussi la nature de Bouddha qui 



Ekottaragama III 



37 



exist e dans chaque etre. Cf . aussi E. Lamotte, Le Traitt de la grandc vertu de 
sagesse (abr. en rraite) 111, Louvain 1970, p. 1329 el suiv. 

5 Au sens figure du terme, il designe la liberation de toutes souf francos 
de ce bas -monde. 

6 Pour les rddhipada, voir Traito, pp. 1177-9, 1815, 1891-22. 

Les dix forces (dakabala) sont : 

a. la faculte de distinguer ce qui est conforme a la vertte, les bonnes 
ou mauvaises effets des actes. 

b. la faculte de connaltre le karma des etres dans les vies antcrieures, 
dans la vie actuelle et dans les vies futures. 

c. la faculte de connaltre le degr'e de perfect ionnement des conduites 
humaines. 

d. la faculte de percevoir les dispositions des gens. 

e. la faculte d'evaluer le degre de comprehension de la Doctrine (Dharma). 

f. la capacite de connaltre les ressemb lances et les dissemblances des 
differentes regions de l'univers. 

g. la capacite de comparer le karma des residents dans les 6 destinees 
(des Deva, des etres humains, des genies de l'enfer, des esprit s errants et 
des animaux) et le karma des religieux qui s'engagent dans le sentier octuple. 

h. la faculte de connaltre le comport ement des etres dans des multitudes 
d'univers. 

i. la connaissance de toutes les vies anterieures des etres. 

j. la capacite d'eliminer tous les condit ionnement s dctruisant ainsi toutes 
les habitudes. 

Voir aussi rraite, p. 1505 et sulv. 

8 Quatre assurances ( vaisaradya) : 11 en existe deux categories, les assurances 
des Bouddha et les assurances des Bodhisattva. 

a. les assurances des Bouddha sont i) la connaissance unlverselle, 11} 1' ex- 
tinction des souff ranees, iii) la capacite de nionlrer la facon d'evitcr le 
mal, iv) la capacite d'expliquer la cessation de la souff ranee. Cos quatre as- 
surances leur permettent de n'avolr peur de rien. 

b. Les quatre assurances des Bodhisattva : les Bodhlsattva n'cmt pas peur 
de propager le Dharma parce qu'ils ont i) la memoire infaillible, ii) 1' utilis- 
ation du Dharma comrae remedes de tous les uiaux des humains. 111) la facilil.e 
dans les discussions, iv) la posslbilitc de repondro aux doutes ct questionno- 
ments des humains. 

Voir aussi Traitc, p. 1567 et suiv. 



38 



Buddhist Studies Review, 3, 1 (1986) 



Le debut et la fin des dix recommendations se ressemblent, altisi nous ne 
les repetons pas. 

Les trois mondes sont : le monde du desir (kamadhatu) , le monde de la forme 
(rupadhatu) et le monde sans forme (arupyadhatu ) ; voir par ex. Mahavyutpatti 
3072-4. 

Lit. ce qui correspond aux "quatre paires d'hommes" (puri say u qan i ) et aux 
"huit caracteres humains" (purisapugoiila) de la tradition pall. Voir references 
dans PTS FED, p. 470; cf. aussi Nyanatiloka, Buddhist Dictionary, 3e ed . Colombo 
1972, pp. 20- 2, q.v. ariya-puggala . 

12 » - - 

Les trots Vehicules : certainenent une interpolation mahayaniste, lei 

comme d'ailleurs. Cf . W.E. Soothill et L. Hodous, A Dictionary of Chinese Bud- 
dhist Terms, Taipei 1970, pp. 58a, 78a. Cf, BSR 1, 2, p. 45, n.6. 

13 

Voir Traite, p. LI 15 et sulv., q.v. "les trente-sept auxilialres de l r illu- 
mination". Cf. aussi BSR 1, 2, p,46, n.12. 

14 . . 

L eau, la terre, le feu, le vent : ce sont les quatre grands elements 

physiques et les qualltes primaires de la matlere, presents dans tout objet 

materiel. Voir Nyanatiloka, fluddnist Dictionary , p. 48, q.v. dhatu. 



3 9 



BUDDHIST SCHOLARSHIP IN CANADA: ADDENDA 



Russell Webb 



Page 

48 1.18 The Buddhist Religion repr, 1982. 

49 (end of para, 2) insert: Two Japanese pupils of Warder obtained 
their Ph.Ds under his supervision: Shoryu Katsura for 'A 

Study of Harivarman's Tattvasiddhl ' [ Satyasiddhisastra ] (1974), 
and Fumiraaro Watanabe for 'Philosophy and its Development in 
the Nikayas and Abhidharoma ' (1976) which was subsequently pub- 
lished under the same title {Delhi 1983). 

50 1.2 Waterhouse has surveyed 'Buddhism in Modern Music and 
Dance: Wagner, the Haropa Institute and Some Othets' (Spring 
Wind 5,3, Toronto 1985). 

52 1.17-18 from below: 'Antagonism Among the Religious Sects.,,' 
repr. in the International Buddhist Forum Quarterly I, IV, 
Seoul 1979. 

- 1.13-14 fr.b.: ( . . . ed .Chai-Shin Hu,..). 

- 1.7 fr.b.: . . . ed . Hok-lam Chan and Wm T.de Bary, 

53 1.11 fr.b,: insert Dordrecht before 1977. 

57 1,14 fr.b.: The Life and Teachings of Haropa repr, Shambhala, 
Boston 1986. 

- 1.9 fr.b,: fhe Tan trie view of Life, rev.ed., Vara nasi 1976. 

58 1.18 fr.b,: add 'The existential import of dynamic structure 
in rDzogs-chen Buddhism' {Acta Indologica 6, Narita 1984). 

59 1.3 fr.b. insert: Florida and Brockway produced a somewhat 
unorthodox interpretation of 'Dukkha: A Discussion of the 

Buddhist Concept of Suffering 1 for the now-defunct journal of 
the British Hahibodhi Society, Buddhist Quarterly 9,4, London 1977, 

59 1.9 fr.b. add: The Third Conference of the International Asso- 
ciation of Buddhist Studies was also held in Winnipeg 1980 

at which Prof .Guenther delivered the Presidential Address on 
the theme 'Tasks Ahead' (published in JIABS 4, 1981). 

60 1.20 fr.b.: He [Kawamura] has also contributed the entry 
on Buddhism in Canada to the new Canada Encyclopaedia (Edmon- 
ton 1985). 

62 1.12 fr.b. insert new para.: A Ph.D. candidate from 1982 has 

been Gareth Sparham who was born in England and had lived 

as a monk in India and Nepal studying the Vajrayana. During the 



132 



EKOTTARAGAMA (IV) 

Tradult de la version chinolse par 

Thlch HuyEn-Vi 

Fascicule troisleme 

Fartie 4 

Les Caracteristlques des Audlteurs 

"Ainst ai-Je entendu. tine fola que le Bouddha residalt dans 
le pare d'Anathapindada, dans le bois de Jeta, a SrSvastI, 11 
decrivalt pour 1' ensemble de ses bhiksu [les caracterlstlques 
de ses principaux audlteurs ou disciples (SravaJca)l . 

Groupe 1 

**Par«I «es disciples (Sz-avaJta), les suivants sont lea plus eni- 

ne n t s : 

- Le bhiksu AJBatakaundinya est tolerant, charitable et Intelligent. 
II salt bien fiduquer ceux qui le f requentent , encourager les 
autres condisclples avec beaucoup de dolgtl sans oublier la solen- 
nit* II a su en premier lieu apprecier le Dharma et ref ISchir 
ensuite sur les quatre Verltes salutes (caevSry aryasatyflnl ) . 

- Le bhiksu Udayin, lui, salt tres Men diriger le peuple vers la 
vole des bonnes actions pour en recolter le bonheur , 

- Le bblksu Mahanaman est tres studieux et a acquis tres vite 
des pouvoirs surnaturels (xddlii-pratiiiarya ) . 

- Le bhiksu Chan Tcheou (-&#) Peut se deplacer dans l'espace 
sans que se pieds ne touchent le sol. 

- Le bhiksu vaspa salt aussi se deplacer dans l'espace sans que 
ses pensSes soient troublees. 

- Le bhiksu Gav&ftpati n'habite pas chez les huaalns, ma is se 
plait dans la palx celeste. 

- Le bhiksu Jina-KuSala (?) a 1 'habitude d' analyser les mauvaises 
actions et les pensfles troubles. 

- Le bhiksu Uruvilva-KaSyapa aime proteger ses condisclples et 
s'occuper a leur procurer le quadruple fiquipement ( catuhpariska- 



Ekottaragama IV 



133 



- Le bhiksu Nadl-Kafiyapa a su se d£gager des troubles et des 
contralntes, aussi son esprit est serein, 

- Enfln, le bhiksu Gayl-Kasyapa a decouvert que toute chose ne 
peut pas avoir de base." 

En resume: AJnatakaundinya , Udayin, Mahanaman, 
Chan Tcheou, V3spa sont cinq, 
ainsi que GavSmpati, Jina-KuSala 

et les trols frferes Kafiyapa. 

Groupe 2 

"Farm! mes disciples, les suivants sont les plus fimiments: 

- Le bhiksu ABvaJit a une grande prestance, un maintien correct 
ainsi qu'une demarche lente et ordonnee. 

- Le bhiksu Sirlputra possede une intelligence prodigleuse . II 
est capable de rfiaoudre brillament tous problemes §plneux. 

- Le bhiksu Haha-Haudgalyayana est capable de se deplacer dans 
lea dlx regions de l'espace. 

- Le bhiksu Sronakotlvlmsa est tres pers6v£rant , 11 supporte 
courageusenent toutes les austeritis. 

4 

- Le bhiksu HahS-K&Syapa pratique les trelze obligations . 

- Le bhiksu Aniruddha a une vue surnaturelle capable d'apercevoir 
toutes les terres dans les dlx regions de l'espace. 

- Le bhiksu Revata ne pernet aucun trouble venir perturber son 
esprit pendant la meditation. 

- Le bhiksu T'o lo p'o no lo ( ?&!£ ij^.Sl) encourage la pratique de 
la g4n6rosite (dana ) , l'offrande au Samgha et la propagation 
du Dharma. 

- Le bhiksu Hiao t'o lo p'o mo lo (,]. ?{t|£i£;J US.) prefere anSliorer 
l'habitat du Samgha. 

- Le bhiksu Rastrapaia, d'orlglne noble, a tout quitte 1 pour etudi- 

er le Dharma . 

- Le bhiksu Otyayana est capable d'analyser de facon tres subtile 
le sens profond du Dharma et de 1'expliquer par la suite." 

En rfisume; ASvajit , SSriputra, 

Maha-Maudgalyayana , Sronakotlvinfia , 



I 



I 



■111 



, 



134 Buddhist Studies Review, 3, 2 (1986) 

Maha-K5syapa, Aniruddha, 
Revata, les Mo lo, 
RUstrapala, Maha-xatyayana . 

Croupe 3 

"Parwi us disciples, les suivants sont les plus 6minents: 

- Le bhik.au Kiun T'eou p'o mo ( J S^i^-vf. ) salt assumer les reapons- 
abilltes et organiser les activites sans enfreindre les interdita. 

- Le bhik.su Pindola BharadvSJa aait convalncre les lncroyants 
pour les raienei vers la bonne Doctrine. 

- Le bhik.su Che {-^) s'occupe de la sant* du Samgha en lul 
procurant solns et medicaments et aussi d'autres besolns tels 
que vetements et nourritures. 

- Le bhiksu Vamglsa ecrit des gatha pour honorer le Bouddha. 
II salt aussi dlacuter avec eloquence et clarti sans difficult^ 
aucune . 

- Le bhiksu Maha-Kausthila possede les quatre capacites intellec- 
tuelles 5 qui lui permettent de surmonter toutes les difficultes 
iu cants de d6bats contradictolres. 

- Le bhiksu Sthiramatl aime la solitude, les sites palaibles, 
et fevlte les foules. 

- Le bhiksu Nandin s'en va a la quete de sa nourriture quotidien- 
ne, et supporte patlenment les duretfts de la vie comme 1' aridity 
des saisons. 

- Le bhiksu Kunbhira mgdlte constamnent sur le Dharma sans bouger 
de i'endroit ou il est assis. 

- Le bhiksu DSnapala est fidele au cholx de l'endrolt on il doit 
s'assegir, oil il doit se reposer . 

- Le bhiksu Fou Mi C^.^, ) respecte les trois vetements (kasaipa) , 
et «vite les exc&s dans ses besoins quotidiens." 

En resuafe: Kiun t'eou p'o no, BhSradvaja, 
Che, VatnglSa, Haha-Kausthlla , 
Sthiramatl , Nandin, Ku«bhlra , 
Danapala , Fou mi. 



Ekottaragama IV 



135 



Groupe 4 

"Parol mes disciples, les suivants sont les plus Sminents: 

- Le bhiksu Hou yi li yue ( ifr-JjtJSS,^ ) medtte au pled d'un arbre, 
avec forte concentration. 

- Le bhiksu Vatsa est un ascete et mfidite a ciel ouvert sans 
chercher a s'abriter contre les IntenpSries. 

- Le bhiksu T'o sou ( }%.7f. ) aiae resider dans les endroits peu 
frequentes, paisibles pour mieux mfiditer. 

- Le bhiksu SI lava J ra ne porte que les habits rGglement aires 
( **s8y« ) . 

- Le bhiksu Uttara reside plus fr&quemment dans les cinetleres 
que dans les lieux frfiquentes. 

- Lt bhiksu Rohltaka s'assied sur un tapis d'herbe et chaque 
jour aide un grand nombre de ses semblables a trouver le chenin 
de bonheur . 

- L« bhiksu Yeou k'ien mo nl klang ( £& JjMt J&, vi. ) marche en regard- 
ant vers le sol et ne cherche pas a entrer en conversation avec 

ses vol sins. 

Le bhiksu Slndllya mfidite confinement en toutes positions: 
asaii, debout, en marchant. 

- Le bhiksu Dhartaagupta aime voyager pour enseigner le Dhama 
au peuple. 

- Le bhiksu Kallnga aime rfiunir le Samgha pour discuter ensemble 
a propos des significations profondes du Dharma." 

En resume : Hou yi li yue, Vatsa, 
T'o seu, Nllavajra, 
Uttara, Rohltaka, 
Yeou k'ien mo kiang, Sandllya, 
Dharaagupta, Kallnga. 

Groupe 5 

"Parmi mes disciples, les suivants sont les plus gmtnents: 

- Le bhiksu Bakula est rarement malade et vivra longtemps, 11 
n'aime pas resider dana un endroit trSs aniae . 

- Le bhiksu PUrnanaitrayanlputra propage largement le Dharma, 



136 



Buddhist Studies Review, 3, 2 (1966) 



II salt 1'expliquer clairement . 

- Le bhlksu UpBli respecte rigoureusement la discipline. 

- Le bhiksu Vakkali croit sans hesitation a la cessation de la! 
renaissance. 

- Le bhiksu Nanda poasfede une belle prestance qui le distingue 

du commun des mortels. Ses pensees tonne ses sens sent sereins. 

- Le bhlksu Baddha est capable de se dSbattre brillanant sur 
des sujets les plus Spineux et de disslper toutes les doutes 
exposees par ses audlteurs. 

- Le bhiksu Sseu ni CjtJf&, ) peut expllquer en prof ondeur le sens 
des enselgnements sans tomber dans les contradictions. 

- Le bhiksu Deva-Subhuti soigne la propiete des ses vetements 
et observe scrupuleusenent les regies. 

- Le bhiksu Nandaka alme enseigner et retransnettre le Dharma 
a ses disciples. 

- Le bhiksu Sumanas salt habilement feduquer et falre observer 
les regies (Slia.) aux bhiksu et bhiksunl . " 

En resunfi: Bakula, Pflrnamaltrayanlputra, 
Upali, Vakkali, 
Nanda , Baddha, 
Sseu ni, Deva-Subhuti, 
Nandaka , Sumanas . 

Groupe 6 

"Farmi mes disciples, les suivants sont les plus eminent b: 

- Le bhiksu SIvala a tous les merites et connait bien le Dharma 
pour satlsfaire les besolns spirltuels de toutes les couches 
de la societe. 

- Le bhiksu Yeou po hien kia la t'o tseu ( && $J&L%f'%,%-) pratique 
tous les perf ectionnements et connait les trente-sept auxiliares 
ou noyens permettant d'obtenir l'illumination (bodhipa*si*a-dJiar- 

- Le bhiksu Bhadanta a toujours la parole juste et mod^re'e qui 
ne blesse personne . 

- Le bhiksu Mo ho kia t ' ing na ( ^fc-&jiS£SL|Jf ) pratique la comaemor- 



Ekottaragama IV 



137 



8 
ation de la respiration , et extirpe de lul-mjme les mauvaises 

pensfies. 

- Le bhlksu Udayana connaissant l'lmpermanence du 'iol', purlfie 
son esprit des pensees illusolres. 

- Le bhiksu Kum2ra-Kasyapa alme intervenlr dans les d£bats pour 
les animer et les rendre lntfireasants . 

- Le bhlksu Mien Wang {<&.£-) porte toujours des kas&ya d6chir6s 
mals n'en a pas honte. 

- Le bhlksu RShula n'enfrelnt ni se lasse pas de reciter les 
regies (Slla). 

- Le bhiksu Panthaka utilise ses capaclt£s surnaturelles pour 
apparaltre ou disparaltre I volonte . 

- Le bhiksu COda Panthaka salt aider les autres sous differentes 
apparences et transformations," 

En resume: SIvala, Yeou po hien kia ian t'o tseu, 
Bhadanta, Ho ho kia t'lng na , 
Udayana , KumSra-Kafiyapa , 
Mien Wang, RShula, 
Panthaka, CQda-Panthaka . 

Groupe 7 

"Parmi mes disciples, les suivants sont les plus fimlnents: 

- Le bhiksu Sakyaraja vient d'une fanille noble et rlche mals 
11 est dlscret et comprehensif de nature. 

- Le bhiksu Bhadrikapala n'a pas honte d'aller mendler sa nourrl- 
ture quotldlenne et 6duque cont inue llement le peuple sans Jamais 
se decourager. II est aussi tree energique et ne recule Jamais 
devant les difficult«s. 

- Le bhiksu Ravana-Bhadrika possede une voix tres pulssante qui 

, 10 

peut etre entendue Jusqu au Brahmaloka 

- Le bhiksu Afigaja a un corps odorant qui par fume tout 1* atmos- 
phere. - Parmi mes disciples, les suivants sont les plus emlnents: 

- Le bhiksu Ananda est dote d'une intelligence extraordinaire 
qui lui per oet d'acquflrir une connaisaance trbs et endue et une 
comprehension parfaite de toutes choses. Sa memolre est sans 
failles - Toutes ceB qualltfls lul pernettent de servir fidfelement 



138 

le Bouddha . 



Buddhist Studies Review, 3, 2 (1986) 



If 



I 



- Le bhiksu Kia tch'e li ( i£j f% £, > tient a s 'hablller correcte- 
ment et de marcher dlgnement . 

- Le bhiksu Candra-prabha est honore par les rois et v6ner§ pas 
les ministres. 

- Le bhiksu Chou ti ( $$. ^) est v ener6 par les Deva et les 
humains.. II offre son corps a ces derniers et aa physionomie 
aux Deva . 

- Le bhiksu Deva propage le Dharma dans ies autres mondes celes- 
tes . 

- Le bhiksu Kouo yl (|i ) a 1« connalssance penetrance de tons 
ses faits et actes dans ses vies anterieures , " 

En resume: Sakyaraja, BhadrikapSla. 
Ravana-Bhadrika, Angaja, 
Ananda, Kia tch'e li , 
Candra-prabha, Chou ti, 
Deva , Kouo yi . 

Groupe a 

"Fan! mes disciples, lea suivants eont lea plus etsinenta: 

- le bhiksu AngulimSla est doue d'une grande intelligence et 
une acuite perceptive parfaite, 

- Le bhiksu Seng kia mo ( {<f -jfe jig ) peut dompter les Mara 11 et 
reduire les mauvaises actions dues aux mauvalses croyances. 

- Le bhiksu Citta-Sariputra peut entrer sans difficulte dans 
le samyak-samadhi 12 , ii a acquis une tres large connalssance 
et est v£n£r£ par le peuple. 

- Le bhiksu Svagata pratique une meditation speciale qui fait 
degager de son corps un feu puissant capable d'eclairer les dix 

directions spaciales. 

- Le bhiksu Harada peut dompter les dragons et les rendre soumia 
aux Trois Joyaux [: Bouddha, Dharma et Sawgha]. 

- Le bhiksu Kouei t'o (^ |3"£ ) peut asservir les demons et g6n- 
ies pour convertir par la suite leurs mauvaises actions en bonnes 

actions . 

- Le bhiksu Vairocana pratique assidunent tous les perf ectionne- 



Ekottaragama IV 



13 



139 



.15 



Aus- 



ments et a pu obliger le Gandharva a se soumettre. 

- Le bhiksu Subhati aime mediter sur le sens du vide et a r§sider 

14 
dans la paix subtile et meditative du vide 

- Le bhiksu K'i li mo nan (;§ #)#♦&) pratique la meditation du 
Bans-marque 

- Le bhiksu Yen cheng ( ^JJL ) pratique la meditation de la 'non- 

14 
prise en consideration' 

En resume; Ahgulimala , Seng kai mo, 
Citta-S5riputra , Sv3gata, 
Narada, Kouei t'o, 
Vairocana , Subhutl , 
K'i li mo nan. Yen cheng. 

Groupe 9 

"Parml mes disciples, les suivants sont les plus eminents: 

- Le bhiksu Brahmadatta manifeste la bonte (maitrl-samadJii )' 
si la colfere ne peut jamais l'atteindre. 

- Le bhiksu Hiu chen { '$,'•% ) develops la compassion (karunS-samad- 
Jii) prenant lee bonnes action comme point de depart. 

- Le bhiksu P'o mi t'o (j^pf?£ ) est dot6 d'un caractere bon et 

joyeux mais il n'est pas trouble par aucune pensee illusoire. 

- Le bhiksu Yue po kia ( SI.V&S&. ) observe strictement la regie 
de la pensee Juste. 

- Le bhiksu T'an ml ( j^jSj > pratique la meditation sur l'effort 
intellectuel. Ni la paresse, ni la regression ne peuvent l'at- 
teindre , 

- Le bhiksu Pi li t'o p'o tcho (>£» #u ffe tg^'j^,) a la parole p6- 
netrante et n'epargne pas les classes nobles. II peut entrer fac- 
ilement dans l'extase oil rayonne une brillance comparable a celle 
de l'or pur. 

- Le bhiksu Abhaya peut entrer sans difficulte dans la concentra- 

17 
tion du diamant (vajra-samadhi ) 

- Le bhiksu Hiu ni to { $j^ •//£ ft ) est tres feme dans ses paroles. 
On ne peut y dBceler la moindre dfif alliance. 

- Le bhiksu Dama alme les endroits palsibles oti aucune trouble 



140 



Buddhist Studies Review, 3, 2 (1986) 



ne peut perturber son esprit. 

- Le bhiksu Surata n'a aucun rival dans la domain* dee explica- 
tions et dea analyses." 

En resume*. Brahmadatta, Hiu chen, 
P'o ml t'o, Yue po kia , 
T'an mi. Pi 11 t'o p'o tchft, 
Abhaya, Hlu ni to, 

Datna , Surata. 

Group e 10 

"Parmi ties disciples, les suivants sont les plus eminents: 

- Le bhiksu Nagabala connait bien tous les astres et a des dons 
divinat aires . 

- Le bhiksu Vasistha alme la meditation qui conetitue sa nourri- 
ture essentielle. 

- Le bhiksu Hiu ye cho (jf &_ fr , puiae Ba £orce „„, u Jo±e 

- Le bhiksu Man yuan cheng ming (i^jg&g) observe la regie de la 
patience <* f i n ti) vis-a-vis les affronts. Aucune revolte ne 
peut perturber son esprit. 

- Le bhiksu Mi hi (*#&) pratique la meditation qui permet d'ac- 
querir une lumiere aussi eclairante que celle du soleil. 

- Le bhiksu Ni kiu lieou (/£.#,#) a la connaissance parfalte du 
calcul et des IoIb de la nature. 

- Le bhiksu Lou t'eou (£,*!>■ le sens de l'equite qu'il ne 
neglige jamais. 

- Le bhiksu Prthivl pratique le meditation qui permet d 'avoir 
une force comparable a celle de la foudre capable de disperser 
toute obscurite. 

- Le bhiksu T'eou na < £jj %l* ) medite sur le corps qui est la 
source [de toutes souff ranees I , 

- Le bhiksu Subha a P u attelndre le [sixieme et ] dernier degre 
[de l'.MiJHi, ou 'la connaissance de la destruction des impure- 
ttts*] 19 ". 



En resume: Nagabala, Vasistha, 

Hiu ye ch6, Man yuan cheng ming, 



Ekottaragama IV 



141 



I 



Mi hi, Ni kiu lieou, 
Lou t'eou, Prthivl, 
T'eou na, Subha. 

Notes 

1 Voir T 2, 557a 11 et sulv: cf . Ariguttara I 23 (etad aggain...), tr. Woodward, 
Gradual Sayings I, p. 16; Nyanaponlka, Angerelntan Sammluno, p. 17; Kausalyayan, 
Amguttar-Nikay , p. 21. 

2 Les quatre Verltes aaintes: 1. la Verite de la souff ranee (duhWia); 2. la 
Verite de l'orlgine de la souffrance (samudaya); 3. la Verite de la cessation 
de la souffrance (nirodha); 4. la Verite de la vole de la cessation de la souf- 
france (marg-a). Cf. F. Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary (en abrege 
BHSD), Hew Haven 1953, relnpr. Delhi 1985, p. 331, 

3 catuliparisJtara: les vetements, la nourriture, l'habitatlon, et les medica- 



* Les trelze obligations sont: 1. le bhiksu ne doit porter que des vetements 
rapieces; 2. 11 ne possede que trols vetements; 3. il dolt mendier sa nourri- 
ture quotidienne; 4. 11 effectue cette quote de malson en tnalson; 5. il s'as- 
sied a un endroit pour manger; 6. il ne mange que ce qu'on lul a donne; 7. 
11 ne mange qu'une foia par Jour, avant nidi; 8. 11 ellt sa demeure au pied 
d'un arbre; 9. il vlt dans la f oret ; 10. 11 ne peut pas s'abrlter a l'onbre 
d'un arbre mala a un endroit degage; 11. 11 vlt dans un cimetlere; 12, 11 
vlt dans un endroit designe par le Samgha; 13. la position assise doit etre 
plus adoptee que la position allongee. Phat Hoc Tu" fiien, Boan Trung Con, 
pp. 543-4; cf. auasi Hyanatiloka, Buddhist Dictionary, pp. 49- 50, s.v. dautiiiga. 

5 Les quatre capacitea intellectuelles sont: L. la connaissance exhaustive 
du Dharma permettant de l'exposer, de l'enseigner sans difficult!: 2. la con- 
naissance des significations permettant d'expliquer le sens des notions ou 
des enseignements sans difficulte; 3. la connaissance des termes, des expres- 
sions permettant 1 'explication, la discussion en profondeur; 4. la connais- 
sance de la psychologie des auditeurs pour pouvolr faire des exposes vivanta 
et sans cralndre les critiques. Cf. BHSD, p. 370, s.v. pratisamvid, pratlsan- 
vldfta . 

6 Pour les trols vetements ou Jtasaya du bhiksu, voir BSR 2, 1-2, p. 46, n.22. 



f.'l 
i'.i 



142 



Buddhist Studies Review, 3, 2 (1986) 



i 



w 



! i 
r 



Pour les bodhipsksika- ou hodMpafcsya-dharma . volt BSR 2. 1-2, pp.38, 46, 
n.17, et 3, 1. p. 38, n.13. 

8 - 

Anapananusmrti : voir BSR 3, 1, p. 35. 

9 

Rddhi-vidhi: la capacity de se deplacer tres vlte. de disparattre ou rlap- 

paraltre a volonte. Voir Mahavyutpatti, 208, 218. 
10 



Brahmaloka: la region la plus haute des 3.000 mondes. 



11 



Mara: par tradition 11 y en a qua t re: Aieia-mara, sjtandha-mara, jszti/u- 
devaputra-mara ; cf. BHSD, p,430. 



12 



13 



SamyaX-samldhi : l a meditation profonde, l'extase pure. 



Le Gandharva est un genie qui se nourrit unlquement de parfuos. Aussl 
soq corps est tres odor ant . 



14 



15 



16 



Cf. Kahlvyutpatti, 1541-4: trlni vimoksa-muJO&ni [ ou , portes de delivrance] 
sunyata, animittam, apranihitam; voir aussl BHSD, p. 42 7. 

Maitrl-samadhi : meditation ou aucune mechante pensee ne doit intervenir. 

KazimS-samadhi; meditation ou 1'altruisme constitue la matiere essentielle. 



Vajra-samadhl : meditation qui procure la solidlte comparable a celle du 
diaaaut brut. 



18 



19 



JtsantI: la patience, vertu cardinale. 



Sixieme et dernier degre de 1'aMijni: arrive a ce stade, l'Arhant a pu 
ratirper toutes les impuretes. Phae Hoc Tit fiieii, -Boan Trung Con, II, p. 184; 
cf. E. Lamotte, L • Enselgnemsnt de fimalaJtlrtf , p. 169, n.59; p. 237, n.40. 



: J 



143 



I 



NEWS & N01ES 

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on the Bodhicaryavatara, Meaningful to Behold, and produced the 
former's 'Introduction to the Canonical Literature of Buddhism', 
The Eternal Legacy {reviewed In this Issue 1 , and the latter's com- 
mentary on the Heart Sutra, Heart of Wisdom. 

For details and prices of these books, colour prints and 
cards of the Buddha and Bodhisattvas , contact Tharpa Publications, 
15 Bendemeei Road, London SW15 1JX Ctel. 01-788 7792). 



Journals and Literary Projects 

1. annual Memoirs of the Otanl University Shin Buddhist Comprehen- 
sive Research institute, Kamifusacho Koyama, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603 

Japan. From 1983 this substantial publication has carried schol- 
arly articles (not confined to the Pure Land tradition) in Japan- 
ese and English. 

2, Kalyanl. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences of the Univer- 
sity of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. Another annual {first appearing 

in 1982) which deserves atuch wider circulation. Vol. One comprises 
eleven articles by Sinhalese scholars on the history and culture 
of Sri Lanka, whilst Vol. Two has sixteen essays, mainly on the 
Buddhist history of the Island and the Pall texts, 

3; Sri Lanka Journal of Buddhist Studies. Announced in May last 

year, it has yet to appear. Under Editor designate Prof. B. A. 
Jayawickrama, the anticipated journal will be sponsored by the 
Buddhist h Pali University of Sri Lanka, 214 Bauddhaloka Mawatha, 
Colombo 7. 



46 



Buddhist Studies Review, 4, 1 (1987) 



3, The right to self -direction : 

Any worthwhile change in a person oust come from within, by under- 
standing and growth. Although a person has no completely free 
'will' or self, the fact that he or she is a complex flux of 
interdependent psycho-physical elements neans that he or she 
must be approached as a dynamic 'whole' (in a functional, not 
ontological sense) and not 'treated' by drugs etc. which might 
be used to interfere with and alter part of the personality (this, 
with respect to the treatment of the 'mentally ill'). 

4. The right to impartial treatment: 

Al] have the potential for Nirvana and all bring themselves into 
situations, good or bad, by their own karma. 

Reference s 

In Ralph Ruddock (ed.) Six Approaches to the Person, London 1972. 

Anguttara Nikaya I, p. 10, PTS, London 1961. 
3 MaJJhitna Nikaya II, p.98ff, PTS, London 1960. 

Ninian Smart, in Ralph Ruddock, op. cit., pp. 34-5. 
5 VisuddhimaBga, p. 340, PTS, London 1975. 

The Soul of a People, London 1902. 



■■■\ 



Dr Peter Harvey 
(Sunderland Polytechnic) 



47 



EKOTTARflGAMA (V) 

Traduit de la version chlnoise par 
Thlch HuySn-Vl 

Fascicule troisieme 

Partie 5 



Les Caracter 1st iques des Bhiksuni 



Groupe__l 

"Parmi mes disciples, les nonnes suivantes sont les plus £minentes: 

- La bhiksuni Mahapra j apatl GautamI a volontairement quitte le 
monde pour entrer dans l'Ordre et etudier le Dharma . Elle est 
tres honoree par les rois. 

- La bhiksuni Ksema est tres intelligente et eloquente. 

- La bhiksuni! Utpalavarna est la premiere en les fondements de 

' ' " - 2 

pouvoir surnaturel (rddhipada) et capable de convertir les genies. 

- La bhiksuni Krfia GautamI pratique les onze obligations [mais 
y rencontre] des difficultes. 

- La bhiksuni Sakula est la premiere en acuity visuelle surnatur- 
elle, l.e di vy a -caks us , 

- La bhiksuni Syama mgdite avec une concentration imperturbable. 

- La bhiksuni Po t'eou Ian end na { ^ ?j[ §§ i® ftp ) sait expliquer de 
facon approfondie le Dharma et les subtllltSs des significations. 

- La bhiksuni Patacara applique avec rigueur les regies du recuell 
de la discipline (filia). 

- La bhiksuni KatyayanI a acquis la foi vraie et sincere que 
ri<»n ne peut faire regresser . 

- La bhiksuni Vljaya „ sede les quatre capacites intellectuelles 
(pratisamvid) , done elle ne craint rien et ne se sent pas faible." 

En resume: 

Mahapra japatl GautamI, Ksema, 
Utpalavarna, Krsa GautamI, 
Sakula, Syama, 



48 



Buddhist Studies Review, 4, ] (1987) 



Po t'eou Ian cho na , Patacara , 
Katyayani et Vijaya. 

Groupe 2 

"Parmi mes disciples, les nonnes suivantes sotit les plus eminentes: 

- La bhiksunl Pa t'o kia p'i 11 («!&&£*) connatt son karma et 
les faits des epoques de ses vies anterieures. 

- La bhiksunl Hi mo c ho <*££#) est d'une beaute et d'une dis- 
tinction extraordinaires qui inspirent du respect a son entourage. 

- La bhiksunl SCra possede Le don de convaincre les non-croyants 
et les convert ir au Dharma . 

- La bhiksunl DharmadinnS salt expliquer les differences entre 
les pratiques pour permettre un choix judicieux aux adeptes. 

- La bhiksunl Uttara n'a pas honte de ses vgtements peu elegants. 

- La bhiksunl Prabha a acquis la serenite en ce qui concerne 
les organes de sens et la concentration. 

- La bhiksunl Tch'an t'eou ( £j>5& ) enseigne le Dharma comme elle 
porte ses robes: d'une facon strictement selon les regies. 

- La bhiksunl Datta est capable de discourir sur des themes varies 
et est sans doutes nl obstacles. 

- La bhiksunl T'ien yu < £#. ) est capable d'ecrire des gStha" 
honorant les qualites du Bouddha. 

- La bhiksunl K'iu pel ( ft# ) est erudite et a beaucoup de deli- 
catesse dans ses relations avec autrui." 

En resume: 

Pa t'o kia p'i li. Hi mo cho, 
Sura, Dharmadinna, 
Uttara, Prabha , 
Tch'an t'eou, Datta, 
T'ien yu , K'iu pei. 

Croupe 3 

"Parmi mes disciples , les nonnes suivantes sont les plus eminentes; 

- La bhiksunl Abhaya aime vivre dans les lieux paisibles et evite 



Ekottaragaaa V 



49 



les villes. 

- La bhiksunl Visakhg s'en va mendier sa nourriture quotidlenne 
de porte a porte sans distinguer les riches des pauvres. 

- La bhiksunl Bhadrapala choisit un endroit precis pour faire 
sa meditation et ne change plus de lieu. 

- La bhiksunl Mo nou ho 11 ( fy % % >j > s 'en va par monis et par 
vaux pour enseigner le Dharma. 

- La bhiksunl Dama est parvenue tres vite a 1'eveil sans rencon- 
trer de graves difficultes. 

- La bhiksunl Sudama porte tou jours les troLs vetements re-Kleme ri- 

ft 
taires ou fcasay^ . 

- La bhiksunt Li hiu na { $)S%fif ) medite au pled d'un arbre avec 
une concentration imperturbable. 

- La bhiksunT Cho t'o { %-fe } vit a la belle etoile sans jamais 
songer a un abri quelconque. 

- La bhiksuni" Yeou kia lo ( )%i&$£. ) prefere vivre dans les en- 
droits paisibles qu'aux villes bruyantes. 

- La bhiksunT Li na ( fl]£S3 ) s'assied toujours sur un tapis d'her- 
bes sechees et n'est pas attachee aux v§tements ni aux ornaments. 

- La bhiksuni Anupama porte les cinq vetements rapieces selon 
1 ' ordre . '* 



En r6sum&: 

Abhaya, ViSakha, 

Bhadrapala, Mo nou ho li, 

Dama , Sudama , 

Li hiu na, Ch6 t'o, 

Yeou kia lo, Li na et Anupama. 

Groupe 4 

"Parmi mes disciples, les nonnes suivantes sont les plus Eminentes: 

- La bhiksunl Yeou kia mo ( i&i£»,& ) a choisi le cimitiere conrae 
lieu de meditation. 

- La bhiksunl K'lng ming ( -;^ ^ ) reserve la majority de son temps 
en voyage pour enseigner le Dharna . 



5 



Buddhist Studies Review, 4, 1 (1987) 



H 



La bhiksunl Soma montre beaucoup de compassion pour les person- 
nages qui n'ont pas voulu cholsir la voie indiquee par le Dharma. 

- La bhiksunl Mo t'i la ( fl&*]) accueille avec joie ceux qui 
acceptent 1 'enseignement du Dharma. 

- La bhiksunl KflakS protege toute bonne conduite et sa pensee 
n'est jamais distraite. 

- La bhiksunl Devasu[ta] s'oriente vers l'etude de la Vacuite 
en cfterchant a l'analyset, a la comprendre. 

- La bhiksunl Suryaprabha" se rejouit dans le Sans-narque 9 et 
^limine tout attachement . 

- La bhiksunl Manapl cultive la Non-prise en consideration 8 et 
est assidue a faire largement du bien. 

- La bhiksunl Vimada n'a plus de doute au sujet du Dharma et 
son devourment pour autrui est sans limite . 

- La bhiksunl SamantaprabhSsS aime a expllquer de facon approfon- 
die le Dharma et ses subtilitgs . " 

En resume: 

Yeou kia mo, K'ing ming. 
Soma, Mo t'o li, 
Kalaka , Devasu [ ta ] , 
Suryaprabha, Manapa, 
Vimada , Samantaprabhasa . 

Croup e 5 

"Parmi mes disciples, les nonnes suivantes sont les plus eminentes: 

- La bhiksuni Dharraadhi pratique la patience tout comme la terre 
qui contient et qui recoit toute chose. 

- La bhiksunl Suyama* enseigne le Dharma et ses disciples constru- 
isent beaucoup de lieux de culte. Elle leur procure aussi tout 
le nicessaire pour leur pratique. 

- La bhiksunl IndrajS a pu se debarrasser de toutes pensees illu- 
soires. Aussi son esprit est serein. 

- La bhiksunl NagI medite sans se decourager tsur le manque de 
substance] de toutes choses. 

- La bhiksunl Kiu na lo ($?«?$) a acquis une volonte tres ferae 



Ekot taragama V 



51 



que rien en ce bas monde ne peut troubler , 



10 



- La bhiksunl Vasu entre dans la concentration sur l'eau [dont 
la f ralcheur ] inpr^gne [son esprit] ainsi que toutes choses. 

- La bhiksunl Candl pratique la concentration sur la LumlSre qui 
6claire jusqu'aux moindres recoins. 

- La bhiksunl Tcho po lo ( i£iiK.!H. ) dSnlche les raauvaises actions, 
expose les choses malsalnes et explique leurs origines, leurs 
causes . 

- La bhiksunl Cheou kia ( # ife. ) aide toutes personnes qui se 
trouvent dans le besoin, 

- Enfin, la derni^re des mes nonnes les plus eminentes est la 
bhiksunl Bhadra KumdalakeSa . " 

En resume: 

Dharmadhl, Suyama , 

Indraja, Nagi, 

Kiu na lo , Vasu , 

Candl, Tcho po lo, 

Cheou kia, Bhadra Kumdalakesa. 

Volla mes cinquante bhiksunl ainsi £num£r£es 



i; 



Fascicule troisieme 



Partie 6 



Les Caract^ristiques des v^rltables Upasaka 



12 



Groupe 1 

"Parmi mes adeptes masculins, Tri-phala est marchand. Ayant enten- 

13 
du le medicament du Dharma, il a acquis la saintete 1 

- Le maltre de maison Citra est le premier en ce qui concerne 

i 14 

la sag esse 

- Kien t'i a Ian ( $£_$.&} i H; ) est le premier, faisant beaucoup de 
bien et ayant acquis des pouvoirs surnaturels. 

- Le maltre de maison Klue to C iB^, ) salt convertir les autres 
au Dharma. 

- Le maltre de maison Upagupta enseigne et explique de facon 



52 



Buddhist Studies Review, 4, 1 (1987) 



approf ondle le Dharma . 

- Hastaka-Alavaka pratique assidflment la meditation. 

- Le maltre de raaison Yong kien ( J ^ ) a 1'habitude de dompter 
les demons. 

- Le Mltied.«,i,on Cho U ($ *| ) vit dans le bonheur grace a son 
bon karma . 

- Le malt™ de maison Sudatta 15 est U n grand donateur («j,i- 
danapzti) [venant en aide aux Trois Joyaux et aussi a „ peupleK 

- Le „itr e de maison Min t ' ou ( >&& ) a reussi en ce qul concerne 
sa famiHe." 



En resumes 

Trl-phala, Citra, 
Kien t'i a Ian, Kiue to, 
Upagupta, Hastaka-Alavaka, 
Yong kien, Ch6 li , 
Sudatta, Mln t 'ou . 

Groupe 2 

"Parmi mes disciples etant upSsaka, les plus eminents sont : 

- Le brahman* Cheng man ( £* ) aiMnt se faire expliquer le 
sens profond du Dharma. 

- Brahroayus est tres intelligent. 

- Vu ma mo na ( •**£«, ) est un fidele messager pour les affaires 
du Saragha . 

- Le brahmana Hi wen k'in C ^ g. ) reconnatt son corps pour le 
non-moi (anatman) . 

- Le brihmana P'i k'ieou <££) est toujour* vainqueur dans les 
discussions sur le Dharma 

- Le maftre de maison Upalin ecrit des gatha" et les ricite ensuite. 
Ses paroles sont rapides et sinceres. 

- Le aaftre de maison Jyotis aime venir en aide au* pauvres en 
ditrrbuant ses richesses sans jamais avoir le moindre regret. 

- Ugra Vaisalika aime seaer les germes de bon karma en faisant 
de bonnes actions. 



Ekottaragama V 



53 



- L'upasaka Anuttara Abhaya est capable de prScher en profondeur 
le Dharma . 

- T'eou mo ta kiang ho de Vaisali ( S8^A.Hf$_) n'a pas peur d'en- 
seigner le Dharma pour semer de bons germes chez autrui . " 

En resume: 

Cheng man, Brahmayus, 

Yu man mo na , Hi wen k'in, 

P'i k'ieou, Upalin, 

Jyotis, Ugra Vaigalika, 

Anuttara Abhaya, T'eou mo ta kiang ho de VaiSali. 

Groupe 3 

"Parmi mes disciples etant upasaka , les plus eminents sont: 

- Le rol Bimblsara almant venir en aide & son peuple . 

- Le roi Raswiprabhasa est moins genereux mais tres sincere dans 
son geste. 

- Le roi Prasenajit a jetG la base pour bStir des bienfaits. 

- Le rol AJataSatru, en dSpit de son manque de racines de bien, 
a commence A faire confiance [au Dharma], 

- Le roi Udayana oriente avec perseverance et respect sa foi 
envers le Bouddha . 

- Le prince Candraprabha vinere le Dharma et fait beaucoup de 
progris dans sa pratique. 

- Le prince Jeta fait des offrandes au Samgha en toute egalltS. 

- Le prince Simha vient souvent en aide aux autres sans tenir 
compte de son rang. 

- Le prince Abhaya vient en aide avec d^licatesse aux autres 
sans distinction de classe sociale. 

- Le prince Kukkuta est tres honors a cause de [sa conduite revS- 
lante ] la modestle et la honnStete," 



En resume : 



Bimblsara , Rasmlprabhasa , 
Prasenajit, AJataSatru, 
Udayana, Candraprabha, 






54 Buddhist Studies Review, 4, 1 <1987) 

Jeta, Slraha, 
Abhaya , Kukkuta. 

Groupe 4 

"Parmi mes disciples etant upasaka, les plus eminents sont : 

- Le maitre de aaison Pou ni ( jl & ) pratiquant la compassion. 

- Mahanama Sakya a de la compassion pour tous les Itres. 

- Bhadra Sakya pratique avec joie (inudita) le sacrifice, 

- L'uplsaka P'l ch6 hien ( &91 1 ) veille sur ses biens Mis sait 
faire du bien autour de lui. 

-^Le general Simha supporte tous les ennuis et pratique la patien- 

- L'upasaka P'i cho yu ( £*Sp [est tres intelligent et ] aime 
analyser toutes les doctrines. 

- L'upasaka Handibala teste silencieux en ce qui concerne de 
saints homines . 

- L'upasaka Uttara cherche inlassablraent a faire de bonnes ac- 
tions . 

- L'upSsaka T'ien no (A>f) a acquis la serenity d'esprit et 
de ses sens . 

- Kiu yi na mo lo ( &%#?%*&) est le dernier de mes disciples 
[£tant upasaka ] . " 



En resumed 



Pou ni, Mahanama Sakya, 
Bhadra Sakya, P'i cho hien, 
Simha, P'i cho yu , 
Nandibala, Uttara, 
T'ien mo, Kiu yi na mo lo. 



Voici enumeres mes quarante upasaka [les plus eminents; 



Partie 7 



Les Caracteristiques dea veritables upasika 



12 



Groupe 1 

"Parmi mes disciples etant upasikl , les plus eminentes sunt: 



Ekottaragama V 



55 



.16 



- Nandabala " a atteint l'^veil, a peine [devenue upasika], 

- L'upasika Khujjuttara est la plus sage. 

- L'upasika Suprlyl pratique la meditation avec plaisir. 

- L'upasika Vibhu est intelligente parce qu'elle possede un haut 
degre de lucidite. 

- L'upasika Yang kle cho ( "%$&$ ) peut assumer les enseignements 
du Dharma au niveau 616mentaire. 

- L'upasika Bhadrapala Suyama peut expliquer finement les signifi- 
catios des sutra. 

- L'upasika Vasuda a reussi souvent a convaincre les gens de 
la v£rit£ propag^e par le Dharma. 

- L'upasika Asoka possede une voix limpide. 

- L'upasika i'halada a l'habitude d'analyser toute chose. 

- L'upasika Hiu t'eou ( $g I £ ) est tres courageuse et pers^verante -" 

En resume: 

N and aba la , Kbu j jut tar a , 

Supriya, Vibhu, 

Yang kie cho, Bhadarapala Suyama, 

Vasuda , Asoka , 

Phalada, Hiu t'eou. 

Groupe 2 

"Parmi mes disciples £tant upasika, les plus Eminentes sent: 

- Mallika Devi qui aime faire des offrandes au Tathagata. 

- Devi Hiu lai p'o ( #[t&^) recoit et pratique correcteiaent le 
Dharma . 

- Devi Cho mi ( $£$% ) prend soin et fait des offrandes au Samgha . 

- Candraprabha admire et respecte les sages du passe 1 et dans 
1 ' avenlr . 

- Devi Lei tlen ( ^^) est une genereuse bienfaitrice [ pour 
honorer les Trois Joyaux], 

- L'upasika Maha-Prabha pratique la meditation en rayonnant de 
la bienveillance (maifcrl) . 



L'upasika Vidhi pratique la compassion (karunl) 



-,18 






56 



Buddhist Studies Review, 4, 1 (1987) 



- L'upasika Pa t'i ( «.**_ > Uultive] Bans interruption la joie 
(mudi ta ) . 

- L'uplsikl Nandamatr fait sans cease de bonnes actions. 

- L'upasika Tchao yao < «Jg ) « acquis la foi dans [la vole de] 
la d^livrance [ultlme]." 

En resume: 

Hallika, Hiu lai p'o, 
Cho mi, Candraprabha , 
Lei tien, Maha-Prabha , 
Vidhl, Pa t'i, 
Nandamftr, Tchao yao. 

Groupe 3 

"Parai nee disciples [etant upaaika I , lea pl U3 e »i„ ent e 8 sont: 

- L'upasika Nihaoka qui choisit la patience comae conduite de 
perf ectionnement . 

- L'upa-sika" P'i tch'eou hien ( fcftfto pratique la meditation [ en 
eprouvant] la vacuite . 

- L'upasika" Unnata pratique la meditation [en eprouvant] le sans- 
marque 

- L'upasika- Amala pratique la meditation [en eprouvant] la non- 
prise en consideration . 

- Sri Devi aime enseigner le Dhariua a ses semblables. 

- L'upasika Yang kie no (£*».$) observe strictement les regies 
de conduite morale. 

- L'upasika- Lei yen ( £ % ) a beaucoup de distinction et de P r es - 
tance . 

- L'upasika Vijaya~ a acquis la sSrenite des sens. 

- L'upasikI NHS suit rSgulierement les enseignements et son 
esprit devient r^ceptif. 

- L'upasikI Hieou mo kia t'i hiu to niu ( *,*»* *.**.*> « C rit 
des karika et des gatha avec assurance. 

- La derniere fidele upasikl [parmi les plus eminentes] est l'upl- 
sika Kala. " 



Ekottaragama V 



5 7 



En resume: 



HlhSoka, P'i tch'eou hien, 

Unnata, Amala, 

Sri Devi, Yang kei mo. 

Lei yen, Vijaya, 

Nfla, Hieou mo kia t'i hiu ta niu, 

et Kail. 



19 



Volci les trente upasika 



NOTES 



Voir T2, 558c20 et suiv.; c£ . Anguttara I 25 et suiv., tr. Woodward, Gra- 
dual Sayings I p. 21 et sulv.; Hyanaponika, Ungereihte Sammlung 1 p. 28 et suiv., 
Kausalyayan, Amguttar-NiJcay , p. 24 et suiv. 



Pour les rddhipada, voir BSR 3, 1, pp. 32, 37, n.6. 

3 _ 

Pour lea '13 obligations' (dhuta -guna , dhutanga), voir BSR 3, 2, p. 141, 

n.4. Cependant Ibid, p. 133, 1.19, doit Stre corrige en 'douze' (cf. T2, 557b 

8), Les dictlonnaires oscillent dans leurs explications entre 12 et 13 dhuta- 

guna. Icl, ibid, 558c24, le chinois ne fait mention qu'a 11 dhuta-guna , 

Divya-caftsus, 'l'Oeil divin' : acuite visuelle speciale faisant partie des 
6 pouvolrs surnaturels acquise par la meditation; cf. BHSP 50. 

Pour les quatre pratisawid, voir BSR 3, 2, p. 141, n.5. 

Pour les tTois vetements oil Jcasaya, voir BSR 2, 1-2, p. 46. 

Pour les 'cinq vetements rapieces ' , voir Soothill et Hodous , A Dictionary 
of Chinese Buddhist Terms, 126b: "The five garments worn by a nun are the 
three worn by a monk [voir ci-tiessus, n.6] with two others." Voir aussi C.S. 
Upasak, Dictionary of Early SuddMst Monastic Terms, Varanasi 1975, p. 88. 

8 ' 

Voir E, Lamotte, Traits (I, p. 321 et suiv.; Ill, p. 121 J et suiv.) pour 

ce qu'il appelle 'les trois concentrations', 'de la Vacuite (£unyata), de la 

Non-prise en consideration (apraniiiita) et du Sans-caractere (aniwitta^ 1 (cf. 

ci-dessous, n.9) . 



9 Pour % (559bl5, 560b23), lire #j 



58 



Buddhist Studies Reeview, 4, 1 (1987) 



59 



li'l 



Pour l'eau et la lumiere comrae sujets de meditation, voir Bhikkhu Nlnamoll, 
The Path of Purification, trad. anglaise du Visuddhlmagga , Colombo 1956, pp. [77 
-9 ('the water and fire kasinas'). C£ . aussi Nyanatlloka, Buddhist Dictionary 
(3e ed.}, p. 80 (s.v. kasina). 

Bien que 1c chiinois on compte clnquante, cinquante-et-une bhiksunl sont 
cttees par nam. 

Le chinols a litt era lenient (559c8) 'upasaka pur s/hommes laics bouddhiques' 

et (560a2B) 'upasika pures/f etnmes lalques bouddhiques' respect.i vemem . 

13 

C.a.d. sat-purusa[ tva) ; cf. A. Hirakaua, Index to the AbhidharmakoSabhas- 

ya 11, p. 119; L. de la Vall.ee Poussin, L* Abhidharmakosa , chap. Ill, p. 38, sur 
les differences sorl.es d'anagasnin, 'ceux qui ne rc-naitront plus', a propos 
d'une reference au 'Sutra des sept satpurusagati ' . Voir aussi Soothlll, op. 
cit., 44b, et BHSD 554, Sur la saintetc d'upasaka par excellence, voir P. 
uemievlllc, 'Vimalaklrti en Chine' dans E. Lamotte, L' Enseignvment de vimala- 
klrti, p. 439. 

En ce qui concerne Le maitre dc maison CJtta, precurseur de Vimalaklrti ?' , 
voir Bh. Prasadika et L.M, Joshi, Vimalaklrtinirdesasutra, Sarnath / Varanasi 
1981, pp. 33-4, 'Maitre de maison' (voir aussi ci-dessous) corresponde a grha- 
pati; cf, A. Hirakawa, op. eifc. , p. 337. 

15 

Alias Anathapindada; cf. E. LamoLte, L' Enseignement , p. 211 eL suiv. ('Su- 

datta et lc sacrifice de la Loi'), 

Alias Sujata qui a donnl de la nourriture au futur Bouddha apres son jeune; 
cf. BHSD 289, 



17 



18 



Voir BSE 3, 2, p. 142, n,15. 



Voir ibid, n,16. 



Bien que le chinols a 'trente upasika', il en est question de trente 
et-une dans le texte. 



NEWS S NOTES 

Seminar at Delhi University 

An unconfirmed announcement suggested that an exclusively Indian 
university conference was convened last year to discuss the ' Sar- 
vastivada and its Traditions'. Scheduled to meet between 31st 
March and 2nd April 1986, up to fifty scholars intended to dilate 
on the history and philosophy of this influential lineage. It 
Is hoped that a fuller report and/or the Proceedings will soon 
become available. 

The Department of Buddhist Studies (headed by Prof . Sanghasen 
Singh), under whose auspices this meeting was supposed to have 
been held, publishes an annual entitled Buddhist Studios. 

Tibetan St u d_i es Centre in Peking 

Modelled on the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives in Dharara- 
sala, this centre was opened in May 1986 in order to 'co-ordinate 
research projects on Tibetan literature, religion, history, cus- 
toms, architecture and other subjects'. 

The Inst itute o f I ntercultural Studies 

This Institute was established in September 1986 with the object 
of promoting East-West, North-South intercul tural encounter and 
dialogue. Il is dedicated to furthering the evolution of a new 
integral culture whose nature will be truly global through the 
creation of a forum for authentic intercultural communication. 
The Institute Is committed to wedding the expertise of the specia- 
list with the generic interests of the layman and to fusing the 
intellectual rigour of the academic with the genuine existential 
concerns of the individual. 

The Institute offers lectures, courses and tutorials in Italian 
and English covering a wide range of subjects: from religion, 
philosophy and psychology to language and literature, from the 
visual and performing arts to dietetics and physical culture. 

The Institute is situated in the hills of Tuscany amid vine- 
yards and olive groves. Its pastoral location makes it ideal 
for study, reflection and relaxation. Twelve kilometres from 
Lucca, one of the most picturesque of Italy ' s medieval towns , 



126 



Buddhist Studies Review, 4, 2 (1987) 



{III. 5. 13)' (ibid., p. 273, n.l). 

T,W. Rhys Davids and H. Oldenberg vinaya Texts 1, repr. Delhi 1965, p. 4, 
emphasis added. 



i I 



N. Dutt Early Monastic Buddhism , Calcutta 1960, p. 136, n.l. 



(Mil., pp. 137-8, emphasis added. Also see U. Thakur The History of Suicide 
In lmll.1, Delhi 1963, p. 107. 



I I 



.!>'i' K..I. Thomas The History of Buddhist Thought, repr. New Ytirk 1971, pji. 
7*1 U: R,ll, KnbliiHCH] The Buddhist Religion, Belinonl 19 70, p.3l. 

h 

\*vi' (.,}>. Kill alasekera Encyclapaedi a of Buddhism I, Colombo 1961, pp. 567-76 , 

K. V.mtKv tliHliliii.-m: Its Essence and Development , New York 1959, p.3Sff,, etc. 



/' 

I 9H. 

! I 

:» 



[;.A.l' , Hhys Davids Psalms cf the Early Buddhists II, rcpr . London 1964 



III 170. 



I . li. florner 'The Theravada' in R.C. Zaehner, ed , The Concisi: Encyclopedia at 
Living Faiths, Boston 1959, p. 284, n. 

19 

C.A.F. Rhys Davids, op. oit. , II, pp. 214-15. 

Ihid . , I, p. 51. 

21 

See J. Houssaleff Masson 'The Psychology of the Ascetic', The- Journal of 

Asian Studies XXXV, 4 (August 1976), pp. 611-25. 

Arvind shazma 
(Dept . of Religious Studies, 
University of Sydney) 



1ZZ 



EKOTTARAGAMA (VI) 

Traduit de la version chinoise par 

Thlch HuySn-Vi 

Fascicule trolsieme 
Partie 8 



Le Roi des Asura 



1. 'Ainsl al-Je entendu . Lorsque le Bouddha , le Blenheureux, 

residait dans le pare d ' Anathapiridada a SravastI, 11 disait a 

ses bhiksu: bhiksu! Personne ne peut avoir une plus grande 

2 
taille que le roi des Asura. II mesure 84.000 yojana . Sa bouche 

a 1.000 yojana de largeur . A une certalne epoque , le roi des 
Asura a voulu attaquer le Soleil. II a etire sa taille jusqu'a 
168.000 yojana pour arrlver Jusqu'aux pays du Soleil et de la 
Lune . Les rois du Soleil et de la Lune etaient tres Inquiets 
pour le paix de leur royaune . Fourquoi? Parce que la stature 
[du roi] des Asura etait tres inpressionnante . Et parce qu'ils 
etaient Inquiets, les roi du Soleil et de la Lune n ' emettaient 
plus de luraiere. Cependant le roi des Asura n'osait pas capturer 
les rois du Soleil et de la Lune parce que ces derniers avaient 
beaucoup de prestige, de volonte, de force, de longevLte, de 
grande prestance et joussaient d ' un bonheur sans fin. Pour con- 
naftre la duree d'une vie, nous n'avons qu'a regarder notre posi- 
tion actuelle dans la vie, C'est pourquoi les rois du Soletl 
et de la Lune n'ont pas ete agresses par le roi des Asura. Ce 
dernier ressentait 1 ' araertume de cet echec jusqu'a la fin de 
sa vie . 

'De la mgne facon, bhiksu, les demons (Mara) sont derriere 
vous, lis cherchent par tous les moyens de detruire vos ratines 
de bien (.kusala-mala ) , lis emploieront des moyens magiques pour 
ensorceler votre vue , votre oule, votre odorat, votre goflt , votre 
toucher et pour perturber votre esprit. lis raisonneront ainsl: 
nous devons leur en capter les yeux, les orellles, le nez, la 
langue, le corps et les pensees pour les troubler . A ces moments- 



128 



Buddhist Studies Review. 4, 2 (1987) 



la, vous devez €tre fermes pour ne pas succomber a ces six tenta- 
tioiiE malgrer leurs aspects merveilleux. Vous ferez ainsi reculer 
les denons. Vous emporterez cette victoire grSce a la force 
du Tathagata, l'Arhat. 

'Les bhiksu qui etudient stud ieusement le Dharma mats qui 

dlgtrent dlf f icllement les offrandes des Fideles risqueront de 

4 
■ ■ p»rdre dans les cinq voies et n atteindront Jamais 1 eveil, 

hh I Ik. ft- ii , vous devez vous y appliquer. Celut qui n'y est pas encore 

[)M1 vvnil dolt faire un effort. Celui qui n'a pas encore compris 

(lull there her a comprendre . Celui qui n'a pas encore ete sec our u, 

dolt §i re secouru. Celui qui n'a pas encore attaint l'erveil 

dull. §tre aide pour qu'il l'atteigne. C'est pourquoi, bhiksu, 

celui qui n a pas encore recu d offrandes , ne doit pas en rfsver; 

colul qui en a regu ne doit pas y preter trop d'attention pat 

cmhite d'engendre des souillures mentaies (kle&a), C'est ainsi, 

bhiksu, que vous devez vous instruire. Ayant entendu ces paroles 

du Huuddha , les bhiksu etaient heureux et les mettaient respectu- 

euaement en pratique. 



2. 'Alnsi ai-je entendu... Le Bienheureux disait a ses bhiksu* 
Comment appelez-vous celui qui vient en ce bas-monde pour rendre 

service, pour apporter la pain a tous les etres? Celui qui, 
devant leur aveuglement originel, cherche a leur en sortir , 
qui desire faire realiser aux dleux et aux humains leur propre 
bonheur et leur propre protection. C'est le Tathagata, l'Arhat, 
le Samyaksambuddha . 0, bhiksu, vous devez le venerer et suivre 
son merveilleux exemple, Ayaht entendu ces paroles du Bienheureux 
les bhiksu etaient heureux et )es mettaient respectueusenent 
en pratique. 

3. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu... le Bienheureux disait a ses bhiksu: 
Le Tathagata, l'Arhat, le Samyaksambuddha, des son arrivce en 
ce baa -monde , est le seul etre dans le monde entier qui est la 

personnal i sa t ion de l'ultime connaissance , de 1 ' enseignement , 

8 9 

des deux vSritfis , des trois portes de la delivrance , des quatre 



Veritas saintes 



10 



des cinq facultes 
12 



.1 



de la destruction des 
13 



alx croyances perverses , des sept membres de 1 ' illumination 

14 
du noble chemin a huit branches , des neuf regions de residence 



15 16 

des Stres vivants , des dix forces de Bouddha 



et des onze 



blenveillances 



17 



C'est pourquoi, bhiksu, vous devez le venerer 



Ekottaragama VI 



129 



et suivre son exemple pour vous perfect ionner . Ayant entendu 
ces paroles du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux et les mettaient 
respectueusement en pratique. 

4. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. . . le Bienheureux disait a ses bhiksu: 
S " il y existe quelqu'un qui arrive dans ce bas-monde avec une 
intelligence et une sagesse eclairantes, c'est le Tathagata, 
l'Arhat, le Samyaksambuddha. En effet 11 possede une intelligence 
et une sagesse eclairantes [capables de disperser toutes les 
obscuritSs d'lci-bas]. bhiksu, mettez votre perseverance dans 
l'etude du Dharma. Tournez-vous vers le Bouddha, ne suivez pas 
les mauvais penchants et mettez toute votre ardeur dans l'etude 
du Dharma . Ayant entendu ces paroles du Bouddha , les bhiksu etaient 
heureux et les mettaient respectueusement en pratique. 

5. 'Alnsi ai-je entendu... le Bienheureux disait a ses bhiksu: 
D£s la venue du Tathagata dans ce bas-monde, les vues erronees 
dues a des prejuges, a 1' ignorance du profane qui est lui-me'me 
prisonnier dans le cycle de la renaissance lncessante , ont ete 
rectifies . L'obscurite a laisse la place a la lumlere. bhiksu, 
soyez vigilants dans votre perf ectionnement . Ayant entendu ces 
paroles du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux et les mettaient 
respectueusement en pratique. 

6. 'Alnsi ai-je entendu... le Bienheureux disait a ses bhiksu: 
Les trente-sept auxlliares de 1 ' illumination sont [enselgnes] 
grSce A l'arrlvee du Tathagata, l'Arhat, le Samyaksambuddha, 

en ce monde. En quoi consistent ces trente-sept auxiliares (,sapna- 

18 
trim&ad bodtiipaksika dharjnah) ? Ce sont: les quatre fixations 

- 1 9 

de 1 'attention (smrfcyupasthana) , les quatre efforts corrects 

- 20 

(samyaipradftana / samyaxprahana ) , les quatre fondements de 

21 
pouvoir n&glque (rddftipada) , les cinq facultes spirituelles 

(indr-iya) , les cinq forces (bala) , les sept membres de l'illu- 

13 
mination {sambodnyanga ) , le noble chemin a huit branches (mar- 

ga/tga) , C'est pourquoi, bhiksu, vous devez venerer le Bouddha 

et etudier son Dharma. Ayant entendu ces paroles du Bouddha, 

les bhiksu etaient heureux et les mettaient respectueusement 

en pratique. 



7. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu... le Bienheureux disait A ses bhiksu: 
Celui dont la disparitioa. en ce. has -monde va laisser des regrets, 



130 



Buddhist Studies Review, 4, 2 (1987) 



des douleurs ainsi bien aux humains qu'aux residents des cieux, 
celui, dont la mort est ressentie comrae une perte de sa protec- 
tion, ne peut §tre que le Tathagata , 1 ' Arhat , le Samyaksambuddha . 
Kn effet, si le Tathagata quitte ce monde les trente-sept auxili- 
atrea de I ' illumination seront perdus. bhiksu , vous devez 
Windier consc iencieusement le Dharma et soyei reconnaissants 
mi Tathagata. Ayant entendu ces paroles du flouddha , les bhiksu 
At « linn heureux et les mettaient respectueusement en pratique. 

H. ' A I iih 1 al-Je entendu... Le Bienheureux disait a ses bhiksu: 
l.'np|i,n I L urn du Tathagata apporte la lumiere dont le ciel et 
l.i Iltto belief lc ient la clarte, une clarte tres pure comparable 
A (tile de la pleine lune de la mi-automne qui eclaire le moindre 
ii-coii), (irace a cette lumiere, la foi naft dans 1 ' observation 
ilivi regies, dans l'ecoute du Dharma, dans la generosity et dans 
In Biinease, tout coitime la lumiere qui eclaire partoul. 6 bhiksu, 
ven I'm z le Tathagata et etudlez avec application le Dharma. 
Ayant entendu ces paroles du Bouddha , les bhiksu etaient heureux 
et les melcatent respectueusement en pratique. 

l J. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu... le Bienheureux disait a ses bhiksu: 
Dans un pays ou le roi est un saiiit homme, ou le people est pros- 
pere . les pays voisins seront peu puissants. De mgrne, la presence 
du Tathagata en ce monde clonne de la prosperity aux humains et 
aux residents celestes, par coiUre le nombre de prcta, des animaux 
et des condamnes a l'enfet diminuera. bhiksu, met fez toute 
votre foi en le Bouddha et tous vos efforts dans 1 'etude du Dhar- 
ma . Ayant entendu ces paroles du Bouddha, le bhiksu etaient 
heureux et les mettaient respectueusement en pratique. 

10. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu... le Bienheureux disait a ses bhiksu: 
Helul qui n'a pas d'egal, dont personne tie peut lui servir de 
modele, celui qui s'avance dans la solitude sans compagnon ni 
fan I lie, celui qui n'a pas d'egal en assurance, en discipline, 
an conns 1 ssance , en generosite, en sagesse , c 'est le Tathagata. 
t 'Arhat , le Samyaksambuddha. En effet, personne en ce monde 
nl aux cleux ne peut 1'egaler. C'esi un etre parfait a tout 
point de vue . C'est pourqoui, bhiksu, vous devez venerez le 
Bouddha et etudier assidument le Dharma. 

Apres avoir ecoute les consells du Bouddha, les bhiksu ftaient 



Ekottaragana VI 



131 



heureux et les mettaient respectueusement en pratique." 
Ekot taragama , [fin du ] fascicule troisieme 



NOTES 



Voir T2 , 560c6 et suiv. C£ . Angutr.ara II 17 (Pannat tisuLLa ), le discours 
sur les quai.re etrcs dits ' preeminents ' . Le premier cite est Rahu Asurlnda, 
Rahu, roi des Titans, surpassant. tous en ce qui concerns la taille du corps. 
f,ur Rahu el ses activites, l'ancienne explication mythique indienne, voir 
Nalalasekera , dictionary of Pali Proper Names , II, 735-7, 

2 

Anclcnnc mesure de distance indienne; selon la PTSD un yojana egale environ 

sept milles, el selon les diet ionuaires Sanskrit environ huit ou ncuf milles; 

cf. Knot hi 11 ei Hodous, A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms, p. 197b: un yn- 

jana est 'about 9 English miles, or nearly 30 Chinese li'. 

3 

C,-a.-d. six sortes dc testations: de par la forme, les sons, les odeurs, 

les savours, les tangibles ou les object de la pensee. 

4 

Les cinq qrati , voics ou destinees, sotif: la renaissance dans les enfers, 

parmi les prcra, les animaux, les etres humains ou celestes; cf, BSR I, 
2, p. 133, n,9l ibid.. 11, 1-2, p. 46, n.23, 'les trois fmauvaisesl destinees'. 
Quant aux difficulty's relatives a la 'digestion des offrandes', on associe 
d'abord les offrandes avec le don dc la nourriture; cf. 1" idee repandue dans 
toutes les traditions monastlques bouddhiqucs que le beneficiare des aumones 
cotitracte des dcti.es sauf s'il fait de son mieux de prat iquer les enseigncment s 
du Dharma. Completemenr libre dc dette est lui seul qui a eliminc toute in- 
fluence mauvaise (A/iTnasavassa parihhogo samipai ibhogo nama ) ; cf . Ariguttara I 
10 (Accharasanghacavagp.a) ; Manorat hapuranl 1 71 et suiv. Cependant, 'la diges- 
tion' dt.'K offrandes ne se refere seulement au don de la nourriture, mais vcut 
dire aussi etre digue d'offrandes dans un sens general. 

voir T2 56 la? et suiv.; cf. Ahguttara 1 22, tr. Woodward, Gradual Sayings 
1, p. 14; Nyanatiloka, Angereiote Satnmlimg 1, p. 26; Kausalyayan, AmguLLar- 
Nikag, p. 20. CI. la courte citation de 1'EA dans l'original Sanskrit dans 
1 'Abhidharmakosabliasya, ed . Pradhan, Patna 1967, 1975, p. 468, 14: ekah pudqalo 
loka utnadyamana utpadyate iti . Cf . aussi La Vallcc Poussin, I'AbhidhjrpiJlcosa , 
Chap if re IX, p. 2 59; Lamntte, Traith I T p. 28, n.2. Cett.e citation dans l'Atihi- 
dharmakosa se trouve aussi dans le Sammatlyasastra, T32, 463a 14, c28 (cf. 



132 



Buddhist Studies Review, 4, 2 (1987) 



Y. Ejima, 'Textcritical Remarks on the Ninth Chapter of the Abhidhannakosabhas- 
ya' p Bukkyo Bunka 20, Tokyo 1987, p. 19), 

Lit* "Celui qui prend pitie de tous ceusc envelopes et ignorjnts 1 . 

Ml . 'en possession aussi de 1 . 

I], ii. (1 i 1 ij verite conventionelle et la vcriie abseil ue, Cf . Y. Oku bo, 
1 Thw Kkollaia a Kama Fragments of the Gii^iL Manuscript' dans liukkifb Guku Sumina 
**i, Kyniu I9H2, p. 100 (5.5. ): dve natye nantvi tisatyam panunai Uianalyam ua 
in l I -i i«»l 11 ul ion d'apres Okubo). Cf, aussi AbliidhaFtnakoiia.bha5yu, ed. Prad- 
t Ull , )\ . 

fl Voir I15K HI, 2, p. 142, n.W; ibid., IV, 1, p. 57, n.H, 



VmIi ihlil. , ill, 2, p. 14L, n.2. 

Li'ii t l ni| lacultes {panc&ndriyani ), aussi iippuies Its cinq fotces (/*aik:*j- 
h,tt,itii ) , itimt ; la loi (sraddJia), I'hnvi^ii: tvTnj-O . I'.iucnl I cm (.sinrf j ), lj 

i il i .it Ion (iramadfii ), la sagesse tprajTlS), Voil Tr,iiiC> IN, 11^/; cf. 

MjluvvuiiMti i, od. Sakuki, Kyoto 1926, n" Q 7 f * - 8 7 . 

'Les six croyances perverses'? Quat re croyutices pel verses so til aloes 
dans 1'An^uLtara Li 52 ( Vipa l 1 asasui l a ) : I. [UttuiiH |nmi pel uanem ce qui 
est impermanent ; 11. prcnant pour buuheUI Ce c^u i us l sun I 1 I a iilu ; iii. pi cuant 
pour un sol ce qui n 1 est pas un soi ; i v . pit twin [unit d^ioahlc ce f|ui est 
desagreable. Dana Soothill, Chinese liuddhist Tcnnr, , p. 126b, c i un croy antes 
pcrvcrses SOnl citoes: i. la cioyante etronee dans un vtai sn i ; ii. les Ltoyati 
ces extremes dans I'eternite ou dans I ' ^nbam i ssi.Miit.Mu : iii r la vuC fan ski; 
qui nie la cause et l'effet; iv T la vue fausse qui ptiMid Les c hoses Infer i cures 
comnie supeiieures, les. plus pires pour lus mo ill cures; v. les cioy H iticOs iiuran- 
slfleantes dans les pratiques d'asc&tisme rigldcs, 

hen in; nib res de 1 'illumination sont: i. Le membre do J 1 il luminal ion nonuiie 
a I I i*iit I on (.smj tisairtbodhyafiya ) ; ii . le membre do I* ill urn i nal l on neurone d LSCCJ ne- 
muiil des dharma {dharittapravicauasainbodhijanqa} ; iii. le membre 6c I ' illum.ii.idf iuu 
luimme cucrtfJe ( virviasambodhyanqa} ; iv. le membre de l "illumination nomine jt>ie 
(prJt isambodriyariga) ; v, le membre de 1 'iilumiuaiiun nommc relaxation {ptasrab 
dhisatubodhyahgayi vi, le membre de 1 4 illumination nojimic concentration (saniadhl- 
.tambodhynnqa ) ; vii. le membre dt; 1' 13 iuminat ion tinmme egal i I L- d ' eapri x {upi?ksa- 
aambodhyariga) . Voir Traite 1 1 T ^ 1128 et suw.; cf t Nahivyutpatti, n° 988-95. 



Ekottaragama VI 



133 



Le noble cheain a huit branches consists en: i. la vue correcte (samyaJi- 
djrst±)i li. la conception corrects (samyaJcsafltfcalpa ) ; t±i . la parole correcte 
(samyagvafc); iv. 1" action correcte (saitiyaWcarmanta); v» la naniere de vivre 
correcte (aamyacjajiva ); vi . 1 'effort correct {aanpyaa^ydyajfl^) J vii. 1 'attention 
correcte (samyaJtsmrti) ; vlii . la concentration correcte (sainyafrsantadhi > . 
Voir Traite I1I\ 1129; cf. HahavyutpattL n° 996-1004, 

15 Voir Dlgha III 263 (Sangltiautta, /iara sattavasa)-, ibid.. Ill 28S (Daaut- 
tarasutta); des sections du texte correspondant Sanskrit sont citees dans 
l'Abhidharmakosavyakya, ed. Wogihara, Tokyo 1932-6, pp, 262 t 30-263-4 . Cf, 
aussi Soothill, Chinese Buddhist rerms, lBa-b, La premiere region de residence 
des etres vlvants appartlent aux etres "who are diverse in both body and mind, 
such as mankind, certain gods and some who have gone to an evil doom 1 . Les 
autres regions do residence des etres vivants appartlennent aux etres qui 
resident dans les diverses extases de dhuana et a certains dieux. 



L6 



17 



Voir J3SR III, 1, p. 37, n.7. 



*Les onze blenveillances* ? Pour les trois sortes de bienveillance, voir 
Traite III, 1250 et sulv. Une explication tentative des onze sortes serait 
conme suite: Un neditateur qui, selon les sutra traitants des quatre inmesur- 
ables (apramana), rayonne la bienveillance d'une maniere meditative le fait 
dans les quatre directions successivement (1-4) {ekaut disam adhlmucya spharit- 
va... tatha dvitlyam. T T ), vers le nadir et le zenith respect ivenent (5-6) 
(■urdJivam , adhas) t dans les quatre direction intermediates (7-10) (tiryajt) 
et flnalement, par tout irradiant de bienveillance le monde entier (11) (sarva- 
sah sarvavantam imam lokam, Cf, Mahavyutpatti n a 1508-9, Interpreter tirya^ 
comme voulant dire vidik9u 1 dans Les aires intermediates du vent, est naturel- 
lement de la conjecture; neanmoins un sens de tiryaft, selon les dictionnaires 
Sanskrit, est 'au milieu ou entTe' . 

18 Voir BSR II, l-2 t p. 47, n,17; ibid,, III, 1, P-38, n.13; ibid,, III, 2, 
p. 142, n,7, 

19 

C,-a.-d. la fixation de l'attentlon en ce qui concerne: 1* le corps; ii, 

les sensations; iii, la pensee; iv. les dharma (objets de la pensee), Cf. 

Traite III, 1121 et suiv, 

20 

C-a.-d. faisant de grands efforts pour que: 1. les mechants mauvais dharma 

non encore nes ne na is sent pas; ii, les mechants mauvais dharma deja nes soient 

detruits; iii* les bons dharma non encore nes prennent naissance; iv, les 



134 



Buddhist Studies Review, 4, 2 (1987) 



b<>ns dharma deja nes soient naintenus... cultives eL completes. Cf. Traite 
III, 1123 et suiv. 

Voir BSR III, 1, p. 37. n.6; ibid.. IV. i, p. 57. n.2. Cf. aussl Traite 111, 
1124 et suiv.: ' Ici le uoine cultive le fondeiaent de pouvoir magique qui est 
muni de la concentration: i, du zele... ii . de l'energie... ili. de pensee... 
I V . de I ' examen . 



135 



NEWS & NOTES 

Pall Text Society 

1 . The registered office has Moved to 7 3 Lime Walk, Oxford 0X3 
7AD; tel. 0865 742125. 

2. Following the closure of Knights bridge Books, the main stock- 
ists and distributors in the UK are John Randall (Books of 
Asia), 47 Moreton Street, London SW1V 2NY ; tel. 01 630 5331. 

3. The second I.B. Horner Memorial Lecture was held at the School 
of Oriental and African Studies (University of London) on 
7 September 1987. A Council member, Dr Steven Collins - 
Visiting Professor of Indian Religions at Indiana University 
- spoke on 'The Very Idea of a Pali Canon' and discussed 
the nature of 'apocryphal' works within the Theravada Bud- 
dhist context. 



The Buddhist Forum 

'A series of seminars on various aspects of Buddhism history , 
philosophy, religion, culture, art, architecture, philology...' 
is being held at the School of Oriental and African Studies under 
the auspices of the Centre of Religion and Philosophy. The papers 
presented are as follows: 

14 October L987 - Dr T. Skorupski (Convenor), 'The multifarious 
aspects of the proliferation of Buddhist culture in Asia.' 

11 November 1987 - Br A. Piatigorsky, 'Buddhism: the features 
of early terminology.' 

9 Decenber 1987 - Prof . R. Gombrich, ' Recovering the Buddha ' s 
message . ' 

13 January 1988 - Mr A. Huxley, 'How Buddhist is Theravada Bud- 
dhist Law? ' 

10 February 1988 - Mr K.R. Norman, 'Pali philology and the study 
of Buddhism . ' 

9 March 1988 - Dr I . Astley-Kristensen, 'Apects of esoteric Bud- 
dhism as reflected in the Prajnaparamita in 150 filokas . ' 

11 May 19«8 - Prrrf.r.H. Barrett, "Kill the patriarchs ! ' 



46 



Buddhist Studies Review, 5, 1 (198H) 



Erf.* These stanzas are recited twice every day in the viharas 
of Sri Lanka where they were originally composed. They constitute 
devotional meditation in that the first recollection strengthens 
one's confidence in the Huddha as supreme teacher and guide; 
the second counters ill will and promotes Eee lings of compassion; 
the third weakens bodily attachment and restrains sensual desire; 
and the fourth emphasises awareness and exertion to util ise the 
advantages of human birth. 

See CaLurarakkha Bhovana . The four protective meditations. 
Pali text and translation by Bhikkhu Bodhi; commentary (by Pelene 
Siri Vajirarlana) translated by P.M. Ka jakarutta . KhLkkhu Training 
Centre, Maharagama 1984. 
**************************************************************** 

* No-one seriously interested in Buddhist teaching or prac- t 
« tice can overlook the work of Nyanaponika Thera, a scholar * 

* with an extraordinary gift of clarifying difficult con- t 

* cepts and making the Theravada intelligible, meaningful * 

* and easily accessible to the Western reader. t 



THE 



VISION 



F 



D H A M H A 



* is an anthology of his writings which first appeared 

> tli rough the Buddhist i'ubl i ca t i on Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka, 

* and apart from eight short essays comprises the following 
. Wheel series: The Worn-out Skin, The Power of Hi ndfu I ness , 

* The Roots of Good and Kv i 1 , The Four Nut i iiaent s of Life, 
* 

* The Threefold Refuge, The Four Sublime States, Anatta 

* and Nibbina. P P ■ x * v - 2t ' ■ 

* 

* CENTURY HUTCHINSON LTD, 

* Brookmount House, 

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4,' 



EKOTTARAGAMA (VII) 

Traduit de la version chinoise par 
Thich Huyen-Vi 

Fascicule quatrieme 

Partie 9 

L'Enfant unique 

1. 'Ainsi al-je entendu. Lorsque le Bouddha , le Bienheureux, 
r^sidait dans le pare d ' Anathapi ndada a Sravasti, il disait a 
ses bhiksu: bhiksu! line mere ayant tin enfant unique, sa pre- 
occupation prlncipale est de reflechir sur la manic re d'eduquer 
son fils pour qu * i 1 devienne un jour un hoiume utile pour la so- 
ciele. Les bhiksu demandaient alors: Nous vous prions, Bien- 
heureux, de bien vouloir nous expliquer votre pensee pour que 
nous puissions benef icier de votre piecieux enseignement . 

Le Bienheureux repondaic. Je vais acc£der a votre demande. 

Alors 6c outez-moi bien et reflechissez bien. Quant aux upasaka, 

2 
on doit suivre 1 exemple de Citra Grhapa t i et de Gaja Kumar a . 

Ces deux personnes sont des laics qui ont tnis leur foi dans le 

Dharraa el ont suivi avec application les ense i gnements . Si l'on 

veut ontrer en religion et porter les trois habits de religieux 

(kasaiya) , on doit prendre exemple sur Sariputra et Maha-Haudgal- 

yayana . Pourquoi? Parce qu'ils ont etudie assiduroent le Dharma, 

n*ont pas commis d'actes reprehensi bles au Dharma ou ebauche 

des tdees contraires a leur conscience. Si par hasard des id6es 

erronees survenaient dans leur reflexion, lis seraient condamnes 

4 
a retourner dans les trois mauvaises voies . 

Si vous vous appliquez a faire du bien, vour rccolterez 
les bonnes consequences dans un proche avenir. C'est pourquoi 
les offrandes pesent tres lourdes car elles peuvent empecher 
les bhiksu d 'atteindre le but vise. Alors, vous ne devez pas 
aimer recevoir les offrandes, si vous y eprouvez deja du plaisir, 
detruisez ce sentiment le plus vite possible. Ayant entendu 
ces paroles du Bouddha, les bhiksu 6taient heureux et les met- 
taient respectueuseraent en pratique. 



A 8 



Buddhist Studies Review, b, 1 (198B) 



2. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu... le Bienheureux disait a ses bhiksu: 
Une upasika a une fille a qui elle voulait donner une education 
parfaite. Alors, elle conseillait a sa fille: 'Hon enfant, si 
til testes dans ton foyer, tu dois prendre exemple sur i'upasika 
Kiu uh'eou to 10 (J$fc&£$L). 'a »>* re Qe Nanda, un disciple 
du Tathlgata. Ma i a si lu veux entrer en religion, tu dois suivre 
1 'exemple des uhiksunl Ksema et ULpa 1 aval na . ' Kn effel, la bhik- 
sunl lisema corame la bhiksunT Utpalauarna aiment etudier le Dhar- 
ma , ne commettent pas de mauvaises actions oo de delits. Celui 
qui a dcs pensees mal honnetes , se vena cundamne dans les trois 
mauvaises voies. Ce Hi i quj lie fait que du bien a autrui, les 
recompenses viendront tot on tard; s'il n'a pas encore accede 
a 1'eveil, il y parviendra plus tard. '"est pourquoi, bhiksu, 
ne prennez pas du plaisir en recevaiH les offrandes car tiles 
pesent lourdes et leur poids n'esl pas facile a aUeger. Halei- 
vous de detruire ce sentiment si vous en eprouvez deja. Ayant 
entendu ces paroles du fiouddha , les bhiksu etaient lieureux et 
les mettaient respectueusement en pratique. 

3 'Ainsi ai-je entendu... le Bi enlieureux disait a ses bhiksu: 
Je n'ai jamais vu quelque chose qui change aussi vite que les 
pensees. II [semhlel difficile de trouver un e*emple, Klles sont 
comrae le singe qui s'agite c ont i nue 1 lament . 11 en est de memo 
des pensees illusoires qui s'orientent dans differ elites direc- 
tions sans pouvoir se stabiliser. II taut done trouver sans 
tarder un moyen pour controller cette agitation. C'est pourquoi, 
6 bhiksu, VOUS devez rendre compte que le profane (.prtha'jjana) 
ne peut pas analyser ses pensees lac i lenient . Kn ce qui vous 
concertie specia lement , vous devez dompter voire pen see , vos idees 
illusoires, poor arrive! au but. Le perfect lonnemenl doit et re 
COntinuel. Ayanc entendu ces paroles du Bouddha , les bhiksu 
etaient lieureux et les inettaient respectueusement en pratique. 

4. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu... le Bienheureux disait a ses bhiksu: 
Toujoitrs comparable aux comportement s agites du singe, les pen- 
sees du profane sont changeanles. C'est pourquoi iL est difficile 
d'analyser les causes, les origines.de la mental ite et des pen- 
sees. Ayant entendu ces paroles du Bouddha , les bhiksu etaient 
heureux et les mettaient respectuesemenf en pratique. 
'_>. 'Ainsi ai je entendu... le Bienheureux disait a ses bhiksu: 



Kkot taragaina VI l 



49 



Le Bi enheur - 
Je vous con=" i lie de 
un homme dont 1 'esprit est con- 



En examinant l'esprit des autres. je me suis rendu coapl ? que 
celui dont les pensees changent a chaque seeonde sera loml.! an* 
a 1'enfer. Pourquoi? Parce que ses mauvaises pensees voi.t rendie 
son esprit malade et le font condamner a 1'enfer 
eux reci tait alors la gatha suivante 
r^flechir sur le fait suivant 
stamment occupe par la col ere , a l'heure de sa more, il ira en 
enfer & cause de son esprit reinpli de pensees malsaines'. 

Bhiksu, vous devez vaincre vos desirs pour qu'ils ne vous 
poussent pas a commettre des actes regret tables . Ayant entendu 
les paroles du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux et les met- 
taient respectueusement en pratique. 

6. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu... le Bienheureux disait a ses bhiksu: 
Je me suis rendu compte aussi, en observant l'esprit d'autrui, 
que celui dont les pensees vont aussi vite que les reflexes d'un 
bras, peut d'une seconde a 1 'autre acceder au royaume du ciel. 
Pourquoi? Parce qu ' i 1 n'a que des pensees nobles. Ainsi les 
bonnes intentions peuvent faire renaitre dans le ciel. Le Bien- 
heureux cltait la gatha suivante: 'Je vous conseille de reflechir 
sur le cas suivant ! Un homme qui ne pense qu ' a faire de bonnes 
actions, a l'heure de sa mort , peut prendre le chemin des celes- 
tes'. 

Bhiksu, ne laissez pas naitre vos desirs illusoires. Ayant 
entendu ces paroles du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux et 
les mettaient respectueusement en pratique. 

7. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu... le Uienheureux disait a ses bhiksu: 
Dans ce bas-monde, je n'ai pas encore eu connaissance de quelque 
chose de parf a i t ement convaincante ni tout a fait incroyable : 
L'ttre huraain est troupe par ses illusions qui l'empecneni de 
trouver la serenite. 11 est ligote par des contraint.es inextri- 
cables, et il lui est impossible de s'en defaire. Prenons le 
cas de 1 'homme, une fois sue combe a la beaute d 'une femine: il 
sombre dans la passion, sa pensee est obscurcie par cet amour. 
Desormais, il ne pourra plus trouver la serenite de l'esprit. 
II est dans une prison oil il lui est impossible de s'en echapper. 
En effet, cet amour va le poursuivre d'une vie a 1 'autre et lui 
faire renattre sans cesse dans les cinq voies du Samsara. 



5il 



Buddhist Studies Review, 5, 1 [1988) 



Le Bienheureux recitait la gatha suivante: 

La langue de 1 'I tide est une langue tres subtile ; 

Les paroles du Bouddha sont difficiles a comprendre. 

Mais essayez parfois de ies comprendre. 

Rap pel ez -vous constamment 

Qu'il ne faut pas entrer en relation avec une femme 

Ou vous n ' atteindr iez jamais 1'eveil. 

Bhiksu, combattez vos passions, ne laissez pas naltre vos 
desirs illusoires, vous devez vous perf ec t ionner de fagon rigour- 
euse. Ayant entendu ces paroles du Bouddha, Its bhiksu etaient 
heureux et les mettaient respectueusement en pratique. 

8. Ainsi ai-je entendu... le Bienheureux disait a ses bhiksu: 
De la meme maniere, la femme attiree par les charmes de l'homme, 
en devient amoureuse. Son esprit est occupe par cette passion 
et ne parviendra jamais A l'ultime serenite. Elie sera a jamais 
emprisonnee dans cet amour et condamnee a naltre et renaTtre 
indefinlroent dans les cinq voies du Samsara . 

Le Bienheureux recitait cette gatha: 

L ' amour-passion est un sentiment bouleversant et alienant. 
Ne le laissez pas naftre et ne cominettez pas ces actes 

[profanes . 

Bhiksu, combattez vos passions, ne les laissez pas naltre 

et entreprenez votre perf ect ionnement avec assiduite. Ayant 

entendu ces paroles du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux el 
les mettaient respectueusement en pratique. 

9. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu... le Bienheureux disait a ses bhiksu: 
En tout chose, au debut le desir passionnel n'existait pas, puis 
il s'£veille, des lors il augmente ses exigences. De mgme , la 
colere n'avait pas d 'existence , elle est nee et accrolt tout 
de suite son intensite, L ' engourd issement ne se man i f estait 
pas encore, puis il debute et se developpe de plus en plus. 
De la meme maniere se deroulent la naissance et la croissance 
du raisonnment errone, du doute, des pensees illusoires et des 
idees perverses. C'est pourquoi , bhiksu, vous devez faire bien 
attention pour ne pas laisser naltre ces pensees alienantes et 
vouz devez mediter sur leur vrale racine. Ayant entendu ces 
paroles du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux et les mettaient 



i%kotl ,ir 



51 



respect ueusement. on pratique. 

10. 'Ainsi ai je entendu... le Bien,. ?ureu» disait a ses bhiksu: 
Ne laissez pas naftre le di'Sir passionnel. B'il est ut>, vous 
devez essayer de 1'efeindre a tout prLx. Adoptez cetic ferae 
attitude envers la colore, le i j i sonnement errone, le doute, 
etc... Bhiksu, vous devex mediter ass idurnent sur les pensees 
impure s . 

Ayant entendu ces precieux conseils du Tathagata, les bhiksu 
etaient heureux et les mettaient respectueusement en pratique.' 

Fasicule qua tri erne 

Hartie 10 

La protection de la pensee U-i <- 1. a nutaksa ) 

1. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Lorsque le Bouddha, le Bienheureux, 
residait dans le pare d ' Anathapindada a Sravastl, il conseillait 
a ses bhiksu: bhiksu! En quoi consiste la diligence (aprami- 
dj)'{ C'est la protection de la pensee . A tout instant, vous 
devez etre conscients des influences mauvaises (ay.rava) qui vous 
animent el des passions qui vous alienenl encore. Vous devez 
pratiquer sans vous laisser aller, sans negligence. Selon vos 
propres c a pa cites, vous devez poursuivre cette ligne de conduite 
avec perseverance. Quand vous aurez pu vous opposer aux influen 
ces mauvaises, a vos passions, vous atteindrez le merveilleux 
Sveil , vous obtiendrez la parfaite concentration. 

Bhiksu, si vous reussisiez a erapScher le so if des plaisirs 
des sens { kamijtirava ) , le desir de l'existence ( 2>fiav<3sra va ) et 
la mauvaise influence de 1' ignorance (ai'idyasrava) non encore nes 
de naftre. et a eliminer tous, le soif, le desir, la mauvaise 
influence - deja nes avec application en connaissant vos propres 
possi bi li tes , vous vous delivreriez de tous ces maux et vous 
obtiendriez la connaissance supreme, la purete et la fin du cycle 
de renaissance dans un corps irapur. 

Le Bienheureux recitait la gatha suivante: 

La diligence est le chemin de 1 ' i mmorta lite 1 , 
L ' insouc iance est le chemin de la mort . 
l.es gens diligents ne meurent pas; 



I i 



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Buddhist. Studies Review, 



1 ( 1 y a h ) 



Ekottaragama VII 



53 



t 1 , ! 



g 

Les gens insouciants ressembl ent a la mort . 

Bhtksu, vous devez r^flechir au devenir de votre pratique 
du Dharma et ne vous laissez pas etre tent.es par la paresse. 
Ay ant entendu ces paroles du Bouddha , les bhiksu etaient heureux 
et les mettaient respectueuseraent en pratique. 

2 . 'Ainsi ai-je entendu... le Bienheureux disait a ses bhiksu: 
Que veut dire se perf ec t ionner avec diligence? Cela consiste 
;i ne pas troubler tous les Stres sensibles, ni a leur nuir, a 
observer les bonnes conduites, c'est A dire 1 ' engagement dans 
le noble chemin A huit branches qui comporte les hull categories 
suivantes : 

1. la vue corrects (samyafcdrsti ) ; 

2. la conception correcte (samyaAsamAa 1 pa ) ; 

3. la parole correcte (samyaivifak); 

U. l'action correcte (samuakfca rmanta ) ; 

5. la maniere de vivre correcte (samyag&j 7va ) ; 

6. l'effort correct (sarayay vyayjima ) ; 

7. l'attention correcte (ssngatsurti); 

B. la concentration correcte (samyaksamadh i ) . 

Le Bienheureux recitait alors la gatha suivante: 

La distribution de l'argent a tous les ttres sensibles 
N'equivaut pas la propagation du Dharma qui delivra 
L'esprit de tous soucis et qui apporte le bonhour eternel 
Celui qui connalt de facon penetrante le [Jharma est 
definitive me nt delivre de sa souffrance, 

Bhiksu, vous devez appliquer les bonnes conduites du noble 
chemin a huit branches. Ayant entendu ces paroles du Bouddha, 
les bhiksu etaient heureux et les mettaient respec tueusement 
en prat i que . 

i . 'Ainsi ai-je entendu... le Bienheureux posail ensuite cette 
question a ses disciples: Quelle est votre attitude envers les 
genereux donateurs (danapstui)? 

Les bhiksu repondaient: 5 Bienheureux, c'est la le point 
capital. Nous vous prions de bien vouloir nous l'expliquer pour 
que nous puissions le pratiquer par la suite. 

Le Bienheureux disait alors: Ecoutez-moi bien et reflechls- 



sez bien sur ce que je vais vous expliquer. Vous devez a vos 

gfinereux donateurs un profond respect comparable a celui d'un 

fils pour ses parents. Vous devez vous occuper d'eux de telle 

9 
sorte qu'lls tirent profit de leurs cinq aggregats (skandha) 

en ce bas monde; qu'ils deviennent des personnes cultivees, sages 
et lucides. Cette condulte vous sera benefique au sein des 
Trois Joyaux. Ces bienfaiteurs vous ont offerl des vetements, 
de la nourriture, des medicaments, de la literie, etc. C'est 
pourquoi vous leur devez de la reconnaissance aussi bien pour 
les petites que les importantes offrandes. Vous depensere?. toutes 
vos forces pour leur inculquer, sans telSche, le Dharraa pour 
qu'ils obtiennent la sCrenite de l'esprit, la purete du corps, 
de la parole et de la pensGe; pour qu'ils puissent agir, parler 
et penser dans un esprit de compassion. Grace a cela les offran- 
des de ces bienfaiteurs ne seront pas perdues et se transfcrmer- 
ont en felicile, en bonheur , en immorta 1 i te (antrta) qui vont 
se repandre dans le monde entier. Bhiksu, c'est ainsi que vous 
devez vous comporter. 

Le Bienheureux resumait son enseignement dans cette gStha: 

De cette maniere ces offrandes deviendront des richesses 

inestimables qu'aucun rol ni aucun bandit peut deroher . 
Ces olfrandes permettent aux bienfaiteurs d'acceder au 
trone du Roi uuiversel, celui qui propage le Dharma, 
celui qui possede les sept joyaux. 
Elles leur permettent d'acceder au ciel, de porter des 
couronnes serties de pierres precieuses , de se divert ir 
au son de la musique divine, 
Elles leur offrcnt la possibility de devenir le puissant 

roi des celestes tant admire. 
Elles leur donnent les trente-deux beaux marques physiques 

d'un propagateur du Dharma. 
Tous ces bonheurs sont dus aux offrandes. 

Ayant entendu ces paroles du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient 
heureux et les mettaient respectueusement en pratique. 
4. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu... le Bienheureux demandait aux bhiksu: 
Comment les genereux bienfaiteurs doivent-ils faire leurs offran- 
des et comment doivent-ils s'y prendre pour progresser dans la 
formation spirituelle? 



1 



54 



Buddhist Studies Review, 5, 1 (1988) 



Kkottaragama 



55 



Les bhiksu r^pondaient: C'est un des ces points impottants 
que nous vous prions de bien vouloir nous eclairer. 

Le Bienheureux expliquait: Les bienfaiteurs font des offran- 
des aux predlcateurs , aux bhiksu, a ceux qui ont trouve la lu- 
mlere dans le Dharma. lis offrent la nourriture a ceux qui en 
ont besoin, la quietude a ceux qui sont dans l'anxiete. la joie 
a ceux qui ont du chagrin, un abri aux sans-logis, la lumi^re 
aux aveugles, des medicaments aux malades. lis sont comparables 
aux agriculteurs qui font des travaux d ' assa i ni ssement pour am£li- 
orer leurs terres. Bhiksu, c'est ainsi que 1 ' on doit se perfec- 
tionner pour surmonter les cinq aggr£gats afln d'acceder au Nir- 
vana , 

Le notable Anathapi ndada qui se trouvalt dans l'assemblee 
s'adressait au Bienheureux: Bienheureux, comme vous l'avez 
explique, celui qui fait des offrandes et celui qui les recoit 
sont comparables a une vase qui ne contient que de bonnes choses. 
Ceux qui resolvent les dons sont comparables aux parents qui 
encouragent les bonnes actions de leurs enfants. lis sont aussi 
de bons amis dans les vies poster ieures . Celui qui donne comme 
celui qui recoit sont des bouddhistes pratiquants. - Le Bienheur- 
eux repondait: C'est exactement cela. - Le notable Anathapindada 
continuait: A partir de maintenant, nous devons subvenir aux 
besoins des bhiksu, des bhiksunl, des upasaka et des upasika . 
Nous vous prions, le Bienheureux et les bhiksu, d' accepter nos 
propositions . 

Le Bienheureux acquiescait: Nous les acceplons de bon coeur . 
Le Notable se prosternait alors, puis se levait pour marcher 
trois fois autour du Bouddha pour manifester son respect et re- 
venait ensuite a sa place. 

Un jour, ce dernier preparait un fastueux repas, arrangea 
les places et invita respectueusement le Bienheureux a venix 
chez lui . Le Bienheureux, entoure de tous ses disctples correc- 
tement ve"tus, tous munis de leur bol aux aumones, se rendaient 
chez le Notable dans la ville de Sravasti. Chacun prit place 
selon son rang. Une fois le Bouddha et ses disciples bien in- 
stalles, Anathapindada venait personnellement leur servir les 
plats. Le repas termine, les accessoires ranges, Anathapindada 
s 'asseyait derrlere les bhiksu et priait le Bienheureux: Tathagata , 



permettez-moi, ainsi que ma famille, d'offrir a vous et aux bhik- 
su les trois vetements des religieux, le bol aux aumones, les 
accessoires pour s'asseoir et toutes les autres choses dont vous 
avez besoin quot idienneraent . 

Le Bienheureux s'adressait alors aux bhiksu: Je vous permets 
d'accepter les choses qui vous manquent , lais ne laissez pas 
naftre vos envies. 

Pour remercier le notable Anathapindada, le Bienheureux don- 
nait un ense i gnement sur le Dharma avant de se retirer aves ses 
d isc iples . 

Anathapindada se rendit ensuite aux quatre pones de la ville, 
au marche, pour combler les besoins des necessiteux. II en fais- 
ait de m€me pour ceux qui se rendaient chez lui. H donnait 
ce qu'on lui reclamait: de la nourriture, des medicaments, des 
vehicules, de l'encens, des perles, etc. 

Ayant entendu parler de cela, le Bienheureux dit a ses dis- 
ciples: De tous mes upasaka, le premier de ceux qui aiment prati- 
quer la liberalite est le notable Anathapindada, Ayant entendu 
ces paroles du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux et les raettai- 
ent respectueusement en pratique. 

5. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu... le Notable rendait visite au Bienheur- 
eux, le saluait respectueusement et s'asseyait a ses pieds. 

Le Bienheureux lui disait: Ainsi vous avez distribue des 
vivres aux pauvres? 

Anathapindada repondait: Oui, 6 Bienheureux, j'aide souvent 
les pauvres aux quatre portes de la viLle et a mon domicile. 
Souvent je souhaite pouvoir aider tous les etres vivants sans 
penser qu ' i 1 faut donner plus ic i et moins la-bas . Je pense 
aussi que tous les etres vivants ont besoin de manger pour vivre. 
S'ils n'ont rien & manger, lis mourirront. 

Le Bienheureux repondait: C'est ties bien, c'est ties 
genereux de votre part. Vous pratiques la liberalite dans le 
ftSne esprit que les bodhisattva . Vous recevrez de tres grands 
merits pour vos actes. Votre nom sera connu et immortalise dans 
les dix directions de ce monde . Pourquoi? Parce que les bodhi- 
sattva viennent en aide aux autres dans un esprit d'equite. 
lis subviennent aux besoins de tous les St res sensibles pour 



— » 



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Buddhist Studies Review, 5, 1 (1988) 



Kkot tai agaraa "" J I 



■>7 



: I 



ne pas les lalsser mourtr de faim. 

Le Blenheureux recltait la gatha suivante: 

Quand on vienl en aide a tout le monde 

Sans le moindre TeRreL dans le coeui , 

On rencontrera de bons amis 

Qui vous aideront h attelndre 1 'autre rive. 

Noble Ana t hapindada , vous devez toujours avoir cet esprit 
d'equile dans votre pratique de la liberal it*. Ay ant emend u 
ces paroles du Bouddha, le Notable etait heureux et les mettait 
respec t uousemeni en pratique. 

6. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu... le Bienheureux se reiournait vers 
les bhiksu en disant: Hoi qui connais les causes et la raison 
de la venue de I ' homme en ce bas monde, je sais aussi les bonnes 
consequences d'un acte de liberalite, le plus petit qu'il soit , 
par exemple: une poignee de tiz qu ' on s'abstienl de manger pour 
l'offrir a une autre personne qui en a plus besoin que soi . 

Si 1'on pratiquait la liberalite dans cet esprit d'equite 
les resultats seraient parfaits. Mais ma 1 heureusemenl, la plupart 
de temps, la cupidite et la jalousie obscure issent l'esprit hu- 
main et rendent inefficace l'acte de liberalite. 

Le Bienheureux res u ma it son enseigne merit dans cette gatha: 

I. 'enseignement du Tathagata encourage la pratique equit- 
able de \a liberalite et endue a tous les e-tres vi van t s . 

Cette action va apporter beaucoup de recompenses, de 
bonheur et pourra conduire ensuite son auteur vers le 
Nirvana . 

L'acte de liberalite ouvre l'esprit et le coeur. 

A 1 ' heure de la mort, la renaissance au monde celeste 
sera certaine . 

Dans ce monde merveilleux ou rien ne manque, la paix et 
la serenite de l'esprit y sont acquises. 

Tous ces bonheurs sont obtenus grace a la pratique d'une 
liberalit* Equitable. 

Ayant entendu ces paroles du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient 
heureux et les mettaient respectueusenient en pratique. 

7. Ainsi ai-je entendu... le Bienheureux disait a ses bhiksu: 



Bhiksu , n 'ayez pas peur de recevoir en retour les recompenses 
dues aux bonnes actions. Riles se presentent sous la forme d'un 
etat de paix et de serenite interieure. Vous devez plut it crain- 
dre de ne pas obtenir cette felicite car les souffrances, 1 'in- 
quietude, l'anxi^te sont innombrables - Celui qui n'a pas obtenu 
ces recompenses n'aura pas cette paix interieure. 

Je me rappelle une fois, j'avais mis en application l'esprit 
de la compassion durant sept ans . Comme recompense, je ne suis 
plus retourne en ce bas monde pendant sept periodes cosmiques 
(Jtalpa) et j 'ai vecu sept autres periodes cosmiques dans le monde 
des dieux Abhasvara , dans les sept periodes cosmiques suivantes 
dans le monde du Maha-Brahma et je dirigeais des milliers d'autres 
nondes. J'avais repris trente-six fois la forme du roi des deva 
et, dans une multitude de mondes, j'etais un roi universel (cakza- 
vartin) ou je regnais au service de la propagation du Dharma . 
C'est pourquoi, bhiksu, vous devez faire du bien sans relache 
et n'ayez pas peur de recevoir les merites qui en resulteront. 
N'oubliez surtout pas que les racines de la souffrance sont mul- 
tiples et sont a l'origine de la perte de la serenite interieure. 

Le Bienheureux resumait son enseignement dans cette gatha: 



1 L 



La felicite est tres precieuse, 

Si vous voulez, vous pouvez 1 ' obtenir . 

En atteignant le stade de Nirodhasamapat t i 

Vous parviendrez a l'etat du Non-agir, et 

Durant neuf cent milles periodes, les devaputra 

Mara ne pourront pas vous perturber grace a vos merites . 

Si vous souhaitez de toutes vos forces parvenir a la sa- 
gesse en detruisant toutes formes de souffrances, vous 
n'auriez plus d'inquietude dans l'avenir. 

Bhiksu, vous devez faire de bonnes actions sans relSche et 
vous appliquer a la pratique . Ayant entendu ces paroles 

du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux et les mettaient respectu- 
•usement en pratique. 

B, "Ainsi ai-je entendu... le Bienheureux disait a ses bhiksu: 
Je me rappelle 1 ' epoque ou j'etais assis sous l'arbre de l'Eveil 
avec les bodhisattva . A cette occasion les Hara ont rassemble 
leurs troupes par milliers constitutes d'e"tres ayant differents 
■spects, par exemple: des individus ayant une t§te d'animale 



5 8 



Buddhist Studies Review, 5, 1 (1988) 



Ekottaragama VII 



59 



et un corps humaiti, des dragons, des genies, des esprits, des 
serpents -g£nies (mahaiaya), des Asura , des oiseaux -genies (garutia) 
etc. l.es Mara sont venus me dire cecj: 'Ascefe, vous allez ?tre 
vaincu'. J'ai du eiiployer Loiite la force de mes meriles pour 
vaincte mes fantasmes, mes passions, pour me delivrer des con- 
traintes afin de parvenlr a la parfaite conna i ssance de la verite. 
Bhiksu, vous devez reflechir a ce fail. Si vous possediez de 
grands merites, les Mara ne pourraioni pas del r u i re vos efforts. 
be ou t ez ccttc gat ha : 

Si vous possediez des merites ( puny *j ) vous vivrez dans 

la f el ic i te . 
Si vous n 'en aviez pas vous seriez malheureux. 
Dans cette vie et dans les prochaines vies, 
T3chez de faire du bien pour pouvoir recueillir du bonheur . 

Rhiksu, progresses toujours dans tetle voie du Bien. Ayant 
entendu ces paroles du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux et. 
les mettaient respec t ueusement en pratique. 

4. ' A i n s i ai-.je entendu... le Bienheureux disait a ses bhiksu; 
Que sign if ie perseverer dans la voie du Bien? Ceci design e la 
volonte de poursuivre le memo object if avec foi et confiance 
jusqu'a 1'ultLme but: la realisation de I 'attention currecte. 
C'esr ainsi que vous parviendrez au Nirvana. Reflechissez hi en 
a eel a et cherchez a decouvrir les racines du Bien. Ay ant enten- 
du ces paroles du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux et les 
mettaient re spec l ueusement en pratique. 

10. 'Ainsi si— Je entendu... le BLenheureux disait a ses bhiksu: 
Si vous voyez en ce bas monde quelqu'un qui a vecu longtemps, 
qui a rendu de grands services a I'huraanite, qui possede un beau 
physique, de lui se degagent line "grande energ i e , une forte person- 
nalite, qui a la parole douce et gentille ainsi qu'une grande 
felicite, 11 est surement le Tar.hagata ayant decouvert l'ultime 
verite et l'Eveil parf ait . 

Bhiksu, vous devez vour orientcr r emolument vers la comm£mora 
tion du Bouddha ( Buddha nusmrr. i ) et perse verez pour atteindre 
le but f ina 1 . 

Ayant entendu ces paroles du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient 
heureux et les mettaient respect ueusement en pratique.' 



NOTES 



Voir T2, 56ZalO et suiv. 



2 Voir BSR IV, 1, p. 58, notes 13, 14. Quant a Gaja Kumara { ^L - ^ 3* • T ' orl & 
toeu), on ne trouve aucuoe indication de son Identite. 

1 Voir BSR II, 1-2. p. 46, n.22. 

* Les trois mauvaises voies: voie de ] 'enter, celle des demons et celle des 

aniraaux , 

5 Cinq voles de la renaissance: voie du ciel, de l'humain, des demons (ou 
preta), des animaux et de 1* enter. 

6 Voir T2 563cl5-16. Cf . la citation de l'EA dans l'original Sanskrit dans 
rAbhidharmakosabhasya, ed. Pradhan. Patna 1967, 1975, pp. 55, 8: [apramadall 
cstasa arakseti. Cf. aussi La Vallee Poussin. L'Abhidtiannakoia , Chapitre 
II, p. 157, note 3. Cette citation de l'EA se trouve egalement dans L'Abhi- 
dharnakosauylkya (ed. Wogihara), 128, 26. 

' Ici il n'y a reference qu'a trois asrava , qui correspondent aux asava du 
pill (cf. Nyanatlloka, Buddhist Diet i cna ry , p. 23) sauf drstyasrava , la mau- 
vaise influence des vues. 

En fait, cette stance corTesponde a Dhp 1. 

8 La reference ici indiquc les avantages tirees de la naissance parmi les 
itres humains (la meilleure de toutes les formes d' existence ) . 

II s'agit probablemont d'une interpolation mahayiniste. 

11 Le Nirodtiasamapatti ou 'recueillement s' appelant 1' arret de la sensation 
•t de la notion'. Voir La Vallee Poussin, L'Abhidhaimakosa , II, 213. 

11 Mara: des mauvais esprits du nonde du desir (kamadhatu) qui sont destines 
■ contrecarrer les efforts de perfectionnement des sages. 



138 Buddhist Studies Review 5, 2 (1988) 



40 „ 

Translations of fragments of the Vinaya of the MalasarvHstivSdlns in II 

trcno di diamante. Bar! 1967. 

4L 

Co-editorship of The digit Manuscript of the Sanghabhedavastu , 2 vols,, 

Rome 1977-8; R. Gnoll, ed., The digit Manuscript of the Sayanasanavastu and 

the Adhikaranavastu , Rone 1978 (Publications of the Department of Archaeology 

of Pakistan and of the Istituto Italiano per 11 Medio ed Estremo Orlente), 

42 

The colophon has been preserved in T 2145 x 75b. Demieville, art. cit . , 

p. 383, n.4. See also Traite III, pp.xlv-xlvi. 

43 

See £. Lamotte, 'Les sources scrlptualres lie l'Upades'a et leurs valeurs 

respectives' , Cahiers d 'Extreme-Asie 2, Kyoto 1986, pp. 1-15, 

Hubert Durt 
Edit or- in-chief, 'Hoboqirin' 
Ecole franfais d ' Extreme-Orient , Kyoto 



139 



EKOTTARnGftMA (VIII) 

craduit de la version chinoise par 

Thich Huy€n-Vi 

Fascicule cinqul^me 
Partie 11 

Sans attendre 

1. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Larsque le Bouddha , le Bienheureux, 
residait dans le pare d* Anathaplndada a Sravastl. il disait a 
sea bhiksu: Vous devez detruire votre desir et je vous donnerai 
1'attesta'tion d'atteindre le stade d ' Anigamin. Quel est ce 
desir? C'est la luxure. Le Bouddha recitait ensuite cette gathl": 

En se cramponant a la luxure 

Les humains tombent dans le mauvais chemin. 

S'lls pouvaient eliminer cette passion 

Le stade d'Anagamin seralt leur realisation. 

Ayant entendu ces conseils du Tathagata, les hhiksu etaient 
heureux et les mettaient respectueusement en pratique. 

2. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu... le Bienheureux disait a ses hhiksu; 
Bhiksu, vous atteignez aussi ce stade si vous pouvlez detruire 
la colere. En effet: 

En se laissant entrainer par la colere 
Les humains tombent dans le mauvais chemin. 
S'ils pouvaient eteindre le feu de la colere 
lis accederaient au stade d'Anagamin. 

Ayant entendu ces conseils du Tathagata, les bhiksu etaient 
heureux et les mettaient respectueusement en pratique, 
3. 'Ainsi al-je entendu... le Bienheureux disait a ses bhiksu; 
Bhiksu, vous atteignez aussi ce stade d'AnagSmin, si vous pouviez 
ellminer 1'ignorance. En effet: 

En se laissant entrainer par 1'ignorance 

Les humains tombent dans le mauvais chemin. 

Pour l'eliminer, s'ils avalent la perseverance 

lis realiseraient le stade d'Anagamin. 



140 



Buddhist Studies Review 5, 2 (1988) 



Ayant entendu ces conseils du Tathagata, les bhiksu etaient 
heureux et les mettaient respectueusement en pratique. 

4. 'Alnsl ai-je entendu... le Bienheureux disait a ses bhiksu: 
Bhiksu. vous atteignez aussi ce stade d ' Anagamln , si vous pouviez 
enlever 1'avarice de votre coeur. Paree que: 

En ayant toujours d' avarice 

Les huaains tombent dans le mauvals chemin. 

S'ils s ' acharnaient a la supprimer 

lis parviendraient au stade d 'Anagamln . 

Ayant entendu ces conseils du Tathagata, les bhiksu etaient 
heureux et les mettaient respectueusement en pratique. 

5. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu.,. le Bienheureux disait a ses bhiksu: 
Bhiksu, conrae vous au debut, je n'arrivals pas A dominer un fait 
que j'ai subl au cours du temps et lequel ne m'apportait que 
souff ranee: c'est la pensee [ illusoire ] . C'est pourquoi vous 
devez 1 ' ident ifier , l'analyser pour distinguer l'origine du bon 
et du bien. PrStez done bien attention a ce point precis. 

Ayant entendu ces conseils du Tathagata, les bhiksu etaient 
heureux et les mettaient respectueusement en pratique. 

6. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu... le Bienheureux disait a ses bhiksu: 
Bhiksu, comme vous au debut, je n'apercevais pas le moyen de 
convaincre facilenent la pensee [illusoire] et d'obtenir de bonnes 
recompenses. Reflechlssez bien sur ce point pour discerner les 
bonnes causes qui vous donneront de bans effets. 

Ayant entendu ces conseils du Tathagata, les bhiksu etaient 
heureux et les mettaient respectueusement en pratique. 

7. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu... le Bienheureux disait a ses bhiksu: 
S il y avait quelqu'un parmi vous qui commencait a reflechir 
puis repandait ses paroles aberrantes, je le saurais immediate- 
ment. A d'autres occasions, par la meditation, Je pourrai savoir 
aussi s'il faisalt part de ses id6es a d'autres personnes. 

Bhiksu, la cupidite est une passion tres difficile a abandon- 

ner. Elle peut vous mener par la suite vers les trois mauvais 

2 
chemins et vous ne parviendrez jamais au niveau de 1 ' Incondition- 

ne (asamskrta). C'est pourquoi ceiui d'entre vous qui a cette 

passion, doit s'en debarrasser immediatement . Celui qui n'en 



Ekottaragama VIII 



141 






a pas encore ne doit pas la laieser nattre. Faites-en tres at- 
tention. 

Ayant entendu ces conseils du Tathagata, les bhiksu etaient 
heureux et les mettaient respectueusement en pratique. 
8 'Ainsi ai-je entendu... le Bienheureux dis'ait I ses bhiksu: 
Bhiksu. s'll y -ait quelqu'un parmi vous qui avait l" intention 
de se suiclder ou qui ne voulait plus tester dans la conrn-unaut* 
et repandait ses paroles aberrantes, je le saurais 
k d'autres moments, par la meditation., je pourrais me rendre 

i a* i a naissance de ses desirs. de sa cupidite, de 
compte aussi de la naissance 

la propagation de son esprit capricieux. 

I'ortUM pas que la convoitise est un sentiment tre. diffi- 
cile a vous debarrasser. Elle vous entrainera vers les trois 
mauvais chemins et vous empichera de parvenir au niveau de 1 In- 
conditionn., Celui d'entre vous qui a cette manie dolt 1 abandon- 
„er immedlatement . Celui qui n'en a pas encore ne la laisse 
pas naltre. Examinez bien cette question. 

Ayant entendu ces conseils du Tathagata, les bhiksu talent 
heureux et les mettaient respectueusement en pratique. 
9 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois le Tathagata residait A Raja- 
grha dans le jardin be bamboo Kalanda [k.nlv.p. ] avec ses 500 
disciples. II leur demandait ceci: Bhiksu. qui entre vous pense 
oue Devadatta 3 est innocent ou bien qu'il a commis des fautes 
t^ilebil- a expier durant plusiers kalpa? Selon notre Dnarma , 
je n'ai pas vu la moindre bonne action aussie petite qu,un grain 
de sable, au nom de Devadatta. A cause de cela. aujourd hui 
je vais vous relater l'origine de ses fautes et pourquoi elles 
BO nt irreparable*. Prenez 1'exemple d'un homme t o»b* d.n. un 
fosse d'excrement. Tout son corps en est i^pregn,. Quelqu un 
a voulu le sauver. le ramener vers un endroit salubre. Mais 
en 1'examinant Men, II s'est aper.u que 1'accldente est tr*s 

. -„i = Tl lui dit alors: J'aurais alme vous 
sale, completement sale. 11 iul alt 

titer de 14. Hals 11 a'est impossible de le faire. Ainsi dit. 
11 s'en va. 

II en est de mSme pour Devadatta que pour les autres ignor- 
ant* qui ne prennent pas conscience du bien. Us seront plonges 
dans le mal durant des kalpa sans pouvoir s'en sortir. Pourquoi? 



142 



Buddhist Studies Review 5, 2 (1988) 



C'est parce que Devadatta est ignorant. II est ebloui par le 
profit. U a commis [quelques-unes] des cinq graves fautes*. 
A sa mort. il renaltra dans l'un des trois mauvais chemlns. 
II en est ainsi, bhiksu : Les grands profits n'apportent pas le 
bonheur a 1'horame. Celui d'entre vous qui souhaite en avoir 
la jouissance. doit abandonner cette idee. Celui qui n'en a 
pas encore ne la laisse pas nattre. 

Ayant entendu ces conseils du Tathagata, les bhiksu etaient 
heureux at les raettaient respec tueusement en pratique, 

10. Ainsi al-je entendu... le Tathagata residait... avec ses 
500 disciples. Un des bhiksu ayant entendu le Tathagata confir- 
mer la condamnation sans appel d'un kalpa d' expiation pour Deva- 
datta se dirigeait vers Ananda et s'asseyait a ses cdtes. II 
demandait a Ananda: Pourquoi le Tathagata evoque-t-il d'abord 
les fautes de Devadatta avant d'annoncer sa condamnation a un 
kalpa d 'expiation? II faut avoir un motif pour le condamner. 
- Ananda repondait: Le Bouddha ne commet jamais d'erreur. Les 
acres accomplls par son corps et sa bouche sont les ratines. Le 
Bouddha annonce tres justenient la condamnation de Devadatta a 
un kalpa d'expiation de ses graves fautes. - Ananda se dirigeait 
vers le Bouddha, se pxosternait devant lui, se redressait et 
lui disait: Blenheureux, il y a un bhiksu qui se pose la ques- 
tion suivante: Pourquoi le Tathagata evoque-t-il d'abord les 
fautes de Devadatta avant d'annoncer sa condamnation a un kalpa 
d'expiation? Y-a-t'il un motif pour cette condamnation? - Le 
Bouddha repondait: Ce bhiksu est nouvellement admis dans notre 
communaute. Tout ce que le Tathagata dit est vrai . Pourquoi 
en doute-t-il? - Le Bouddha demanda a Ananda de lui amener ce 
bhiksu pour lui donner des explications. Ananda s*en allait 
executer l'ordre. Le bhiksu rectifiait l'ordre de son habit 
puis accompagnait Ananda Jusqu'a la place du Bouddha. se proster- 
nait et prenait place a ses c6tes. Le Bouddha lui disait alors 
ceci: Pourquoi Stes-vous si obtus pour douter ainsi la parole 
du Bouddha? Ce que le TathSgata dit est toujours vrai. Vous 
voulez chercher quelques def alliances de ses mots. - le bhiksu 
repondait: Le bhiksu Devadatta a du prestige et de l'autorite. 
Pourquoi le condamnez-vous a un kalps d'expiation de ses fautes? 
- Le Bouddha repondait: Bhiksu, faltes attention a vos paroles 
"sinon vous supporterez des souff ranees interminables . - Le Bouddha 



Ekottaragana VIII 



143 



recitalt la gatha suivante: 

La connalssance mondaine n'apporte pas la liberation 
finale ni 1 'extinction des passions, par contre elle 
peut envoyer l'individu en enfer. 
Si j 'avals vu chez Devadatta le moindre signe de bonte je 
n'aurais jamais annonce sa condamnation a un kalpa d'expiation. 
Quant au motif, le void: Devadatta est ignorant, cuplde, et 
a commis [quelques-unes 1 des cinq graves fautes. A sa mort il 
sera echu en enfer. Pourquoi? Parce que la cupidite detruit 
les germes du bien chez 1'homme et 1'empiche de parvenir au Nir- 
vana. C'est pourquoi. bhiksu. ne la laisse pas nattre. 

Le bhiksu qui avait pose la question se levait . reetifiait 
ses habits puis se prosternait devant le Bouddha en dlsant: 6 
Blenheureux, je suis un repent! et a pattir de maintenant je 
ra'efforceral de me perf ectionner . J ' implore votre pardon pour 
mon ignorance et mes doutes vis-a-vis de vos paroles. - II repe- 
tait cette priere trois fois de suite. Le Bouddha lui repondait: 
C'est bien. Je pardonne votre erreur . A partir de maintenant 
6tez les doutes de votre esprit. - Le Tathagata citait la gathS 
suivante : 

Le repenti efface une grave faute. 
Celui qui observe la moralite {Alia) peut 
extraire les racines de ses fautes. 
Ce bhiksu ainsi que tons les autres acceptaient tous les 
conseils du Bouddha et promettalent de bien les appliquer.' 

NOTES 



1 Voir T2, 566bl et suiv . 

2 Voir BSR V. 1. p. 59, n.4. 

3 Devadatta -Halt un cousin et disciple du Bouddha. Hals il voulait supprl- 
ner ce dernier pour prendre sa place. Sur Devadatta, avec references a routes 
le sources pali qui le concerned, voir Malalasekera, Dictionary of PSli Proper 
Names I. pp. 1106-11. Voir aussi, E. Lamotte, fraite II. PP .B6B-77. se refer- 
ral exhaustlvement aux oeuvres Sanskrit et a celles conserves dans le canon 
chinois. 



144 



Buddhist Studies Review 5, 2 (1988) 



Les cinq graves fautes ou 'peches inantarya ' sont : tuer son pere, tuer 
sa m6re, tuer un Arhar , detruire 1'unioci du Sangha, blesser un Bouddha. En 
effet Devadatta a coromis trols pethes inantarya: a) le schisme, b) blessure 
infligee au Buddha, c) blessure mortelle infligee a une Arhati - Lamotte, 
Ibid., pp. 873-5. Cf. aussi Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary, 
p. 95 f. 

traduction francaise avec 
1 'aide du Bhiksu Tri-Bo 



INSTITUT BELGE POUR L ' ETUDE 

DU BOUDDHISME (IBEB) 

(Belgian Institute for Buddhist Studies) 

60 rue Entre-deux-Thiers, B-5200 Huy , Belgium 

organise chaque annee les cours de 
organizes each year the courses listed below 

chinois avance: 60 heures par an 
Advanced Chinese: 60 periods p. a. 

histoire du Bouddhlsme : 15 heures par an 
History of Buddhism: 15 periods p. a. 

Autres cours sur demande/other optional courses 



Les cours recomraenceront en octobre 1988, a l'adresse 
suivante/The courses will resume in October 1988, at 
the following address: 

15 rue des Croisiers, B-4000 Liege (Belgium), 

Institut . . , de . , . Recherches Bibliotheconomiques { IPERB) , 
3eme etage / 3rd floor 

L'IBEB publie la revue / The IBEB publishes the review 
T R I Y. a N A 
(2 numeros par an/bi-annual (in French)) 
Comite / Board 

- President/Chairman: J. DANTINNE, 35 rue Lamblnon, 

B- 4000 Liege, Belgium 

- Secretaire/Secretary: P. CAES, 60 rue Entre-deux- 

Thiers, B-5200 Huy. Belgium 

- Tresorier/Treasurer: J.M. VERPOORTESI, 17 rue des 

Coteaux, B-4800 Verviers, Belgium 



145 



NEWS AND NOTES 



Tuns Lam Linh-So'n International 

In a previous issue of this journal (BSR II, 1-2, pp. 66-8) the 
activities of Ven. Dr Thich Huyln-Vi were recorded: his founding, 
with the support of the Association bouddhique Linh-So'n at Join- 
ville-le-Pont (Paris) and affiliated Linh-So'n associations in 
the USA and elsewhere, of the Monasters bouddhique Linh-So'n to- 
gether with a Buddhist research institute attached to it, as 
well as Linh-So'n branch temples found by now on all continents. 
The Linh-Sota headquarters serving, besides many other things, 
as a training centre for a steadily increasing numbers of monks 
and nuns, soon ran short of space despite having been enlarged 
by an annexe. 

Fortunately two years ago one half of a hamlet, virtually 
deserted and dilapidated but situated in peaceful and beautiful 
surroundings, was discovered some 40 km north of Limoges, near 
the village of Banc on (Chateauponsac ) , with nearly 30 hectares 
of grounds, and it was acquired for use by the Linh-So'n Sangha. 
Since then, members of the Linh-So'n community have been hard 
at work rebuilding and converting their ' Dharma Villa ' into a 
magnificent Buddhist centre. That they have admirably succeeded 
could be witnessed by all those who were present on 28th August 
last to participate in the inauguration ceremony. So far, a 
huge shrine-hall accomodating 500 people, quarters for monks 
and a nunnery have been completed. Two further buildings have 
been renovated and furnished, one serving as a library with a 
spacious lecture hall on the ground floor, the other as a kitchen 
and refectory. 

Thus the first phase of establishing the new headquarters 
and would-be international Buddhist centre has been completed. 
Further phases are to follow: the construction, for Instance, 
of a guest house, of a meditation centre where everybody genu- 
inely interested in bhavana will hopefully benefit from facili- 
ties conducive to intensive mental training, of a kind of Bud- 
dhist old peopled home and of suitable accomodation for several 
Linh-So'n Buddhist youth organizations. 



38 Buddhist Studies Review 6, 1 (1989) 



NOTES 



Gianni Ferraeuti Julius fivola, Rimini 1984, p. 8. 

fid. See Eugenio Garin Cronache di filosofia Italians, 1900-43 (Bari 1955) 
and Alastair Hamilton The Appeal of Fascism. A Study of Intellectuals and 
Fascism, 1919-45 (London 1971, pp. 3-89). 

2 

Uildon Cam The Philosophy of Croce. Quoted from an Indian standpoint 

by Dhirendra Mohan Darta in The Chief Currents of Contemporary Philosophy, Uni- 
versity of Calcucta 1961, p. 87. 

Ed. The only refetence to his apparent interest in Buddhism would appear 
to be 'Croce and Buddhism' in S.N. Dasgupta Wiilosopflical essays (Calcutta 1941 
repr. Delhi 19B2). 

Cf, Datta, op. cit . , p. 109 

4 

'Aryan-ness of the Doctrine of Awakening is the title of Cli.II, part I. 

- 'Principles' of Evola's basic 'Study on Buddhist Ascesis' in The Doctrine 

of Awakening: quoted in the sequel to the translation by H.E. Musson, later 

Bhikkhu Sanavlra (who died in Sri Lanka in 1965). The original - La Dottrina 

del Kisveglio - was published in Bari 1943; a new edition appeared in Milan 

1973, a year before Evola's death. 

5 See the obituary of Tucci by R, Uebb in BSR 1, No, 2, 1984, pp. 157-9. 

6 lb., p.lSBf. 

G. Ferraeuti, op. cit:., p*9, n.13. 

Ed. All four volumes (in seven parts) have been translated into English 
and, under the editorship of Lokesh Chandra, published by Biblia Impejt, New 
Delhi 19B8. 

a 

References are from my book review in Buddhist Quarterly, Vol.5, No. 3, 

London 1973: 'Buddhism and Christianity in Italy: a new comparative analysis 
based on the Dhammapadairi. " 

Q 

Cf. my paper 'The Ethos of Knowledge in Kantian and in Buddhist Philosophy' 
In Kanz Studlen, No.l, I 986. 



39 



EKOTTARAGAMA (IX) 

Traduit de la version chlnoise par 

Thlch Huyen-Vl 

Fascicule cinquieme 
Partie 12 

L'unique voie de s'eveiller a la verite 



1. "Ainsi ai-Je entendu. Une fois le Bouddha residait a Sr3va- 
stl, dans le bois de Jeta. au pare d ' Anathapindada . Alors le 
Tathagata disait aux bhiksu: II y a l'unique voie de s'eveiller 
a la verity . Elle permet aux 6tres de se purifier, d'eliminer 
tous les chagrins, tous les soucis, d'attelndre la sagesse et 
parvenir au Nirvana. Car on peut detruire les cinq voiles (nlva- 
rana) et realiser les quatre fixations de I 'attention. 

En quoi consists l'unique voie de s'eveiller? C'est concentrer 
son esprit our tin point. C'est ce qu'on appelle l'unique voie 
de s'eveiller. Quelle est cette verite? C'est le noble chemin 
4 huit branches des sages : 



La conception correcte 
L'action correcte 
L'effort correcte 
La concentration correcte. 



C'est aussi l'unique vole de 



1. La vue correcte 2. 

3. La parole correcte 4. 

5. La maniere de vivre correcte 6. 

7, L'attention correcte 8. 

VoilS la verite du noble chemin. 
s'eveiller a la verite. Quelles sont les cinq espSces de voiles 
(nlvarana) a faire disparaltre? Ce sont la concupiscence, la 
colere, 1 'excitation, la paresse , le doute. On doit les faire 
disparaltre. Quelles sont les quatre fixations de l'attention? 
Alors, a 1'interieur le bhlksu examine sons corps, elimlne les 
mauvaises pensees et n'a plus de soucis; a l'exterieur, 11 exa- 
mine son corps, eiimine les mauvaises pensees, n'a plus d ' in- 
quietudes; A 1'interieur et a l'exterieur 11 examine son corps 
et elimine les mauvaises pensees, n'a plus de soucis; 4 1'interi- 
eur il medite des sensations, mals s'en rejouit [parce qu'il 
n'a plus de soucis], a l'exterieur il medite des sensations; 
a. l'interleur et a l'exterieur il medite des sensations; a l'in- 



40 



Buddhist Studies Review 6, 1 (1969) 



terieur 11 medice son esprit puis s'en rejoult. II medite son 
esprit A 1'exterleur; puis 4 1'lnterieur et a l'exterieur en 
me"me temps, 11 medite son esprit; a I'interieur il medite les 
dharma , a l'exterieur il medite les dharma, en m6me temps a 
I'interieur et a l'exterieur; il [n'a plus de soucis et ] s'en 
rejouit . 

bhiksu, comment un bhiksu examine t-il son corps et puisse 
t-il s'en rejouir? Alors il examine son corps d'apres sa nature, 
de la te"te jusqu'aux pieds, des pieds jusqu'a la tGte . II consi- 
dere son corps tout entier comme impur , comme indlgne de tout 
attachement. D'ailleurs il consldere son corps avec des polls, 
des cheveux, des dents, des ongles, de la peau, de la chair, 
des nerfs, des os, des moelles. du cerveau, des intestins, du 
foie, de la rate, du coeur, des reins, des poumons etc..., 1 'ex- 
cretion, le gros intestin, l'intestin grSle, des larmes, de la 
salive, de la glaire, du sang, des pus, des arteres, de la bllle 
etc... Tout cela ne merite aucun attachement. Ainsl, 6 bhiksu, 
il examine son corps et il s'enhardit a bien pratiquer la doc- 
trine. II elimine les mauvaises pensees, n'a plus d ' inquietudes 
et s'en rej ouit . 

En outre, 11 examine son corps en se demandant s'il comprend 
des grands elements. A-t-il les elements sulvants: l'eau, le 
feu, la terre , le vent? Ainsl 11 voit nettement que son corps 
se compose de quatre grands elements. Plus loin encore, il exa- 
mine son corps pour en determiner ses elements: le corps de cha- 
cun est compose de quatre grands el&ments [: terre, eau, vent, 
feu]. II est comparable A un boucher ou a son apprenti qui se 
specialise a abattre les buffles, qui ouvre leurs corps et les 
examine: ceci est la t6*te, ceci est le coeur, le foie, la chair, 
la gralsse, etc... De la me"me facon, ce bhiksu-la distingue 
les differentes parties de son corps et remarque que son corps 
comprend les elements tela que: terre, eau, vent, feu. Ces quatre 
elements constituent le corps humaln. En examinant ainsi son 
corps, il elimine les mauvaises pensees, n'a plus de soucis et 
s ' en rej ouit . 

D'autre part, un hhlksu examine son corps possedant aussi 
des orifices d'egouts impurs d'ou sortent des matieres lmpures . 
Comme celui qui s'occupe des bambous , observe les roseaux, 11 



Ekottaragama IX 



41 



doit s'en rendre compte la difference. Le bhiksu constatera 
que de ces orifices d'egouts sortent frequemment des matieres 
inpurea. D'ailleurs, s'il observe un cadavre, durant une nuit, 
deux, trols, quatre, cinq, six ou a la septieme nuit, ce cadavre 
se decompose et laisse couler un liquide malodorant. Alors, 
il compare ce cadavre a son corps, 11 n'y a pas de difference: 
' Hon corps ne peut pas eviter cette phase deplorable.' Si le 
bhiksu volt un cadavre dechire, devote par des oiseaux rapaces: 
corbeaux, vautours ou par des be"tee fauves: tlgre, panthere, 
loup. Puis 11 examine son corps, 11 n'y volt aucune difference: 
'Hon corps ne peut pas echapper a cette phase funeste.' II s'agit 
de bhiksu qui examine son corps et ayant elimine les mauvaises 
pensees et n'ayant plus de soucis, 11 s'en trouve heureux. D'ail- 
leurs, il examine un cadavre dont la moitie est devore par les 
be"tes et 1 'autre moitie. pourrle dans la terre, dans un endrolt 
infecte, malsain. Et il trouve que son corps n'a aucune differ- 
ence avec ce cadavre: 'Hon corps ne fait pas exception & la regie.' 
Et en examinant un cadavre desagrege, ne restant que les os, tout 
le sang disparu, il trouve qu'il n'y a aucune difference entre 
son corps et le cadavre. C'est ainsl que le bhiksu devra exami- 
ner son corps. D'ailleurs, le bhiksu examine un cadavre avec 
des nerfs enchevStres comme les lianes. II le trouve sembable 
a son propre corps, sans aucune difference. C'est ainsi qu'il 
dolt examiner aon corps. D'ailleurs, le bhiksu examine un cad- 
avre, les os, les vertebres qui sont disposes chacun dans un 
endrolt different comme les cubitus, les radius, les os du crane, 
les omoplates, le bassin, puis il compare ce cadavre avec son 
propre corps, il s'appercoit qu'il n'echappera pas a cette dese- 
gregation! Ainsi, le bhiksu examine son corps et s'en trouve 
heureux. D'ailleurs, 11 examine un cadavre aux couleurs p§les 
et les os de m6me couleur, il trouve que le cadavre et son propre 
n'ont aucune difference: 'II n'echappera pas a cette regie.' 
Cela s'appelle 1'examen de son propre corps fait par le bhiksu. 
D'ailleurs, quand un bhiksu apercoit la couleur bleu-fonce d'un 
cadavre qui se decompose en laissant les oa blancs, ou bien la 
couleur de ce corps qui est ldentique i celle de la terre, est 
indistlncte a celle du cendre , il evite la concupiscence. C'est 
ainsl, o bhiksu, que [le bhiksu] examine son corps pour -Alialiter 
les mauvaises pensees, les soucis, sachant que son corps est 




42 






Buddhist Studies Review 6, 1 (1969) 



impermanent selon la loi de la desegregation , Ainsi, 6 bhiksu, 

lie bhiksu] examine 1 ' irtt erieur , l'exterieur et simyltaneraent 

l'interieur et l'exterieur de son corps pour comprendre alors 

5 
le principe du neant , 

bhiksu, comment £ait-il, le bhiksu qui medite des sensations 
agreables et desagreables? II se rend compte de la souffrance, 
de la Joie, quand il les eprouve. Quand il les eprouve, 11 les 
reconnalt tout de suite. Quand il est dans une situation ni 
malheureuse ni heureuse, il s'en rend compte Immediatement. 
Quand il a de bona nets, 11 les reconnalt sur le champ. Quand 
il a de mauvais pets, il reconnalt qu'ils sont mauvais. S'lls 
ne sont ni bons ni mauvais, il les reconnalt aussi ni bons, ni 
mauvais. Quand il ne mange pas bien, il le reconnalt tout de 
suite. Quand 11 n'a pas des aliments ni bons ni mauvais, il 
les reconnalt tels. Ainsi le bhiksu medite que la sensation 
est agreable, desagreable et ni agreable, ni desagreable. En 
outre, s'il eprouve de la joie, il ne souffre plus, il reconnnalt 
qu'll est dans la Joie. Au contraire, quand il eprouve de la 
souffrance, alors il n'a pas de la Joie. II reconnalt par lui- 
me"me qu'll eprouve de la souffrance. Quand il n'a ni souffrance, 
ni de la Joie, il reconnalt qu'il a ni souffrance, ni joie. 
Quand il n'a ni la souffrance, ni la joie, 11 reconnait qu'il 
n'a nl souffrance, ni joie. Quand il a bien compris la cause 
de tout cela , il est heureux. Et il examine toutes les choses, 
[tous les moyens ] pour detruire [toutes les causes de la souf- 
france (St de la joie] . Puis il examine tous les precedes pour 
eliminer [toutes les causes de la souffrance et de la joie] . 
Ou bien s'il a des sensations, mais il peut connaitre, voir et 
reflechlr sur i'origin non-stable, et il est heureux de ne pas 
avoir des pensees mondaines, alors 11 n'a pas peur; et parce 
qu'il n'a pas peur, il realise le Nirvina, La renaissance est 
termlnee, la vie de purete (braftmacsrija) est accomplit. Le cycle 
fini, [il n'est plus sous l'emprlse de la souffrance], II penetre 
la vraie verity. C'est ainsi que le bhiksu examine des sensa- 
tions, 11 ellmlne les illusions. II n'a plus aucun souci. Ainsi 
le bhiksu penetre l'interieur cone l'exterieur et siraul tanement 
l'interieur et l'exterieur des sensations. 

bhiksu, comment un bhiksu examine-t-11 son esprit pour en 



Ekottaragama IX 



43 



e"tre heureux? Quand il commence a avoir la concupiscence, il 
salt tout de suite qu'il a la concupiscence. Quand il ne 1'a 
pas, il salt qu'il ne l'a pas; a avoir colere, il le salt immedi- 
atement, a avoir l'ignorance, 11 le salt sur le champ, s'il n'en 
a pas, 11 le salt tout de suite, a avoir 1 ' attachement , il le 
salt immediatement, s'il n'en a pas, il le salt certainement ; 
a avoir une emotion, 11 le salt sur le champ, s'il n'en a pas, 
11 le salt sflrement; a avoir 1'illusion, il le salt immediatement; 
s'il n'en a pas, il le salt exactement; s'il a la divagation, 
11 en reconnait l'existence, s'il n'en a pas, 11 le salt sur 
le champ. A avoir 1 ' embrouillement , il le salt immediatement; 
s'il ne l'a pas, il le salt aussi rapidemenc. A avour un grand 
coeur, il le salt immediatement, s'il ne l'a pas, il le salt 
aussi rapidement. A avoir une immense compassion, il le salt 
immediatement. S'il ne l'a pas, 11 le salt aussi rapidement. 
A avoir 1 'esprit concentre, il le salt immediatement. S'il ne 
l'a pas. il le salt aussi rapidement. K'avoir pas la liberation, 
il le salt tout de suite. S'il l'a, 11 le salt immediatement. 
Ainsi, 6 bhiksu, [ le bhiksu] realise la fixation de 1'atten- 
tion [ examinant ] 1 'esprit; 11 examine toutes les choses, [tous 
les moyens] pour detruire [routes les causes de la souffrance 
et de la Joie] . Puis il examine tous les precedes pour eliminer 
[toutes les causes de la souffrance et de la Joie] . II penetre 
route chose et s'en rejouit. 

II faut connaitre, voir et conslderer, mals sans penser a des 
choses qui sont sans base. In ne [faut pas! penser a des choses 
mondaines. N'ayant plus de pensees mondaines, on n'a pas peur; 
et parce qu'on n'a pas peur, [a la fin] on realise le Nirvana: 
la renaissance est termlnee, la vie de purete (branmacarya ) est 
accomplit. Le cycle fini, il n'y a plus a faire et on n'est 
plus sous l'emprlse de la souffrance. On penetre la vraie verlte. 
bhiksu, examinant 1 'esprit a 1 ' egard de 1 'esprit dans cette 
maniere, on elimine les illusions et on n'a plus aucun souci. 
bhiksu, lie bhiksu] penetre l'interieur cosine l'exterieur et 
simultanement l'interieur et l'exterieur de l'esprlt; voila la 
fixation de l'attention de l'esprit. 

6 bhiksu, comment fait- 11, [le bhiksu] qui medite les dharma 
a l'egard des dharma... . Ainsi [un bhiksu] est attentif, s' appuy- 



44 



Buddhist Studies Review 6, 1 (1989) 



ant sur la meditation, ne s'appuyant pas sur le desir (loSha). 
II s'appuie sur la cessation en s'appuyant sur 1 " ecartement de 
tout mauvals dharma karmique (aJtuAaladTiarma ) , Dans cette pratique 
de 1 'attention et de la conscience 11 prodult de 1 ' energie (vir- 
us); ainsi, 11 pratique l'attention et s'y appuie . Developpant 
le samadhl, 11 persevere at tentivement . Meditant depourvu 
de desir, 11 s'appuie sur la cessation en ecartant tout mauvals 
dharma briique, C'est ainsi, 6 bhiksu, que [le bhikaul medite 
lea dharma A 1 ' egard des dharma . 

En outre, 6 bhiksu, [ un bhiksu] dfipourvu de desir et de tout 
mauvals dharma karmique, medite les dharma a 1' egard des dharma, 
se r^jouissant du bonheur de la premiere contemplation (rfhyana) 
ou se trouvent 1 ' examen ( vitarka) et le jugement (vicara) . En 
plus, 6 bhiksu, apres la cessation de I'examen et du Jugement, 
[un bhiksu] eprouve de la joie (prJti), gagne la paix interieure 
et la fixation de la pensee sur un point. II medite les dharma 
A 1 ' 6gard des dharma, traversant en s'y en rejouissant la deuxieme 
contemplation. En plus, 6 bhiksu, renoncant a la Joie et per- 
severant attent ivement , il eprouve dans sa personne cette sensa- 
tion du bonheur [tres raffine] cherche par les Nobles. Amenant 
attentlvement la vie de puret£, il medite les dharma a 1' egard 
des dharma, en sejournant dans la troisiene contemplation. En 
plus, 8 bhiksu, d^passant le chagrin et la joie, la trlstesse 
et 1 ' allegresse , dipassant la souffrance et le bonheur, il se- 
journe attentiveraent dans le bonheur [le plus raffine] de la 
quatrieme contemplation. Ainsi, 6 bhiksu, 11 medite les dharma 
a 1 ' figard des dharma. II pratique les dharma et aussi la cessa- 
tion des dharma. II considers le moyen [d'acc6der a] la cessa- 
tion et il eprouve le bonheur. Tout de suite il realise la fixa- 
tion de l'attention a 1' egard des dharma. 

II faut connaitre, voir et considirer, mais sans penser a des 
choses qui sont sans base. II ne [faut pas] penser a des choses 
mondaines N'ayant plus des pensees mondalnes , on n'a pas peur; 
et parce qu ' on n'a pas peur, (4 la fin] on realise le Nirvana; 
la renaissance est teruinfe, la vie de purete est accomplit. 
Le cycle finl, il n'y a plus A faire et on n'est plus sous 1" em- 
prise de la souffrance. On pen^tre la vraie verite. 

bhiksu, c'est en s'appuyant sur cette unique vqie de s'eveil- 



Ekottarlgama IX 



45 



ler & la verite que tous les etres vlvants [peuvent] atteindre 
la purete et depasser le chagrin et la Joie. Ila [peuvent] gagner 
le savoir et la sagesse et realise* [finalenent] le Nirvina, 
o'est-a-dire apres avoir detruit les cinq voiles (nlvarana) et 
apres avoir realise les quatre fixations de l'attention. 

Ayant entendu ces precieux conseils du Bouddha , les bhiksu 
etaient heureux et les mettaient respec tueusement en pratique.' 



NOTES 



Voir T2, 567c29 et sulv. 

2 'Unique" ici n'a pas le sens de 'seule' mala est dans le figuratif , voulant 
dire 'inegalee/sans parellle'. Lltreralement le chinois a 'l'unlque. [vole) 
qui conduit * la v6rlt4'. II exiete un paralHle chinois mleux connu de cette 
version EA du Smrcyupasthanasutra qui se trouve dans le MadhyamSgama (HA), 
et il a ete traduit et annote soigneusenent en anglais par le Bhikkhu SaddhS- 
loka: 'The Discourse on the Foundations of Mindfulness', in BuddMst Friend- 
ship (30th Anniversary Felicitation Vol. of the WFB Hong Kong and Macau Regio- 
nal Centre, Hong Kong 1983, pp. 9- 18). Cette traduction revises ainsi que 
les notes ont paru pour la pTemere fois dans visakha Puja 2511 (Buddhist Asso- 
ciation of Thailand, Bangkok 1968). Dans cette traduction anglaise les carac- 
teres chinois qui correspondent A ekauano maggo sont rendus litteraleaent comme 
"There is one way'. Cf. la note 1 du Bhikkhu Saddhlloka (op.cit., p. 16) qui 
eommente ekiyano. . .mag-go: 'Either rendered as "This only way... is this one" 
or "The only way...", or "There is this one way...".' Voir auaal A critical 
Pail Dictionary II, f asc . U (ed. K.R. Noraan) p. 632: "Ekawana - a single (- 
unique) road...; Eftayanamagga . . a road leading to one place, I.e. ntubina,,.'. 

Deux examples lumineux de recherche qui portent sur lea diverses recensions 
du SaiApatthana Sutra ont ete offerts par L. Sch»lthausen: a) 'Die vier Komien- 
trationen der Aufmerksamkeit : Zur gesehicht lichen Entulcklung einer aplritu- 
ellen Praxis des Buddhismus' , in zeitschrift fur HisBioistiissenschaf t und 
ReligionsBfissenscftaft A (Munster 1976, pp. 241-66): b) 'BeitrSge zur Schuliuge- 
horigkelt und Textgeschichte kanonischar und postkanoniseher buddhistischer 
Materlalen', in Zur Schulzugehorigkelc voi Herken der HTnayana-titeratur II, ed. 
H. Bechert (Gottlngen 1987, pp. 304-403). Dans eette demiere oeuvre (4 la- 
quelle il y a une autre allusion plus bas) se trouve l.a. un tableau relevant 
la section dhamma-anupassani comme trouvee dans routes les recensions dispon- 



46 



Buddhist Studies Review 6, 1 (1989) 



ibles dans la litterature bouddhique. Dans ce tableau la recension BA sembie 

la moins horaogene . 

3 Voir BSR IV, 2, p. 133, n.14; Ibid.. V, 1, p. 52. 

C-a-d 'contenus mentaux, objets mentaux ' , ou peut-etre mieux rendu comme 
'donnees* ou 'facteurs physiques' (ce dernier d'apres Schmithausen) . 

Litteralement ' comprendre - rien ~ que ce soit', c-a-d, coroprennant le 
fait que le Hoi et le Mien dans le sens ultime ne tiennent pas; ou Men l'aper- 
cu de sdnyats. Sur 1 ' EA avec 'some thought close to MahSySna ' sans en fait 
etre 'true MahHyana', voir E. Mayeda , 'Japanese Studies on the Schools of 
the Chinese Agaraas", in H, Bechert (ed.) Zur Schulzugehbrigkelt von Werken Gar 
Winayana-Literatur I (Gottingen 1965, p. 103), 

Cf. le pSli vineyya Jake abhi j jhSdananassam . 



CL Schmlthausen, op.cit,., p. 336, n.135. 



(notes par les redacts urs -ad joints ) 



47 



OBITUARIES 

BERNARD-PHILIPPE GROSLIER (1926 - 29.5.86) 

The last Vestern archaeological supervisor at Angkor, B-P.Groslier 
was Che son of George Grosller who founded and became Curator 
of the National Muaeum in Phnom Penh. Born in the Cambodian 
capital, he trained at the Sorbonne, l'Inatitut d "Bthnologie , 
l'Ecole des langues orientales vlvantes and l'Ecole de Louvre 
and graduated in History and Cambodian. He began working at Angkor 
in 1952 and ended his career at that site as Curator of Histori- 
cal Honuments. In 1959 he was appointed Ecole Francaise d'Extr€me- 
Orient's Director of Archaeological Research and, on his return 
to Paris, Director of its Centre. He wrote on Angkor et le Cam- 
bodge an Xive sieele d'apres les sources portugaises ot espagnoles 
(Kusee Guimet, Paris 1957), with Jacques Arthaud Angkor: Homines et 
plerres (Paris 1956), 'Our Knowledge of Khmer Civilization. A 
Reappraisal" (Journal of tJie Siam Society, Bangkok 1960 ) .Indochina 
(London and New York 1962; repr . Cleveland 1966 ) ,L • Jndocnine (Paris 
1964) and 'La Reconstruction des gaieries aux bas-reliefs d'Ang- 
kor Vat' (WeJtor Khmer , 1970). 



PAVEL POUCHA (Dec. 1905 - 15.1.86) 

Central Asian studies in Central Europe were represented for 
many years by Pavel Poucha . Born in Vienna, his family settled 
in southern Bohemia and after primary education he enrolled in 
the Philosophical Faculty at the Charles University in Prague. 
In 1927, after graduation, he became a secondary schoolteacher 
in the Czech capital but five years later Joined the Cultural 
Department of The Oriental Institute (- which had been founded 
by President Masaryk, himself a former Professor of Philosophy). 
Following the Second World War, he became a pernanent staff member 
of the Institute in 1947. In the following year he was 'habili- 
tated' by means of a dissertation on Sanskrit translations in 
Tocharian and held the post of Head of the Department of Indology 
until 1958. In the Philological Department of the Charles Univer- 
sity he lectured on Tibetan, Mongolian and Old Javanese, Altais- 
tics and Central Asian history (between 1950-7), on the history, 



12Z 



EKOTTARAGAMA tX) 

traduit de la version chinoise par 

Thich Huygg-Vi 

Fascicule cinquieme 

Paitte L2 1 

2. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois le Bouddha residalt a SravastI, 
dans le bois de Jeta, au pare d ' Anathapindada . Alors le Tatha- 
gata disait aux bhiksu: Dans ce monde, je ne vols aucun moyen 
capable d'aneantlr rapideraent la halne comme la vie de purete 
(brahmacatya ) . C'est pourquoi, S bhiksu, on doit pratiquer la 
parlence dans ses actes, ses paroles et ses pensees. Ainsi, 
on dolt s"y exercer. Alors ayant entendu ces precleux conseils 
du Bouddha, les hhiksu etaienc heureux et les mettaient respectu- 
esement en pratique. 

3. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois le Bouddha resldait a SravastI, 

dans le bois de Jeta, au pare d 'Anathapindada . Alors le Bhagavat, 

It Bienheureux disait aux bhiksu: S ' 11 j- a quelqu'un qui vient 

2 
en ce bas-monde , il est ador£ par les dieux, les humalns, les 

demons, les sramana, les brahmana. Nul n'est comparable a 

I] est le supreme champ de merite, le plus venerable. Qui est 

cette personnel! C'est le Bhagavat, l'Arhat, le Samyak-Sambuddha . 

2 
Quand il vient en ce bas-monde , 11 surpasse les dieux, les hu- 
malns, les demons, les sramana , les brahmana, il est tres supreme. 
Nul ne peut se mesurer a lui. Premier en vertu, 11 merite d'etre 
"erere. C'est pourquoi, S bhiksu, on doit toujours offrir ses 
services an Tathagata. Ainsi, 8 bhiksu, on doit s'y exercer. 
Alors ayant entendu ces pr6cieux conseils du Bouddha les bhiksu 
^talent heureux et les mettaient respectuesement en pratique. 

h. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. ijne lots le Bouddha resldait a SiSvastI, 
... Aluts le Tathagata disait aux bhiksu: Celui qui visits un 
;.iaiode, est considers comae, s'ii m'a deja rendu visite. Celui 
qui a visite un malade, t;i conuide,r6 comme s ' 11 a'a rendu n&ite. 
Pourquoi? C'est parce que j'al toujours envie de visiter les 
inalades. bhiksu, paxa les dieux, les humains, les deu,. 



Ekottaragama X 



123 



les sramana, les brShmana , il n'y a pas de meilleur moyen de 
faire le bien que de visiter des malades . C'est cette maniere 
de faire le blen qui pourrait obcenir de grands resultats, de 
grands merites, de grande reputation, de la valeur aboutissant 
dans l'immortalite 3 . Comme 11 est dit. le Tathagata, le Supreme 
Evellle, a connu le meilleur moyen de faire du bien. Men n'est 
meilleur que d'aller visiter les malades. Reellement cette ma- 
niere permet d'acquerir de grands resultats, de grands merites. 
Aujourd'hui. profitant de cette occasion, je vous conseille d'al- 
ler voir frequemment les malades, comme si vous allez me rendre 
visite*. Pendant bien longtemps vous auriez du bonheur . Ainsi, 
ayant entendu ces precieux consgils du Bouddha. les bhiksu etaient 
heureux et les mettalent respec tuesement en pratique. 
5. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois le Bouddha residalt a SravastI, 
Alors le Bhagavat disait aux bhiksu: S'il y a quelqu'un 
qui loue l'Aranyaka 5 , c'est qu'il loue le Bouddha. Pourquoi? 
C'est parce que je loue toujours l'Aranyaka. S'il y a quelqu'un 
qui calomnie l'Aranyaka, c'est qu'il me caloranie . S'il y a quel- 
qu'un qui loue la mendicite, c'est qu'il loue le Bouddha. Pour- 
quoi? C'est parce que le Bouddha loue toujours la mendicite. 
S'il y a quelqu'un qui blSme la mendicite. c'est qu'il blime 
le Bouddha. S'il y a quelqu'un qui loue le r ien-que-s * asseoir , 
c'est qu'il loue mon enseignement . Pourquoi? C'est parce que 
je loue toujours le r ien-que-s ' asseoir . Au contraire s'il y a 
quelqu'un qui blSme le rien-que-s 'asseoir , c'est qu'il me blame. 
S'il y quelqu'un qui loue le manger pris a la fois, c'est qu'il 
loue le Bouddha. Pourquoi? C'est parce que le Bouddha loue sou- 
vent le manger pris a la fois. S'il y a quelqu'un qui blame 
le manger pris a la fois, il blSme le Bouddha. S'il y a quelqu'un 
qui loue la maniere de s'asseoir au pled d'un arbre , c'est qu'il 
loue le Bouddha. Pourquoi? C'est parce que je m'assieds le plus 
souvent au pied d'un arbre. S'il y a quelqu'un qui blame cette 
maniere de s'asseoir, c'est qu'il me blSme . S'il y a quelqu'un 
qui loue la vie en plein air, c'est qu'il loue 1 ' enseignement 
que j'ai souvent donne. Pourquoi? C'est parce que je fais souvent 
des louanges a ce sujet. Au contraire, s'U y a quelqu'un qui 
blame cette vie en plein air, c'est qu'il me blame . S'il y a 
quelqu'un qui loue la solitude, c'est qu'il loue ce que je con- 



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Buddhist Studies Review 6, 2 (1969) 



seille. Pourquoi? C'est parce que je loue souvent la solitude. 

S'il y a quelqu'un qui bla"me ce que je conseille, c'est qu'il 

me blSme. S'il y a quelqu'un qui loue l'usage de l'hablt a cinq 

7 
pieces , c'est qu il loue ce que je conseille. Pourquoi? Parce 

que j'ai toujours conseille de porter l'hablt a cinq pieces. 
S'il y a quelqu'un qui blame l'usage de l'hablt a cinq pieces, 
c'est qu'il me blame. S'il y a quelqu'un qui loue l'usage de 
trois robes seulement, c'est qu'il loue ce que je conseille. 
Pourquoi? Parce que j'ai toujours fait des louanges de l'usage 
de trois robes seulement. Au contraire, s'il y a quelqu'un qui 
blame ce que je conseille, c'est qu'il me blame. S'il y a quel- 
qu'un qui loue le conseil de vlvre dans un cimetidre, c'est qu'il 
me loue. Pourquoi? Parce que j'ai souvent conseille de vlvre 
dans un ciraetiere. Au contraire, s'il y a quelqu'un qui blame 
ce conseil, c'est qu'il me blame, S'il y a quelqu'un qui loue 
le conseil de prendre un seul repas par jour, c'est qu'il me 
loue. Pourquoi? Parce que j'ai souvent loue la prise d'un seul 
repas par jour. Au contraire, s'il y a quelqu'un qui blame ce 
conseil de prendre un seul repas par jour, c'est qu'il me blSme . 
S'il y a quelqu'un qui loue le seul repas du midi, c'est qu'il 
me loue. Pourquoi? Parce que j'ai souvent loue le seul repas 
du midi. S'il y a quelqu'un qui blame la meme chase, c'est qu'il 
me blame. S'il y a quelqu'un qui loue la pratique du Dhutaiiga, 
c'est qu'il me loue. Pourquoi? Parce que j'ai souvent lou£ ceux 
qui pratiqent cette vertu de Dhutahga. Au contraire, s'il y 
a quelqu'un qui blame cette vertu, c'est qu'il me blame. Aujourd' 
hui je conseille tous les bhiksu de faire comme le disciple Kaha- 
Kasyapa, d "observer sans faille cette pratique. Parce que le dis- 
ciple Kaha-Kasyapa toutes les vertus ci-dessus. C'est pourquoi 
les bhiksu doivent apprendre et appliquer serieusement la doc- 
trine. Ainsi, ayant entendu ces precieux conseils du Bouddha , 
tous les bhiksu ^talent heureux et les mettaient respectueusement 
en pratique. 

6. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. line fois le Bouddha resldait a Rajagrha, 
dans le J&rd.ln de Bambou , au [terrain de la Nourriture] des Ecur- 
euils, avec ses grands disciples au nombre de cinq cents. Alors 
le venerable Maha-Kasyapa , vlvant dans un milieu solitaire, 
allait demander de la nourriture de maison en maison sans faire 



Ekottaragawa X 



125 



distinction de riche ou pauvre. II ne changeait point sa place 
de meditation. II s'asseyait au pied d'un arbre paisible. I 
portait l'hablt a cinq pieces et faisait usage de trois robes 
seulement. II faisait aussi la meditation dans un cimetere. 
II ne prenait qu ' un repas au oldi par jour, II pratiqualt tou- 
jours l'ascetisme malgre son troisieme Sge . Alors apres avoir 
pris son repas, 11 se rendait au pied d'un arbre pour mediter. 
Aprds la meditation, 11 se levait, arrangeait sa robe et se ren- 
dait chez le Tathagata. En le voyant s'approcher, le Tathagata 
lui disait: Blenvenu, Kasyapa! Celui-ci s'avancait et se proster- 
nait au-pled du Tathagata. Alors le Bhagavat lui disait: Kasyapa, 
maintenant vous §tes avance dans l'Sge. Vous marchez peniblement . 
Vous ne devez pas aller quemander la nourriture, il faut abandon- 
ner l'ascetisme... et prendre s'il le faut le train d'un bourgois 
aise et reprendre la vie d'un laic. Le venerable Kasyapa repon- 
dait: Aujourd'hui, je m'exeuse de ne pas suivre ces conseils 
du Tathagata. Pourquoi? Parce que si je ne parvenais au stade 
de Bouddha, je deviendrais un Pratyekabouddha . Mais pour le 
devenir, il faut appliquer de tour son coeur le pratique d'Aran- 
yaka, aller demander de la nourriture sans faire distinction 
des maisons pauvres ou riches, prendre toujours une place fixe, 
s'asseoir au pled d'un arbre ou dans un endroit solitaire, porter 
l'hablt a cinq pieces, faire usage de trois robes seulement, 
demeurer dans un cimetidre ou ne prendre qu'un repas par Jour 
juste a raid! ou blen pratiquer l'ascetisme [des autres pratiques] 
de Dhutanga. Par consequent, je n'ose pas abandon-ner le principe 
fondamental deja pratique pour apprendre un autre. Le Tathagata 
repondit: Blen, c'est tr6s bien! Kasyapa! Vous €tes tres utile, 
car vous pouvez aider un nombre immensurable de gens. II vous 
est possible d'aider mgme les dieux, les humains. Pourquoi? 
Parce que, 8 Kasyapa, si l'on pratique l'ascetisme de Dhutanga 
dans ce monde, ma doctrine s'y perp^tuera pendant bien longtemps. 
Si elle se perpetue dans ce monde, la vole celeste sera augmentee 
et les trois mauvaises voies seront diminuees. Les voies permet- 
tant l'acces au stade de Srotaapanna, de Sakrdagamin et de An5- 
garain dureront dans ce monde. 6 bhiksu! Pour pratiquer la reli- 
gion vous devez suivre l'exemple du Venerable KaSyapa . C'est 
ainsi que vous devez vous exercer, Alors les bhiksu, ayant en- 



126 



Buddhist Studies Review 6, 2 (1989) 



tendu ces precieux conseils du Bouddha , etaient heureux et les 
raettaient respectuesement en pratique. 

7, 'Ainsl ai-je entendu. Line fois le Bouddha residait a Sravastf 
dans le bois de Jeta, au pare d ' Anathapindada . Alors le Bhagavat 
disait aux bhiksu: Jouir du contort est tres dangereux. Cela 
vous emp^che de devenir un Bouddha. Pourquoi? bhiksu! Devadat- 
ta est parmi les ignorants, Tl conseille au prince Ajatasatru 
de preparer cinq cents narmites d'aliments pour of frit au Samgha 
bouddhique et le prince n'en rkase pas. Ignorant qu'il est, 
Devadatta ne fait pas cette betise . Mais chaque Jour, le prince 
AjataSatru prepare cinq cents marmites d'aliments pour offrir 
au Samgha . [Le coitiplot et les actes de mauvais dessein de Deva- 
datta sont motives par son dSsir ardent d'etre ie chef du Samgha.) 
C'est pourquoi Devadatta commet les cinq peches graves et re- 
coit les penitences du Mahavlci. De par ce Cait, on doit savoir 
que jouir du confort est dangereux, on ne peut pas devenir un 
Bouddha. S'il y a quelqu'un qui n'a pas encore le desir de jouir 
du confort, il faut s'en abstenir. Celui qui a ce d^sir , il 
faut s'en debarrasser. Ainsi les bhiksu, ayant entendu ces pre- 
cieux conseils du Bouddha, etaient heureux et les mettaient re- 
spectuesement en pratique. 

8. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu, Une fois le Bouddha residait A Rajagrha, 
sur la montagne Grdhrakuta, avec une grande assemblee de cinq 
cents bhiksu. Alors Devadatta tentait de detruire le Samgha 
en le perturbant . II tentait de detruire 1 ' enseignement du Tatha- 
gata. 11 poussait Ajatasatru a tuer le roi son pere et il (Deva- 
datta) tua un bhiksunT qui etait une Arhatl. Au milieu du Samgha 
il disait ceci: Oil se trouve le mal, d'ou vient le mal? Qui fait 
le mal? Qui en supporte le resultat? Je ne fais pas de mal mais 
j ' en supporte la consequence. - A ce moment, il y avait plusiers 
bhiksu qui se rendaient a la capitale Rajagrha pour qu^mander 
de la nourriture. lis entersdaient toutes les paroles de Devadat- 
ta qui s'exprimait ainse devant le Samgha: Ou se trouve le mal? 
D'oi'i vient le mal? Qui fair le mal? Qui en supporte la consequen- 
ce? Quand les bhiksu avaient termine leur repas, range leur 
robe, leur bol d'aumone, remis leur natte sur l'epaule droit.e, 
ils se rendaient devant le Bhagavat, se prosternalent a ses pieds . 
puis venaient s'asseoir a son c6t£. Alors plusiettrs d'entre 



Ekottaragama X 



127 



eux deroanda ient au Bienheureux: Devadatta, un ignorant parmi 
le Samgha, a souvent repete ceci: Pourquoi le malfaiteur ne re- 
colt-il pas de punitions et le bienfaiteur n'est pas recompense? 
Tous ces gens ne recoivent-ils pas de bonnes ni de mauvaises 
consequences? Alors le Bhagavat repondit aux bhiksu: Les bonnes 
et les mauvaises actions ont toutes leurs consequences . Si Deva- 
datta savait cela, il serait inquiete, attriste. La sueur , les 
larmes couleraient de haut en bas sur sa figure. Pulsque Devadat- 
ta ne connalt pas la causaiite, les bhiksu devaient lul dire 
clairement que nul ne peur eviter les consequences de ses actes. 
Les malfaiteurs recevront le malheur; les bienfaiteurs le bonheur . 
Alors le Bienheureux prononcait cette gatha: 

L'horame stupide compendra s'il se met a penser que les mau- 
vaises actions ne sont jamais recompensees . 

Moi , je sais surement , 

Que la causaiite prendra necessairement son Jeu. 

Ainsi les bhiksu doivent eviter tout le mal, et faire le bien 
sans telUche. Alors, ayant entendu ces precieux conseils du 
Bouddha, ils etaient heureux et les mettaient respectueusement 
en pratique. 

9. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois le Bouddha residait a Sravasti 
dans le bois de Jeta, au pare d ' Anathapindada . Alors le Bhagavat 
disait aux bhiksu: Recevoir des dons et en tirer profit immerite 
est tres dur. Ce n'est pas facile. II serait penible aux profi- 
teurs de parvenir a l'etat de nnn-agir, e'est-a-dire de realiser 
la sortie finale. Pourquoi? Parce que le profit a des consequen- 
ces serleuses. C'est d'enlever d'abord la peau, ensuite de de- 

12 
charner les os , puis de p^netrer dans les moelles . Done les 

bhiksu doivent employer des moyens salvifiques pour savoir que 

le danger du profit est tres serieux. Si vous n'avez pas encore 

1 ' id6e de tirer profit, il faut vous stopper. Si quelqu'un a 

deja cette idee , il faut l'aneantir. Ainsi, les bhiksu doivent 

faire attention a ce sujet ci-dessus. Alors, ayant entendu ces 

precieux conseils du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux et les 

mettaient respectueusement en pratique. 

10, 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois le Bouddha residait a Sravastl 
dans le bois de Jeta, au pare d 'Anathapindada . Alors le Bhagavat 

disait aux bhiksu: Ceux qui profitent Jsans le meriter] des autres 



128 



Buddhist Studies Review 6. 2 (1989) 



poui vivre le trouveront difficile de parvenlr a i'etat de non- 
agir, c'eat-a-dire de realiser la sortie finale. Pourquoi? Si 
le hhiksu Lo che Lo ( . *Fl ftfi^.) n'avait pas tire profit des autres 
pour vivre, s'ii n'avait pas commis d ' innombrables tueries, il 
tie renaltra pas dans l'enfer apres sa irort, Alors le Bhagavat 
prononca r.ette gatha ci-dessous: 

Quand pour vivre, on tire des autres de grands profits [imnier- 

itesl. 

On risque ainsi de perdre sa probite a l'egard d'autrul. 

Ne cherchons done pas la nourriture des plaisirs. 

Li che lo par le surces de sa meditation 

Puisse acceder jusqu'au palais de Sakra . 

Mais tnaintenant tous ses pouvoirs magiques sont enleves 

Car il est condamne a l'enfer pour itre un boucher . 

Par consequent, les bhiksu obliges d'enployer des raoyens sal- 
vifiques doivent se rendre compte que tirer profit des autres 
est chose extr§mement delicate. Ainsi lis doivent approfondir 
la doctrine. Celui qui n'a pas encore 1 ' idee de tirer profit 
] mmerit e , il doit la maltriser. Se la laissez pas se prodiire. 
Celui qui par malheur a deja cetce idee, il doit par tous les 
moyens l'aneantir. Les hhiksu doivent s'exercer a bien pratiquer 
la doctrine. Alors, ayant entendu ces paroles precieusss du 
Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux et les mettaient respec tueuse- 
ment en pratique.' 

NOTES 

Voir T2, 569bl3 et sun. 

BSI IV, 2, p. 128, 20: Velui qui vlenr en ce bas-monde' et ibid., p. 131 

'1.5. 
3 



.It . 



amrtA-dhaiiii<i -rasa. 



Cette section suit la veme au Vinalakirtinirdeea III, 76; cf. E. Uamot.e, 
L' Enseignement de Vimalaktrti . p. 217. Ce passage de l'EA aurart pu inspire 
l'auteur nu les auteurs du Nirdesa. Cf. aussi LEnseignement, chapitrs IV, 
' consolations au maiade'. 

, .[}. 'celui qui vit dan? le f orSt . recherche la solitude, vtt com"' 
PTSDict. 76 (araT>Tiakai. Ouant aux tfhuta-guna, voir BSP. EI] 
I, n.4, Voir aussi Hgerton, BHSDir- . . p. 286. 



Ekottaragama X 



129 



8 



6 Aussi, 'le siege solitaire" - peut-etre une reference au 13e dhutanga, 
c.a.d., dormlr dans une position assise (sans jamais s'allonger). 

7 Cf. BSR II, 1-2. P- 46, n.22. 
Au sujet de NahS-Kassapa/Mahi-Kisyapa . voir G.P. Malalasekera. Dictionary 

Ot Pili Proper Names II, p. 476 et suiv.; E. Lamotte. L- Enseignement , p. 149 

el suiv., n.18. 

Selon les sources dont nous disposons, le Bouddha a conseille au Kaha- 
Kasyapa age de renoncer les pratiques dhutanga extremes en faveur de la vie 
monastique nornale, Mais il est assez etrange que, selon ce passage de VBk, 
le Bouddha est donne cone ayant suggere a Maha-Kasyapa un retour a la vie 
lalque. Parfois, eomme nous savons d'apres les Nikaya, le Bouddha employait 
3e l'ironie. Peut-etre ici aussi, le Bouddha se livre au badinage, 
9 



10 



'Cette bitise' de fournir vraiment trop de nourriture au Sarogha. 
En verity Devadatta n'a pa commis tous Les cinq 'peches graves', mais 
seulement trois. Cf. BSR V, 2, p.H3 et suiv., n.3, 4. 

11 Tirer profit de (lit. 'se nourrir par raoyen de profit ' *4 fc ) '■ terme pre- 
joratif deslgnant la nourriture, les boissons, le habillements. les medica- 
ments, toutes choses offertes par les donateurs au Samgha qui ne se respecte 
pas, qui ne se purlfie pas. 

12 'C'est d'enlever d'abord la peau . . les ittoelles' se refere aux genres de 
punitlon dans leurs prochaines vies qui attended les faux tnembres du Saingha 
qui s'enjouient de tout le soutien des laics sans le miriter. 



80 



EKOTTARAGAMA (XI) 

tradult de la version chinoise par 

Thich Huygn-Vl 

Fascicule sixi£me 

Par tie 13 



Recevoir des offrandes 



1. 'Ainsl ai-je entendu. Une fois, quand le Bouddha residait 
a Sravasti, dans le bois de Jeta, au pare d ' Anathapindada , le 
Bienheureux disait aux bhiksu: Recevoir des offrandes n'est pas 
facile parce qu'll peut vous emp§cher de parvenir a l'etat du 
Non-agir (asamskr lj ) . Pourquoi? Supposons le cas du bhiksu 

Surata qui n'a pas la convoitlse des offrandes, qui, etant im- 
pregne de la doctrine, ne quitte jamais les trois vitements reli- 
gieux 2 pour s'installer chez un laic. Le bhiksu Surata a pratique 
comroe l'aranyaka 3 ; il observe I'horaire pout aller aendler sa 
nourriture, pour rester assis et mGditer, il ne mange qu ' a mldi, 
il s'assied souvent au pied d'un arbre ou dans un endroit calme, 
11 porte l'habit a cinq pieces [et les autres] trois vttements 
religieux, il aime rester seul dans un cimetifere pour mediter. 
Pendant qu'll pratique ainsi l'ascetisme, il recoit un jour de 
riches plats savoureux offerts par le roi. Le bhiksu apprecie 
beaucoup ces aliuents delicieux, les aime bien, et commence a 
relScher les pratiques religieuses comme celle-la de l'aranyaka. 
II abandonne au fur et a mesure les bonnes habitudes, et enfln 
les trois vetements religieux pour reprendre la vie mondaine. 
II tue d 'innombrables animaux pour sa nourriture et sa gourman- 
dise. Apres sa mort il se retrouve en enfer. 

bhiksu, rappelez-vous toujours de cette histoire. II faut 
savoir que recevoir des offrandes est tres precaire , puisqu'il 
peut empecher les religieux de parvenir a la perfection. Si 
la convoitlse des offrandes n'est pas encore nee, 11 faut 1 'em- 
pecher de nattre. Si la convoitlse est deja nee, il faut l'anean- 
tir par tous les moyens. 6 bhiksu, il faut vous y exercer ainsi. 
Apres avoir entendu ces paroles precieuses du Bouddha, les 
bhiksu etaient tres heureux et les mettaient respec tueusement 
en pratique. 



Ekottaragaroa XI 



81 



2. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait 
a Srlvastl, dans le bols de Jeta, au pare d ' Anathapindada , le 
Bhagavat disait aux bhiksu: II faut supprimer une chose et je 
vous assure que vous obtiendrez des pouvoirs surnaturels. toutes 
vos passions seront eliminees. Quelle est cette chose? C'est 
le desir gustatif. C'est pourquoi les bhiksu doivent maltrlser 
ce desir gustatif; je vous affirme que vous obtiendrez des pou- 
voirs surnaturels et toutes vos passions seront eteintes. Alors 
le Bienheureux recita cette gatha: 

Les etres vivants qui s'enivrent de saveurs, 
Seront araenes aux pires mondes apres leur mort. 
Ceux qui mattrisent malntenant leur d£sir gustatif, 
Parviendront a la saintetG des arhat. 
Done, 6 bhiksu, on doit abandonner la passion des saveurs. 
bhiksu. il faut vous y exercer ainsi. 

Apres avoir entendu ces paroles precieuses du Bouddha. les 
bhiksu etaient tres heureux et les mettaient respec tueusement 
en pratique. 

3. 5, AInsi ai-je entendu. Une fois, quand le Bouddha residait 
a Sravasti, dans le bols de Jeta, au pare d ' Ana thapindada , il 
y avait un maltre de raaison (grhapacl) qui venait de perdre son 
flls, Afflige par la mort de son enfant bien-aime qui ne s'effa- 
cait de sa memoire, le pauvre pere perdait son bon sens habitue] 
et devenait tres agite. II demandalt a toute personne qu'll 
rencontrait: 'Avez-vous vu men fils?' Feu apres, il arriva au 
touvent du Jetavana, approcha du Bhagavat. se tint debout a ses 
cSt^s et lui demanda respec tueusement : '0 sramana Gautaraal avez- 
vous vu mens fils?' Le Bienheureux lul dit: 

- Pourquoi avez-vous une si mauvaise mine? Pourquoi vos 
sens ont-ils l'air si perturbe? 

- C'est vrai, car je viens de perdre mons fils, 11 tn * a. aban- 
donne. Mon affliction n'est pas encore soulagee , elle m'a per- 
turbe 1 'esprit. Je venais respectueusement vous demander si 
vous avez vu mon flls? 

- 6 maitre de maison! la naissance, la vieillesse, la nvala- 
die, la mort sont des choses couranees en ce monde . Etre siipare 
de celui qu'on aime est souffrance. Etre ensemble avec celui 
qu'on halt est souffrance. La mort de votre fils vient de 1 ' im- 

L _ 









82 



Buddhist Studies Review 7, 1-2 ( 1 990) 



permanence de la vie. Ce sort des ehoses aaturelles et inevita- 
bles. Pourquoi gtes-vous si malheureux, si depriae? 

Ayant entendu ces paroles du Bienheureux, le malheureux 
pere n'etait pas satisfait, 11 quitta le lieu. Rencontrant une 
autre personne sur son chemin, 11 demanda: 

- Le s'ramana Gautama dlsait: Etre separg de celui qu ' on 
aime est aussi un plaisir. Est-ce vrai? 

- Etre separe de celui qu ' on aime, repondit 1'autre, est 
loin d'§tre une joie. 

En ce moment, non loin de la ville de Sravastl, il y avait 
un groupe de joueurs qui se rassenbla lent pour s'arauser. Le 
maJtre de maison se dlsait: Ce sont des gens habiles et in- 
telligents, lis doivent tout savolr , je vais leur presenter non 
doute. II se rendit alors au lieu ou les joueurs s'amusaient 
et leur demanda: 

- Le sramana Gautama m'a dit: La souff ranee venant de la 
separation avec celui qu'on alma, ou de la rencontre avec celui 
qu'on halt est aussi un plaisir. Qu'en penses-vous? 

- Etre separe de eelui qu'on aime n'a rien de gai. Dire 
que c 'est un plaisir n'est pas juste, 

Cependant ces gens pensaient que le Tathagata ne pouvait 
pas mentlr Pourquoi etre separe de celui qu'on aime est-il ausst 
un plaisir? II faut reexamioer cette question. Notre maltre 
de maison se retourna a Sravaotf, puis devant la porte de la 
citadelle proclama: Le sramana Gautama a enseigne que "§tre separe 
de celui qu'on aime ou etre ensenble avec celui qu'on halt sont 
aussi du plaisir". Ces paroles se propageaient partout dans la 
ville comme dans le palais royal. En ce moment le grand roi 
Prasenajit et la reine Mallika etaient en train de se combler 
de Joie en haut du palais. Le roi Prasenajit dit a la reine 
Kallika: 

- Peut-etre le sramana Gautama a dit cela. 

- Je ne pense pas, dit la reine. Mais si le Tathagata l'a 
(Jit, cela doit §tre vrai. 

- Quand le Maltre dit a ses disciples de faire ceci. de 
ne pas faire cela, continua le roi, les disciples ne font qu'obe- 
ir. Toi, Mallika, tu dois te conduire de la me"me facon. Quoi- 
que le sramana Gautama ait dit cela, tu dois dire que e'est 



Ekottaragama XI 



83 



vrai et qu ' il n'y a aucune erreur , Malntentant circule, ne 
reates pas devant moi. 

Alors la reine ordonna au brahmane Nadijangha : 'Va au cou- 
vent du Jetavana, aupres du Tathagata, mets-toi a genoux a ses 
pieds, et, en mon nom , lui presente ce qui a htk raconte sur 
son enseignement en ville et dans le palais, et lui demande s'il 
a bien dit que "§tre separe de celui qu'on aime ou etre ensemble 
avec celui qu'on halt sont du plaisir". Si le Bienheureux con- 
fine qu'il a dit cela, ecoute at tentivement et raconte-moi fi- 
delement ses paroles.' 

Le brahmane Nadijangha arriva au couvent du Jetavana, prfi- 
senta ses hommages au Tathagata et lui adressa ces paroles; 
Bienheureux! la reine m'a dit de venir vous presenter ses res- 
pects, de m'enquerir de votre sante, et de porter a votre con- 
naissance un evenement important qui se passe dans la ville de 
Sravasti. En effet il se propage une phrase pretendue venant 
de 1 'enseignement du sramana Gautama. La voici: "Etre separe 
de celui qu'on aime ou itre ensemble avec celui qu'on hait sont 
tous du plaisir", Le Bhagavat a-t-il dit cela? 1 

Le Bienheureux dit a Nadijangha: 'Dans la ville de SrSvastI 
il y a un maltre de maison qui a perdu son fils. II aime beau- 
coup cet enfant. La mort de celui-ci l'a telleaent bouleverse 
qu'il erre dans la rue et demande a tout le monde si l'on a vu 
son fils. Ainsi, 6 brahmane, Stre separe de celui qu'on aime 
ou Stre ensemble avec celui qu'on hait sont des souff ranees et 
ne sont pas du plaisir. Autrefois, dans la ville de Sravastl, 
11 y avait une personne qui perdait sa mere par 1 'impermanence , 
il aussi perdait 1 'esprit et ne pouvait plus reconnaltre ni l'est 
ni 1'ouest. II y avait aussi un vieil horame inert: ses freres 
et ses soeurs , bouleverses par 1' evenement, perdaient 1 "esprit 
et le bon sens, devenaient lncapables de reconnaltre ni l'est 
ni 1'ouest. 6 brahmane, jadls dans cette ville de Sravastl, 
il y avait un jeune horame qui venait de se raarier avec une jeune 
fille tres belle et vertueuse. Peu apres il fit Eaillite et 
devenait tres pauvre . Sea beaux parents voulaient recuperer 
leur fille pour la marler A une autre personne. Averti. il cach- 
ait un couteau sous ea chemise, allait voir ses beaux parents 



84 



Buddhist Studies Review 7, 1-2 (1990) 



et leur demands: 

- Oil est ma femme? 

- Ta femme travaille a l'ombre d'un arbre dans la cour, 
repondit la belle-mere. 

Le jeune hotnme alia voir sa femme la ou elle travaillait, 
et lui demand a: 

- Pourquoi tes parents t'ont-ils arrachee a moi pour te 
marier a une autre personnel 

- Ce que tu dis n'est pas vrai, repliqua la jeune femme. 
Je ne veux plus t'ecouter. 

Emporte par la colere, le pauvre homme tetlra son cuuteau, 
tua sa femme sur le coup, puis ftappa le couteau dans sa propre 
ventre tout en criant: 'II vaut mieux que nous mourrions ensembles!' 

6 brahmane, la separation de celui qu'on aime est souffrance, 
la rencontre de celui qu'on halt est souffrance. Ce sont des 
scenes de triscesse indescript ibles . 

Mors le brahmane Nadijangha dit: 

- C'est vrai, o Bienheureux, ces souffrances existent, et 
ce n'est pas du plaisir. II y a quelques annfees J'ai eu un en- 
fant emporte par 1 ' impermanence . Jour et nuit je tie pouvais oub- 
lier son image adorable. Hon affliction etait si grande que 
je perdais la tete: je cherchais man enfant partout et demandais 
a tout le monde ou etait mon enfant. Aujourd'hui le sramana 
Gautama m ' a bien explique; tout ce qu'il a dit est vrai mais 
pas du tout evident la ceux qui sont accables de douleur et done 
ignorants du fait que tout est impermanent]. 

- Malntenant c'est le moment d'y reflechlr, dit le Bhagavat. 

Le brahmane Hadijartgha se leva, fit trois tours autour du 
Bouddha pour le saluer, puis s'en retourna au palais royal, et 
rapporta a la reine Mallika ce qui s 'etait passee. 

La reine se rendlt aupres du rol Prasenajit et lui dit: 

- Majeste! j'al quelques questions a vous demander, veuil- 

lez avoir l'obligeance de repondre a toutes mes questions. Sa 

7 
este aime-t-e,lle le prince Lieou-li ? 

- .le l'aime bien, repondit le roi. 

- Si le prince etait soumis a 1 ' impermanence , Sa Majeste 



Ekottaragama XI 



85 



serait-elle affligee? 

- Mon affliction serait grande. 

Alnsi Sa Majeste a reconnu que la separation de la per- 

sonne qu'on aime est souffrance. Sa Majeste pense-t-elle toujours 

8 

au prince Yi-lo 7 

- Oui, parce que je 1' adore. 

- Si le prince n'etait plus, Sa Majeste serait-elle triste? 

- Je serai3 tres triste. 

- D'apres ce qui a ete dit, nous savons bien que la separa- 
tion de l'etre aime n'apporte jamais de la jouissance. Sa Majes- 

9 
te pense-t-elle a la Ksatriya Sa-lo-t 'o ? 

- Je l'aime bien, Je pense souvent a elle. 

Si la reine Sa-lo-t'o trepassait, Sa Majeste serait- 
ella triste? 

- Je serais tres triste, 

Ainsi Sa Majeste a confirme que la separation de celui 
qu'on aime est souffrance, Sa Majeste eprouve-t-elle de 1 'amour 
pour moi? 

- Naturellement , je t'aime bien, cherie. 

- Supposons que mon corps subisse 1 ' impermanence , Sa Majeste 
serait-elle triste? 

- S'il t 'arrive quelque chose, je serais tres deprime,. 

Majeste, vous avez confirme encore une fois que la 
separation de celui qu'on aime et la reunion avec celui qu'o« 
halt ne Bont pas de la Joie, Pourquoj. Sa Majeste pense-t-elle 
souvent au peuple du Ka£i-Kosala? 

J'alme bien le peuple du Kasi-Kosala. 

Supposons que ce peuple soit frappe par 1 ' impermanence. 
Sa Majeste serait-elle triste? 

Si le peuple du Kaei-Kosala n'etait plus, ma vie ne serait 
plus en securite, ne parlons pas de tristesse. Car ce peuple 
a beaucoup contribue a mon existence; quand la vie est en danger, 
la tristesse est peu de chose. 

- Ainst 11 faut savoir que la separation de celui qu'on 
aime est souffrance et non pas Jouissance. 

Alors le roi Prasenajit se tourna dans la direction du Bien- 
heureux, s 'agenouilla, les mains jointes et prononca ces paroles: 
'C'est merveilleux! c'est merveilleux! L 'enseignement du Bienheur- 



86 



Buddhist Studies Review 7, 1-2 (1990) 



eux est miraculeux . Le sramana Gautama a des ldees tres subtiles. 
II explique conformement a la vGrite. ch6rie, le rol s'ad- 
ressa a la reine, dor^navant J'aurais encore plus de considera- 
tions pour toi, je ferals attention a tes parures et a ton hahil- 
lement de telle facon qu'il n ' y ait plus de difference entre 
tol et moi . ' 

Quand le Bhagavat avait entendu la discussion entre la reine 
Mallika et le roi Prasenajit, il disalt aux bhiksu: 'La reine 
est tres intelligente . Si le roi Prasenajit m'avait eu pose 
ces questions, J'aurais repondu de la m^me facon en lui adre3sant 
les mSmes questions que la reine. D'ailleurs, 5 bhiksu, la reine 
Mallika est parmi les meilleurs de mes sravaka {disciples du 
premier niveau) lalques qui ont la foi la plus solide et les 
resultats les plus brillants.* 

Apres avoir entendu ces paroles preeieuses du Bouddha , 
les bhiksu etaient tres heureux et les mettaient respectueusement 
en pratique . ' 

4. Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois, quand le Bouddha risidait 
au pays des Bhagya , au mont Sisuaara, dans le pare des gazelles 
nomm£ Bhisanika vana , il y avait un maltre de maison nomrae Nakula- 
[pitr] qui vint ee prosterner aux pieds du Bienheureux, se tint 
debout A ses c6tes, puis, apr^s un moment, lui adressa ces par- 
oles : 

Je suis vleux, ravage par des maladies et des soucis. 
Je venais respectueusement prier le Bienheureux de bien vouloir 
divulguer un enseignement approprie qui permet au multitude d' 
gtres vivants de pouvoir passer une longue dur6e dans la tran- 
quillite. 

- Comrae voue avez dit, rfipondit le Bienheureux, le corps 
humain est tr£s vulnerable, il n'est protege que par une mince 
couche de la peau. il nous cause beaucoup de peur et de soucis, 
comment pouvons - nous y prendre refuge 17 maltre de maison, 
il est vrai que 1 'esprit prend refuge dans le corps, raais seule- 
ment pour quelques minutes de joie. C'est done l'esprit stupide 
et non pas l'esprit de sagesse . C'est pourquoi. maftre de 
maison, quoique le corps soit malade , il faut faire de telle 
s :tt que l'esprit tie l'est pas. Pour cela vous devez faire 



Ekottaragama XI 



87 



des efforts pour apprendre. 

Ayant entendu ces paroles [du Bouddha], le maltre de maison 
se leva, se prosterna aux pieds du Bienheureux et se retira . 
II se dit: Maintenant je dois aller voir le venerable Sariputra 
pour m'enquerlr du sens des paroles [du Bouddha]. 

Hon loin de la, le venerable Sariputra etait assis au pied 
d'un arbre. Rakula[pltr] arriva, se prosterna a ses pieds et 
s'assit a ses cBtes, Le venerable Sariputra lui demands: 

- 6 maltre de maison, vous avez l'air paisible et joy- 
eux. Quelle en est la cause? Est-ce parce que vous avez ecoute 
1 ' enseignement aupres du Bouddha? 

- C'est vrai, venerable Sariputra, Je suis paisible et joy- 
eux parce que le Bienheureux a verse l'ambroisie de son enseigne- 
ment dans mon coeur. 

- Comment avez -vous recu le versement de l'ambroisie de 

son enseignement dans votre coeur? 

- Voici ce qui s'etait passe: J ' ai dit au Bienheureux que 
je suis vleux, souvent malade et tres malheuteux . J'ai prle le 
Bienheureux de bien voulolr analyser ce corps pour que les tires 
vivants et moi-m6me puissions vivre tranquillement . Alors le 
Bienheureux m'a dit: "C'est vrai, 8 maitre de maison, le corps 
humain est tres fragile et vulnerable, il n'est protege que par 
une mince couche de la peau. Gr8ce a ce corps l'esprit a un cer- 
tain moment de joie, mais il n'est pas conscient de la longue 
duree de la souffrance sans limite . C'est pourquoi, 6 maltre 
de maison, quoique le corps soit malade, il faut que l'esprit 
soit en paix. Pour cela vous devez faire des efforts pour ap- 
prendre." Le Bienheureux a verse dans mon coeur cette ambroisie 
de son enseignement. 

Pourquoi n'avez-vous pas demande des explications plus 
detaillees du Tathagata: Comment le corps est en danger mais 
l'esprit est sans soucis? Comment le corps est malade mais l'es- 
prit ne l'est pas? 

- Je n'al pas le niveau sufflsant pour poser ces questions 
au Bienheureux. Je vous prle de bien voulolr m'expliquer. 

Alors SSriputra dit: 

- Ecoutez bien et reflechissez bien, Je vais essayer de 
vous expliquer tout cela. 



86 



Buddhist Studies Review 7. 1-2 (1990) 



- Oui, venerable. Je aula prfit a recevoir votre enseignement,. 
Sariputra adressa ainsi le ma It re de maison: 

mattre de maison, les gens vulgaires ne voient pas 
les hommes saints, ne resolvent pas 1 ' enseignement des saints, 
n'acceptent pas des conseils; ils voient rarement les gens vertu- 
eux et ne s'associent avec eux . lis ont l'idee preconcue que 
la matiere (rupa) c'est le moi , que la matiere appartient au 
sol, que le moi appartient a la matiere, que dans la matiere 
il y a le moi, que dans le moi il y a la matiere, que d 'autre 
matiere et la mattere a moi se reunisfient «n un seul 
endroit. Une fols qu'elles se sont reunies, la nouvelle matiere 
de deteriore, se transforme sans cesse, dans laquelle apparais- 
sent des souffrances. lis ont l'idee preconfue que les sensations 
(vedana) . . . les notions (samjfia ) , » . les volitions ( samskara ) , , , 
les connaissances (vijfia^a) - appartiennent au moi, que dans 
les connaissances 11 y a le moi, que dans le moi il y a des con- 
naissances, que d'autres connaissances et la mienne se reunissent 
en un seul endroit. Une fois qu'elles se sont reunies, les con- 
naissances ainsi formees se deteriorent, se transforment sans 
cesse, dans lesquelles apparaissent des souffrances. maitre 
de maison, comme cela le corps a ses souffrances, 1 'esprit a 
aussi les siens. 

- Quand le corps souffre, le mattre de maison demanda a 
SaTiputra, que faut-il faire pour que l'esprlt ne souffre pas7 

SaTiputra dit: 

- 6 maitre de maison, les disciples des saints venerent 
et ecoutent les saints, observent les abstinences, s'associent 
avec eux ensembles avec des amis vertueux, cherchent a les fre- 
quenter, lis ne pretendent pas que le moi est materiel, que 
dans la matiere il y a le moi, que dans le moi il y a la matiere, 
que la matiere est le moi ou qu'il appartient au moi, ou que 
le moi appartient a la matiere, C'est pourquol ils n'ont paa 
ni soucis, nl souffrances quand la matiere change, se transforme 
sous l'effet des maladies. lis ne voient non plus que les sensa- 
tions, les notions, les volitions, les connaissances appartien- 
nent au moi, ils ne voient pas que dans les connaissances il 
y a le moi, que dans le moi il y a les connaissances, que les 
connaissances appartiennent au moi, que le moi appartient aux 



Ekottaragama XI 



89 






connaissances. C'est pourquoi ils n'ont ni soucis. ni souffran- 
ces quand les connaissances se deteriorent par la reunion des 
differentes connaissances. C'est ainsi, 8 maitre de maison, 
que le corps peut etre souffrant sans que l'esprlt le soit . 
Ceci dit, pour arriver a ce niveau il faut faire des efforts 
dans les etudes et la pratique, il faut vous exetcer a maltriser 
le corps et l'esprlt, et a ne pas s'attacher a eux. 

Ayant entendu ces paroles de venerable Sariputra, le maitre 
de maison Nakula[pltrl se rejouissait et les mettait respectu- 
eusement en pratique.' 



NOTES 



Voir T2, 571a 23 et suiv , 

Pour les erois vetements ou kasaya, voir BSR 2, 1-2, p. 46. 
Pour l'aranyaka, voir BSR 6, 2, p. 128, n.5. 
Litteralement : 'lourd'. 

Cf. Majjhimanikaya II, p. 106 et suiv. (Piyajatikasutta). Voir I.B. Horner 
(tr.) Middle Length Sayings II, pp. 292-6. 

6 Le chinois est une tentative sans sueces de traduirc Nali/NS.di- (tlge cre- 
use, tuyau) jangha la) (has de ou devant de la jambe) ■ 'bambmi - partie su- 
perieure du bras, epaule' +TW . 

7 &*& ce qui suggere peut-Stre 'Vajlrl' (Baj jhimanikaya II, p. 110} 

8 fy%i> avec Invocation de 'VidQdabha* (i'iiid.). 

9 iJ£l&l J fc> suggerant 'Vasabha' (ibid.). 

10 Conine 11 convient dans ce discoura le texto pall ne contient pas cette 
derni*re phrase banale comme fait le chinois. 

CI. SamyuttanikSya III, 1-5: trad, analalse: P.L. Woodward, Kindred Sau- 



11 



ings. Part III, PTS, Londrea 1925. 54, 75, pp. 1-5; trad, allemande: Nyanaponi- 
ka: Gotamo Btiddho, Lehrreden des Samyutta-Nikaya (SH 17-34), ' horae subslclvae 
philosophise 4', Harabourg 1967, pp. 36-8. 

' Le chinois rend le p3li 'Bhagga', 'Bhagya'C?) en Sanscrit; c£. 'Bharga' 
dans Samyutta-Nifca!/, Vol.1 (trad, hindi), de J. KSsyap et Dharmaraksit EMaha- 
bodhl Sabha), Sarnath/Varanasi 1954, p. 321. 



Buddhist Studies Review 8, 1-2 (1991) - Joshi 



These verses freely translated here were composed by 
Mahapandita Ratnakaragupta who probably lived in the eleventh 
century. Three works are attributed to him in the Tibetan 
Tanjur, and two of his short ritual texts are preserved in the 
Sadhanamala, a collection of 312 sadhanas, a manuscript of 
which was written in 1165 C.E. Buddhology was thus 
transformed into Theology before it died in its homeland during 
the age of the Great Adepts. 



(To be continued) 



130 



EKOTTARAGAMA (XII) 

traduit de la version chinoise par 
Jhirh Hnven-Vi 

Fascicule sixieme 

Partie 13 

Reeevoir des of frandes 

5. ''Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
Sravasti 2 , dans le bois de Jeta, au pare d'Anathapindada, entoure 
de plusiers milliers de disciples et de fideles qui venaient ecouter 
sa predication, il y avait un brahmane nomme 
"Predispose-en-faveur-des-fleuves" 3 qui s'approcha du 
Bienheureux, deposa son lourd fardeau, et se tint debout a ses 
cotes. H se dit: Aujourd'hui le sramana Gautama va donner une 
predication a plusiers milliers de disciples et de fideles. 



1 Voir T2. 573cl et suiv.; cf. Majjhimanikaya I, p.36 et suiv. 
(Vatthupamasulta); voir LB. Horner drX Middle Length Sayings 1. pp.45-5L 

Outre les recensions pali et de l'EA du Valthupamasutta. une troisieme 
version de ce discours se trouve dans le Madhyamagama (MA). TL 575a21 et 
suiv. Pour une etude comparative du lexte pali et celui du MA voir Thich 
Minh Chau. The Chinese Madhyama Agama and ihe Pali Majjhima 
Nikaya (Saigon 1964), p.228 el suiv, 

2 Quant a la localisation du sutra, l'EA saccord avec le pali, tandis que celle 
du MA correspond avec ce qui s'appelle selon le pali Tarbre Ajapalanigrodha 
sur le rivage de la Neranjara pres d'Uruveli*. 

3 En ce qui eoncerne la bain rituelle, Tredispose-en-faveur-des-fleuves" j^ 
/g.j est thematiquement un nom qui cc-nvient au Sundarika-Bhiradvaja de la 
recension pali, et qui dans le MA s'appelle "Pur de par 1'eau" 'iVHf . 



Dl 



Buddhist Studies Review 8. 1-2 (1991) - EA XII 

Cependant je suis aussi pur et serein que lui, puisque le sramana 
Gautama mange des aliments riches et succulents alors que je ne 
mange que des fruits ordinaires pour ma subsistence. En ce 
moment le Bienheureux savait ce que le brahmane pensait et il 
dit aux bhiksu: 

II y a vingt-et-un comportements malsains 4 qui corrompent 
l'esprit des gens et les conduisent forcement dans les voies 
mauvaises (durgati), ils leur empechent la renaissance dans un 
monde meilleur. Quels sont ces vingt-et-un comportements? 

1- La haine 5 

2- Le desir de tuer 

3- La paresse 

4- L'attachement aux plaisirs 

5- Le doute [permanent] 

6- La colere 

7- La jalousie 
.8- L'inquietude 

9- Le depit 

10- La rancoeur 

11- L'impudence 

12- L'impudicite 

13- La duperie 

14- La malhonnetete 

15- Le faux raisonnement (lit: forger, fabriquer) 



4 Lit. '21 liens' { ££ , grantka); le pali a itpakkilesa, au nombre de 16. et 
le MA a '21 depravations' ou 'pollutions' {vidusana, non pas au sens donne dans 
Edgerton, BHSD, p.487). 

5 II est a noter que TEA commence avec 'la haine' (dvesa), le pali avec "la 
cupidite et la convoitise' (abhijjha-visamalobha} et le MA avec *les vues fausses*. 



132 



Buddhist Studies Review 8, 1-2 (1991) - EA XII 

16- Le desir de lutter 

17- La vanite 

18- L'egocentrisme (c.a.d, I'amour-propre, la 

hauteur) 

19- L'envie 

20- L'orgueil 

21- La cupidite. 

6 bhiksu! si quelqu'un possede ces vingt-et-un 
comportements malsains, son esprit est infecte, il s'engagera 
forcement dans des voies mauvaises, il lui sera impossible de 
renaitre dans un monde meilleur. Cest comme un vetement 
nouveau [fabriquel de la laine fine, tout blanc, qui jaunit au 
cours des annees par la poussiere et les saletes. On ne peut le 
colorer en bleu, en jaune, en rouge ou en noir. Pourquoi? Parce 
qu'il a la poussiere et les saletes. Ainsi, 6 bhiksu, si quelqu'un 
laisse impregner son esprit des vingt-et-un comportements 
malsains, il est certain qu'ils le conduisent forcement dans des 
voies mauvaises, qu'ils lui empechent la renaissance dans un 
monde meilleur. Au contraire, s'il y a quelqu'un dont l'esprit 
n'est pas infecte par ces vingt-et-un comportements malsains, il 
est certain qu'il renattra dans les cieux et non pas en enfer. 
Cest comme un tissu de laine fine, tout blanc et propre: on peut 
le teindre en n'importe quelle couleur bleu, jaune, rouge ou noir; 
avec une reussite certaine. Pourquoi ? Parce que le tissu est 
blanc et propre. 11 en est de meme pour une personne dont 
Pesprit a ete purifie des vingt-et-un comportements malsains; il 
est certain que cette personne renaitra dans les cieux et non pas 
en enfer. 

S'il arrive a un disciple des saints (arya-sravaka) d'avoir un 
comportement haineux, il faut qu'il essaye de le maitriser. II 



133 






Buddhist Studies Review 8, 1-2 (1991) - EA XII 

faut faire la meme chose pour les autres comportemems - le 
desir de tuer, etc. S'il arrive a un disciple des saints d'etre 
purifie de la haine et des autres comportements malsains, il a un 
comportement paisible et gai, et de la bienveillance (maitri) 
pour tout le monde sans distinction aucune. Cette bienveillance 
universale apportera la paix et la joie a tout le monde. Et c'est 
dans la paix et la joie qu'il aura la vue juste des choses. II a 
aussi de la compassion (karuna) pour tout le monde sans 
distinction aucune. Cette compassion apportera la paix et la joie 
a tout le monde. Et c'est dans la paix et la joie qu'il aura la vue 
juste des choses. II aura le plaisir (mudita) d'avoir apporte la 
paix et la joie a tout le monde sans distinction aucune. Ce 
plaisir apportera la paix et la joie a tout le monde. Et c'est dans 
la paix et la joie qu'il aura la vue juste des choses. II aura la 
fermete dans la protection [de la Doctrine] 6 pour tout le monde 
sans distinction aucune. Cette fermete apportera la paix et la 
joie a tout le monde. Et c'est dans la paix et la joie qu'il aura la 
vue juste des choses. 

II parvient ainsi a la foi inebranlable dans le Tathagata. 
Alors il brandit inebranlablement le drapeau [de la Doctrine]. 
Parmi les dieux, les dragons, les asura, les sramana, les 
brahmanes, ou les habitants de ce monde, il arrive ainsi a la 
paix, la joie, la vue juste des choses. Ainsi est vraiment le 
Tathagata, perfectionne, pleinement illumine, doue de la science 
et de la bonne pratique, bien alle, connaisseur du monde(des 
mondes), chef de la caravane, maltre des dieux et des hommes, 
le pleinement eveille qui protege tous. Ainsi cette [foi] lui [le 






6 Lit,: Tesprit protecteur', ce qui veul dire upekkha (Majjhima), upeksa (lit 
dans le MA: 'renoncer"). 



Buddhist Studies Review 8, 1-2 (1991) - EA XII 

disciple] apporte la paix et la joie et il a la vue juste des choses. 

II parvient encore [a la foi inebranlable] dans la Doctrine: 7 
La Doctrine du Tathagata est tout a fait lucide, elle ne change 
jamais, elle est veneree. Ainsi un homme sage doit observer la 
Doctrine, dans laquelle il aura la paix et la joie. II vient de 
nouveau [a la foi inebranlable] dans la Communaute: la 
Communaute du Tathagata est pur et serein, honnete et 
conformement a la Doctrine; [ses membres] obtiennent les 
accomplissernents parfaits qui suivent: ['observance des regies 
religieuses (slla\ la concentration (samadhi\ la sagesse (prajM), 
la delivrance (moksal l'eveil. La Communaute des saints 
comporte quatre paires (celui qui entre dans le courant™ arhat) 
et huit personnes (ci.d. les quatre arya, dont chacun(e) realise le 
'chemin' et le 'fruit' de son niveau de saintete). Ce sont les 
saints de la Communaute du Tathagata. lis sont respectables, 
venerables, et peuvent vraiment faire [ce qui doit etre fait], 
Cette [foi] lui [le disciple] apporte la paix et la joie et il a la vue 
juste des choses. II se sert de sa concentration, de son esprit 
serein depourvu de toute impurete et de tout comportement 
malsain, de son caractere doux; il peut manifester ses pouvoirs 
surnaturels; il peut ainsi connaitre ses innombrables vies 
anterieures; connaitre parfaitement ce qui s'etait passe il y a une 
generation, deux generations. . . dix generations. . . cent 
generations. . . d'innombrables generations anterieures; connaitre 
ses noms, ses prenoms, ses facons de vivre, sa joie, sa peine, ses 



7 Tandis que U liste des qualites de Buddha (buddha-guna) est assez proche 
du pali (iti pi so bhagava araham. . X les enumerations qui suivent des 
dhamma- et samgha -guna dans TEA rappelle de loin seulement le pali 
svakkhaio bhagavata dhammo. . . supalipanno bkagavalo sdvakasangho. . . . 



134 



135 



Buddhisi Studies Review 8, 1-2 (1991) - EA XII 

succes, ses defaites, etc. . . connattre la pensee des etres vivants, 
il peut utiliser son oeil divin pour observer les differentes 
especes d'etres vivants, leurs aspects physiques, leurs caracteres, 
leurs comportements, leurs vies successives, leurs evolutions 
selon leur karma (bonnes ou mauvaises actions). 

II se sert de sa concentration (samadhi) pour se purifier, 
pour eliminer les mauvaises actions, les mauvaises pensees, les 
comportements malsains, et realise ainsi des pouvoirs surnaturels. 
II se sert ensuite du 'plus haut pouvoir surnaturel': devenir libre 
des souillures. II realise [les Verites] de la souffrance, de 
1'origine de la souffrance, de la cessation de la souffrance et [du 
chemin qui] conduit a la cessation de la souffrance. Apres cette 
realisation, il se trouve libere de la souillure des plaisirs des sens, 
de la souillure de 1'ignorance. Dans la liberation le savoir vient 
qu'il est libere, et il comprend: 'La naissance et la mort sont 
detruites, la conduite de Brahma (la vie de purification) a pris sa 
fin, ce qui devait etre fait a ere fait, il n'y aura plus de devenir 
[pour moil*. 

Un bhiksu qui sait se conduire ainsi est un veritable disciple 
des saints; son esprit est libere; meme s'il consomme beaucoup 
de boissons et d'aliments savoureux, il ne fait rien de mal. 
Pourquoi? Parce qu'il n'a plus de convoitises, parce qu'il n'a plus 
de desirs, de haine, de rancune, de doute, 11 est nomme un 
bhiksu, parmi les bhiksu, qui, au sens le plus haut, est lave par 
un lavage interne. 

Alors le brahmane "Predispose-en-faveur-des-fleuves" dit au 
Bienheureux: Sramana Gautama! vous devriez aller vous baigner 



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Buddhisi Studies Review 8, 1-2 (1991) - EA XII 

dans le fleuve Sundarika 8 . 

- 6 brahmane! le Bienheureux demanda, qu'y-a-t*il de I'eau 
du fleuve Sundarika? 

Le brahmane repondit: L'eau est tres claire. Cest un fleuve 
benefique. Quiconque se baigne dans ce fleuve se debarrasse 
entierement de tous 1« maux. 

Alors le Bienheureux recita ce poeme: 

Notre corps est le resultat de nos actions pendant 

d'innombrables milliers d'annees passees. 
Le bain dans ce fleuve soi-disant benefique, 
Ainsi que dans d'autres petites mares, 
Ne peut jamais nous debarrasser des nos actions 

tenebreuses. 
Les imbeciles aiment aller se baigner souvent 

dans ce fleuve; 
Cependant avec leurs maux anterieurs accumules, 
L'eau du fleuve ne peut pas purifier leur karma. 
L'homme pur vit toujours heureux 
Dans robservation des regies de purete. 
L'homme pur mene une vie de purete, 
Sa fermete lui apportera surement de bons 



8 U iransliteration chinoise est proche de 'Sundarika', a. Horner, op. cfc. 
p.49. n.l. se referant au brahmane Sundarika-Bhiradvaja qui. dans d'autres 
endroiis du canon pali. est presente comme pratiquani du culte du feu sur les 
rivages du fleuve Sundarika. Touiefois dans le Majjhima I, p.39, le fleuve 
s'appelle Bahuka. 



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Buddhist Studies Review 8. 1-2 (199!) - EA XII 

resultats. 
Si quelqu'un s'abstient de voler, 
De tuer, 
De mentir 

SMI considere les autres comme lui-meme, 
II peut se baigner n'importe ou, 
II est tou jours paisible dans son bonheur serein. 
Comment ce fleuve peut-il nous purifier? 
N'est-il pas comme si un aveugle etait [capable 

de] reveler ce qui est cache 9 ? 

Maintenant le brahmane dit avec vehemence au 
Bienheureux: 

- Gautama! maintentant je suis comme un bossu qui 
retrouve son dos droit, comme un aveugle qui retrouve la vue, 
comme un egare qui retrouve le bon chemin, comme une 
personne [jadrs] incapable de voir et maintenant douee des yeux 
pour voir qui trouve la lumiere dans une maison obscure. O 
oui! le sramana Gautama a utilise d'innombrables moyens 
salvifiques pour nous expliquer le merveilleux Dharma. Je veux 
suivre votre Chemin et pratiquer conforrnement. 

Ainsi le brahmane "Predispose-en-faveur-des-fleuves" 
[demanda a etre admis dans la communaute du Samgha,] et il 
recut les regies completes de moine par egard desquelles les 
jeunes hommes de famille quittent la maison pour entrer dans la 
vie sans maison. II suivait strictement 1'enseignement Idu 
Bouddha] et pratiquait la conduite de Brahma sans egal [jusqu'au 



9 Lit. 'rendre ue i^ui est lenebreux/secrel'. 



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Buddhist Studies Review 8, 1-2 (1991) - EA XII 

temps] qu'il savait vraiment: La naissance et la mort sont 
detruites, la conduite de Brahma a pris sa fin, ce qui deya.t etre 
fait a ete fait, il n'y aura plus de devenir [pour mod A ce 
moment-la, le venerable Sundarika 10 devint un perfectionne 
iarhat). Le venerable Sundarika ecoutait les paroles de 
Bouddha, se rejouissait et les mettait respectueusement en 
pratique.' 

6 n * Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
Rajagrha, au Mont De Vautours (Grdhrakuta) avec 500 grands 
bhiksu Sakra, le roi des dieux, ayant passe dans la journee, 
revint dans la soiree aupres du Bienheureux, se prostema a ses 
pieds, puis s'installa a ses cotes. II recita le poeme suivant pour 
demander rexplication au Tathagata: 

[Les grands maltresl ont souvent declare 

Que ceux qui ont traverse le cycle de la 

renaissance sont purifies. 
Maintenant que fai traverse le ravin des 

renaissances, 
Je venais vous demander de bien vouloir 

nVexpliquer le sens profond de ces mots. 
J'ai constate que tous les etres vivants ici presents 
Ont fait de bonnes actions, et ont etes encourages 
A accomplir des bienfaits de differentes sortes. 



10 Ici, au lieu de Tredispose-ea-faveur-des-fleuves" comme ci-dessus. le 

nom transcrit est 'Sundarika'; cf. n.8. 

U Cf. Samyuttanikiya I. pp.233-4 (Yajamanasutta); vo ir CAP. Rhys Davids 

(ir.), Kindred Sayings I, pp.297-8. 



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Buddhist Studies Review 8. 1-2 (1991) - EA XII 

Mais quelle est Taction la plus meritoire? 
Maintenant que vous etes au Mont des Vautours, 
Veuillez nous expliquer ce qu'il faut faire en 
priori te. 

Le Bienheureux, [sachant la bonne intention de Sakra qui 
avail pose cette question pour aider les autres,] lui repondit en 
recitant ce poeme: 

Dans les quatre voles mauvaises [Tenfer, les 'ames 

errantes et affamees', les animaux, les asura] 

on n'a pas les moyens de faire le bien d'utie 

facon complete. 
Seuls les saints ont ces moyens. 
Car ils ont pratique les regies completes de la 

purete, 
Ils ont la foi solide en la Doctrine en la mettant 

en application, 
lis n'ont plus la cupidite, ni la colere, 
Ils ont la vue juste des choses, et sont purifies. 
L'action la plus meritoire pour eux 
Est de sauver tous [les etres vivants] du ravin [des 

renaissancesl 
Tandis que les etres vivants 
Qui veulent faire de bonnes actions 
Pour evoluer vite dans la bonne voie, 
Doivent choisir la subvention au besoins du 

Samgha, 
Lequel sauvera d'innombrables etres vivants. 
Comme l'ocean produit d'innombrables choses 

precieuses, 
Le Samgha des saints 



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Buddhist Studies Review 8. 1-2 (1991) - EA Xll 

Donnera des predications sur la brillante sagesse. 

Pour vous aider a evoluer vite 

Je dis qu'il faut subventionner aux besoins du 

Samgha. 
Cest Taction la plus meritoire. 
N'oubliez jamais ces paroles tres importantes. 

Apres avoir entendu ces paroles precieuses du Bouddha, 
Sakra, le roi des dieux, se prosterna a ses pieds; il en etait tres 
heureux et il les mettait respectueusement en pratique. 

7. Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois, quand le Bouddha residait a 
Rajagrha, au Mont des Vautours (Grdhrakuta) avec 500 grands 
bhiksu, le venerable Subhuti etait seul dans sa eabane de 
meditation dans la citadelle de Rajagrha, pres du Mont des 
Vautours. En ce moment le venerable Subhuti souffrait d'une 
maiadie grave, il voulait savoir quelle etait Torigine de cette 
souffrance, comment se guerir, quel est le devenir de cette 
souffrance apres la guerison. II prepara le tapis et le coussin de 
meditation, se mit en position de lotus, le corps droit, Tesprit 
concentre, il meditait sur la facon d'eliminer les souff ranees. 

Alors Sakra, le roi des dieux, sachant la pensee du venerable 



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Buddhist Studies Review 8, 1-2 (1991) - EA XII 

Subhuti, donna I'ordre a Pancasikha 12 en recitant ce poeme: 

[Le venerable Subhuti] est tres actif dans sa 

liberation de tout attachement, 
II s'entraine souvent au Mont des Vautours. 
Aujourd'hui il a un grand souci, 
Et il arrive a purifier ses sens par [le sejour] dans 

la vacuite. 
Depechons-nous de lui rendre visite pour 

demander conseils. 
Seulement en observant la physionomie du 

venerable 
Nous recolterons de grands profits. 
Cest ainsi que nous agrandissons notre amas de 

merites. 

Pancasikha dit: 'Oui, Seigneur!' Et Sakra, le roi des dieux, 
accompagne de 500 deva (dieux) et de Pancasikha, va en un clin 
d'oeil du del de Trayastrimsad au Mont des Vautours, non loin 
de la cabane du venerable Subhuti. [Sakra] dit a Pancasikha en 
recitant ce poeme: 

Vous avez fait toutes les bonnes actions, 

Vous avez pratique la meditation, 

Vous etes sociable, serein, et vous avez une belle 

voix claire et etendue. 
Allez voir [le venerable Subhuti]. 



12 #£. ifc,4j doit certainement represenier le Gandharva Pancasikha; cf. 

E. Waldschmidt, Bruchstucke buddhisiischer Sutras mis dem zentralasiatiscken 
Sanskritkanon (Leipzig 1932, Wiesbaden 1979), p.63 (259). n3 (Sakraprasnasulra 1). 



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Buddhist Studies Review 8, 1-2 (1991) - EA XII 



Pancasikha dit: 'Oui, Seigneurf Puis il accorda sa guitare de 
lapis-lazuli, alia au devant du venerable Subhuti, le complimenta 
en chantant: 

Vos inquietudes sont completement finies, 

Vos illusions et vos peines sont parties, 

Vos impuretes- ont completement et pour tou jours 

pris fin, 
Votre meditation vous a conduit a TeveiL 
Votre esprit est calme, le fleuve Ide vos passions] 

tari. 
Veuillez detroner Mara et conduire les etres 

vivants a la realisation [du dharma supremel 
Votre travail et votre vertu seront grandioses 

comme 1'ocean, 
Nous esperons pouvoir reussir rapidement pour 

etre digne de votre confiance. 
Vos yeux purifies ressemblent aux belles fleurs de 

lotus 
Qui n'ont aucune tache de boue, et dont les pistils 

jaunes restent purs. 
Aujourd'hui nous sommes reunis ici, 
Dans 1'espoir de reussir a sejourner vraiment dans 

la vacuite. 
Nous avons deja traverse les quatre courants Ide 

la naissance, de la vieillesse, de la maladie et de 

la mortt 
Nous n'avons plus de souff ranees physiques, 
II nous reste la concentration et l'eveil pour 

parvenir a la perfection. 
Moi-m6me et les 500 deva ici presents, 



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Buddhist Studies Review g, 1-2 (1991) - EA XII 

Nous sommes venus des differentes directions 

pour presenter nos hommages 
Au Bouddha Sakyamuni et aux saints, 
Pour realiser - le plus tot sera le mieux - [le sens 

profond de] la vacuite. 

Ayant entendu eette chanson, le venerable Subhuti se leva 
et complimenta Pancasikha: Excellent, excellent, 6 Pancasikha! 
Votre voix et votre musique forment une harmonie parfaite. 
La musique ne sort pas de la parole, la parole ne s'ecarte pas de 
la musique, les deux se fusion nent en une chanson miraculeuse! 

Sakra, le roi des dieux, s'approcha du venerable Subhuti, le 
salua, se mit a ses cotes et lui demanda: 

- Pourquoi celui qui fait de bonnes actions subit des 
malheurs? Votre corps est souffrant, d'ou vient ce mal? Du corps 
ou de Pesprit? 

- Tres bien, tres bien, 6 Kausika 13 ! repondit le venerable 
Subhuti a Sakra, le roi des dieux. - II y a continuellement des 
choses (dharma) qui apparaissent, d'autres qui disparaissent. 
Toute existence est relative et relationnelle. Tout poison a son 
antidote, 6 Kausika! Les choses, Roi du Ciel, s'entremelent, 
s'eliminent, donnent naissance a autres choses. Le noir elimine 
le blanc, le blanc annule le noir. Pour guerir le desir sexuel, Roi 
du Ciel, il faut mediter que le corps est malsain. Pour guerir la 
haine il faut utiliser la bienveillance et la compassion. Pour 



13 $Q is? e£l peut-etre une maniere de transcrire Kausika, un autre 

nam de Sakra/lndra. 



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Buddhist Studies Review 8, 1-2 (1991) - EA Xll 

guerir I'ignorance et l'imbecilite il faut faire intervenir la 
sagesse. Cest ainsi, 6 Sakra, roi des dieux, que toute existence 
retournera [au niveau de la verite absolue] a la vacuite: pas 
d'ego (atmanl pas de personne (pudgala, purusa), pas de force 
vitale (ayus), pas d'ame (jiva), pas de sages ni de vulgaires, pas 
de formes ni de phenomenes, pas d'hommes ni de femmes. 
Cest comme le grand vent qui ravage les arbres, la grele qui 
detruit les fleurs, la secheresse qui fletrit les plantes, la pluie qui 
les fait epanouir. 6 Roi du Ciel, tout ce qui existe forme un 
chaos et se stabilise. J'ai eu des soucis et des inquietudes, 
maintenant que je les ai supprimes, je ne suis plus souffrant. - 
Alors Sakra, le roi des dieux, dit a Subhuti: 

- J'ai aussi eu des soucis et des inquietudes. Maintenant 
que j'ai ecoute votre enseignement, je m'en suis debarrasse. La 
plupart des gens, las de la bassesse et de la mechancete de ce 
monde, veulent retourner aux mondes celestes; mais la-haut il y 
a d'autres problemes aussi vilains. 

- Maintenant, dit le venerable Subhuti, c'est le moment 
favorable pour evoluer. 

Alors Sakra, le roi des dieux, se leva, se prosterna aux pieds 
du venerable Subhuti, fit trois tours autour de celui-ci pour le 
saluer. 

Le venerable Subhuti recita ce poeme: 

Les sages ont souvent dit ceci: 

Ceux qui font de bonnes actions ont raison de 

croire qu'ils sont en train d'evoluer vers le 

bonheur parfaiL 



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Buddhist Studies Review 8, 1-2 (1991) - EA Xll 

Cest la foi inebranable des sages. 

Entendre le Dharma pent guerir des inquietudes. 

Ayant entendu ces paroles du venerable Subhuti, Sakra, le 
roi des dieux, les mettait joyeusement en pratique.' 



FIN DE LA PARTIE 13 ET DU FASCICULE SIXIEME 



146 



NEWS AND NOTES 

British Library 

All Oriental manuscripts and books are now situated in the 
India Office Library, 197 Blaekfriars Road, London SE1 8NG (tel. 
071-412 7000), to form the Oriental and India Office Library 
Collections (01 OC) which change is reflected in the Newsletter. 
Reading Room, photographic and fax facilities have been 
enhanced by improved accommodation. By the end of 1996, 
however, these holdings and facilities will be relocated to the 
new site of the British Library at St. Pancras in central north 
London. 

British Museum 

Following the opening of the Japanese Gallery two years ago, 
another gallery will be created to house the Buddhist sculptures 
from Amaravati, hitherto concealed due to lack of public 
viewing space since 1960. The Indian display is scheduled to 
open in mid-1992. 

First Buddhist Institute in South America 

The Fundacion Instituto de Estudios Budistas was created 
towards the end of 1989 in Buenos Aires and formally 
inaugurated in the following spring at a public meeting in the 
Centro Cultural San Martin, also in the Argentine capital. This 
organisation is the brainchild of a husband and wife team, the 
Buddhologist Dr Carmen Dragonetti and Indologist Dr Fernando 
Tola (respectively President and Vice-President of the 
Fundacion), who have distinguished themselves over many years 
and effectively personify these fields of study in South America. 

The declared Objects are 'to promote, make accessible and 
elevate studies and research on Buddhism, on the cultures in 



147 












EKOTTARAGAMA (XIII) 



traduit de la version chinoise par 
Thich Huyen-Vi 

Fascicule septieme 

Partie 14 

Les cinq observances des regies de conduite 1 

1. 2 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
SravastI dans le bois de Jeta, au pare d'Anathapindada, il disait 
aux bhiksu: Dans Passemblee ici-presente, je ne vois [personne 
qui ait] une ou plusiers pratiques qui puissent conduire a I'enfer, 
a 1'animalite ou a la voie des fantomes af fames. Si la vie d'un 
homme est courte, e'est parce qu'il a tue dans sa vie anterieure. 
Celui qui aime tuer tombera dans I'enfer, dans 1'animalite ou 
dans la voie des fantomes affames; s'il peut encore reprendre la 
forme humaine, il sera mort tres jeune. Pourquoi? Parce qu'il a 
tue. C'est pourquoi, 6 bhiksu! il ne faut pas tuer. On doit 
apprendre serieusement cela. — Apres avoir entendu ces paroles 
du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux et les mettaient 
respectueusement en pratique.- 

2. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
SravastI, dans le bois de Jeta, au pare d'Anathapindada, il disait 






1 C-a-d pancastla, les cmq [observances des regies de iaj moralite. Voir 
BSR [, 1 (1983-4), p.135, n.33; 6. Lamotie, Traite II. p.782 et suiv.; 'la 
quintuple moralite de t'upisaka': s'abstenir des peches (apattfy. meurtre, vol, 
amour defend u. mensonge, usage des boissons en ivra rites' (op. cit^ p.819 el suiv.). 

2 Voir T 2, 576aU et suiv. 



169 



Buddhist Studies Review % 2 (1992> - Kkottaragama Xffl 

aux bhiksu: Dans l'assemblee ici-presente, je ne vois [personne 
qui ait] pratique le respect de la vie sans avoir la possibilite 
d'etre heureux dans ce monde ou dans 1'un des cieux et de 
realiser [finalement] le Nirvana. Celui qui respecte la vie et qui 
ne pense jamais a tuer aura une longue vie. Pourquoi? Parce 
que son esprit n'est pas perturbe, Cest pourquoi, 6 bhiksu! il 
faut respecter la vie. On doit apprendre serieusement cela. — 
Apres avoir entendu ces paroles du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient 
heureux et les mettaient respectueusement en pratique, 

3. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
Sravasti, dans le bois de Jeta, au pare d'Anathapindada, il disait 
aux bhiksu: Dans l'assemblee ici-presente, je ne vois [personne 
qui ait] une ou plusiers pratiques qui puissent conduire a l'enfer, 
a 1'animalite, a la voie des fantomes af fames, a la pauvrete 
extreme. Celui qui a l'habttude de voler tombera dans la voie 
des fantomes affames, dans 1'animalite ou dans la pauvrete. 
Pourquoi? Parce qu'il s'est empare des moyens de vivre 
d'autrui. Cest pourquoi, 6 bhiksu! il faut eviter de prendre 
quelque chose sans 1'accord du proprietaire. On doit apprendre 
serieusement cela. — Ayant entendu ces paroles du Bouddha, les 
bhiksu etaient heureux et les mettaient respectueusement en 
pratique. 

4. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
Sravasti, dans le bois de Jeta, au pare d'Anathapinda, il disait aux 
bhiksu: Dans l'assemblee ici-presente, je ne vois [personne qui 
ait] pratique la generosite par la donation sans etre recompensee 
equitablement soit en ce monde, soil dans l'un des cieux, soit par 
la possibilite de realiser [finalement] le Nirvana. Celui qui 
pratique la grande generosite beneficiera de la richesse, du 
pouvoir, du confort, de la securite; il sera heureux dans ce 






Buddhist Studies Review 9, 2 (1992) - Ekottarigama XIII 

monde ou dans le ciel. Cest pourqoi, 6 bhiksu! il faut qu'on 
pratique la generosite et que Ton chasse 1'avarice de son esprit 
On doit serieusement apprendre cela. — Ayant entendu les 
paroles du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux et les mettaient 
respectueusement en pratique. 

5. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
Sravasti . . ., il disait aux bhiksu: Dans l'assemblee ici-presente, 
je ne vois [personne qui ait] une ou plusiers pratiques qui 
puissent conduire a l'enfer, a 1'animalite, a la voie des fantomes 
affames, ou a la repugnance d'autrui. Celui qui est avide de 
sexualite, qui commet des adulteres, tombera dans l'enfer, dans 
1'animalite, dans la voie des fantomes affames, dans la 
repugnance d'autrui. Cest pourquoi, 6 bhiksu! il faut se 
maitriser par des pensees justes pour ne pas commettre 
d'adultere. On doit apprendre serieusement cela. — Ayant 
entendu ces paroles du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux et 
les mettaient respectueusement en pratique. 

6. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
Sravasti. . ., il disait aux bhiksu: Dans l'assemblee ici-presente, je 
ne vois [personne qui ait] pratique I'abstinence de la luxure ou la 
chastete sans avoir la possibilite d'etre heureux en ce monde ou 
dans Tun des cieux et de realiser [finalement] le Nirvana. O 
bhiksu! pratiquer I'abstinence de la luxure, e'est etre sur du 
bonheur en ce monde ou dans le ciel. On doit apprendre 
serieusement cela. — Ayant entendu ces paroles du Bouddha, les 
bhiksu etaient heureux et les mettaient respectueusement en 
pratique.* 

7. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
Sravasti . . ., il disait aux bhiksu: Dans l'assemblee ici-presente, 



no 



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Buddhist Studies Review 9, 2 (1992) - Ekott.riisi.iii. XIII 

je ne vois [personne qui ait] une ou plusiers pratiques qui 
conduisent a 1'enfer, a 1'animalite, a la voie des fantomes 
affames. Celui qui merit, qui deforme la verite, qui melange le 
faux au vrai, tombera dans I'enfer, dans l'animalite, dans la voie 
des fantomes affames, et aura une mauvaise haleine qui fait 
eloigner les autres. Pourquoi? Parce qu'il a menti. Cest 
pourquoi, 6 bhiksu! il ne faut pas mentir. On doit apprendre 
serieusement cela. - Ayant entendu ces paroles du Bouddha, les 
bhiksu etaient heureux et les mettaient respectueusement en 
pratique. 

8. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
Sravasti . . ., il disait aux bhiksu: Dans 1'assemblee ici-presente, 
je ne vois [personne qui ait] pratique le respect de la verite sans 
avoir la possibility d'etre heureux en ce monde ou dans I'un des 
cieux, et de realiser [finalement] le Nirvana. Celui qui dit 
toujours la verite a une haleine parfumee tres appreciee des 
autres. Cest pourquoi, 6 bhiksu! il faut respecter la verite. On 
doit apprendre serieusement cela. - Ayant entendu ces paroles 
du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux et les mettaient 
respectueusement en pratique. 

9. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
Sravasti . . ., il disait aux bhiksu: Dans 1'assemblee ici-presente, 
je ne vois [personne qui ait] une ou plusiers pratiques qui 
conduisent a Tenter, a ranimalitc, a la voie des fantomes 
affames, a 1'imbecillite. Celui qui aime boire de I'alcool [ou se 
droguer] perd au fur et mesure son intelligence et sa lucidite; il 
sera condamne a 1'imbecillite. Cest pourquoi, 6 bhiksu! il ne 
fait pas boire de I'alcool. On doit apprendre serieusemerft cela. 
— Ayant entendu ces paroles du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient 
heureux et les mettaient respectueusement en pratique. 



172 



Buddhist Studies Review 9, 2 (1992) - Ekottarag.m* XIII 



10. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
Sravasti . , ., il disait aux bhiksu: Dans I'assemblee ici-presente, 
je ne vois [personne qui ait] bu de Talcool. Celui qui ne bois 
pas peut developper indefiniment sa sagesse; il sera heureux 
dans ce monde ou dans Tun des cieux, et realisera [finalement] le 
Nirvana. Cest pourquoi, 6 bhiksu! il faut pratiquer la sobriete. 
On doit apprendre serieusement cela. — Ayant entendu ces 
paroles du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux et les mettaient 
respectueusement en pratique.' 



Partie 15 
L'existence et Tinexistence 

1. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
Sravasti, dans le bois de Jeta, au pare d'Anathapindada, il disait 
aux bhiksu: II faut distinguer ces deux vues: la vue d'existence 
et celle de l'inexistence 3 . II y a des ascetes (sramana) et des 
brahmanes (brahmana) qui se basent sur ces deux vues pour 



3 Cf, M utamadhyamakakarika de Nagarjuna avec la Prasannapada (ed. L. 
de La Vallee Poussin), p.135; voir aussi p.l. n.4: "... Les couples d'antas sont 
bien connus. cp. par exemple Mahavasiu III. 448, 10. el Samyutta N, III. 135, 12 
Sabbam atihlii . . . ayam eko anlo; sabbam natthiti ayam dutiyo onto. Ete te 
Kaccana ubho ante amtpagamma majjhena Talhagato dkammam deseti: 
avijjapaccaya sahkhhra . . ; Samyutta N. II. 2033; 63, 27 . . ,', 

Voir aussi J.W. de Jong, 'Textcritical Noies on the Prasannapada', 1IJ 20 
(1978), p.42 (135.10 - 136.2); Samadhiraja, ed. N. Dull (GUgit Manuscripts 2, 1. 
Srinagar 1941, Delhi 1984). p.103, 7-14; C. Cuppers, The IXth Chapter of the 
Samadhirajasutra, Stuttgart 1990, pp.43-4. 



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Buddhist Studies RevUw 9, 2 (1992) - Ekottarigam. XIII 

apprendre, pour reciter, pour pratiquer sans comprendre la 
realite des choses. lis ne sont pas de vrais ascetes ni de vrais 
brahmanes, puis qu'ils violent, sans le savoir, le reglement de 
leur doctrine idharma). Grace aux pratiques dirigees, ils 
parviennent a un certain degre de purete et de bonheur et ils s'y 
accrochent. II y a des ascetes et des brahmanes qui se basent 
sur ces deux vues pour apprendre, pour reciter, pour pratiquer, 
puis ils se debarrassent de ces deux vues pour percevoir la 
realite des choses. Ceux-ci sont de vrais ascetes et de vrais 
brahmanes qui peuvent se libera totalement du cycle de la vie 
et de la mort pour parvenir a la perfection finale C'est 
pourquoi, 6 bhiksu! il ne faut pas vous accrocher a ces deux 
vues pour apprendre, pour reciter, pour pratiquer. Vous devez 
apprendre seneusement cela. - Ayant entendu ces paroles du 
Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux et les mettaient 
respectueuaement en pratique. 

2. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
Sravasti . . ., il disait aux bhiksu: II y a deux vues: celle de 
1 existence et celle de Finexistence. 

Qu'«st-ce que la vue de I'existence? C'est la vue de 
l'existence [du monde] du desir (kamadhatu), c'est la vue de 
I'existence [du monde] de la forme (rupadhatu) et [du monde] 
sans forme (arupyadhatu). Quels sont ces desirs? Ce sont les 
desirs de voir ce qui est beau, d'entendre ce qui est harmonieux 
de sentir ce qui est parfume, de gouter ce qui est bon de 
toucher ce qui est agreable, de distinguer [le bon du mauvais, le 
bien du mal. I'existence de Finexistencel 

Qu'est-ce'que la vue de l'inexistence? Cest la vue . . . que 
0) ii y a de la permanence, (2) I'impermanence, (3) il y a de 



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Buddhist Studies Review 9, 2 (1992) - Ekottaragama XIII 

1'interruption, (4) la continuite, (5) le fini, (6) l'infini, (7) la 
corporeiti, (8) la non-corporeite, (9) la vie [individuelle] (jtvita), 
(10), pas de vie [individuelle], (11) il y a un corps autre et (12) 
une vie [individuelle] autre. Ces 62 vues 4 s'appellent 'la vue de 
l'inexistence, c'est-a-dire des vues fausses. 

C'est pourquoi, 6 bhiksu! il faut vous debarrasser de ces 



4 En effet. dins ce passage, 12 vues seules sont enumerees, et il est difficile 
de dire comment on en a arrive a 62. Une allusion indirecie est donnee par 
Sooth ill, Hodous, Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms, p.132: ', . , The 
sixty-two . . . views, of which three groups are given; The . . . takes each of 
the five skandhas under four considerations ... of time, considered as time 
past, whether each of the five has had permanence, impermanence, both, 
neither, 5 X 4 = 20; again as to their space, or extension, considered as 
present time, whether each is finite, infinite, both, neither = 20, again as to 
their destination, i.e. future, as to whether each goes on, or does not, both, 
neither (e.g. continued personality) = 20, or in all 60; add the two ideas 
whether body and mind are a unity or different = 62 . . .*. 

Les vues 1-6 de I"EA s'accordent a peu pres avec l'explication de Sooihill, 
Hodous, mais quoi dire des vues 7-12 de TEA? Elles semblent rappeller les 
'two ideas' du Dictionary qui correspondent aux vues 61 et 62 

Pour un traitement beacoup plus profond et com pi ex e des '62 vues'. voir 
Digha I, 39 et suiv; Suttapitaka Dighanikaya I, fasc. 1, texte et traduction 
(bases sur la recension cambodgienne du Tripitaka) par I. Bloch, J. Filliozat et 
L. Renou (Paris 1989), p.33 et suiv; pour des traductions en anglais, voir a) 
T.W. Rhys Davids, Dialogues of the Buddha 1 (PTS 1899. repr. 1977), p52 et 
suiv.; b) Bhikkhu Bodhi, The Discourse of the Mi-Embracing Net of Views, 
The Brahma Jala Sutta and its Commentaries, (Kandy 1978), p.132 et suiv. c) M. 
Walshe, Thus Have I Heard, The Long Discourses of the Buddha (London 
1987), p.87 et suiv. 



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Buddhist Studies Review 9, 2 (1992) - Ekottarig-m. XIII 

deux vues. Vous devez apprendre serieusement cela. 

Ayant entendu ces paroles du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient 
heureux et les mettaient respectueusement en pratique. 

3. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
Sravasti . . ., il disait aux bhiksu: S H y a deux sortes de dons: le 
don de la verite (dharma) 6 et le don materiel. II faut admettre 
que le don du Dharma est le meilleur des dons. Cest pourquoi, 
o bhiksu, on doit toujours faire des efforts en ce qui concerne le 
don de la verite. Vous devez apprendre serieusement cela. - 
Ayant entendu ees paroles du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient 
heureux et les mettaient respectueusement en pratique. 

4. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
Sravasti . . ., il disait au bhiksu: 7 H y a deux sortes de richesses: 
la nchcsse de la verite (dharma) et la richesse materielle. La 
meilleure c'est la richesse de la verite. Cest pourquoi, 6 bhiksu! 
il faut faire des efforts en ce qui concerne votre richesse de la 
verite et non pas en ce qui concerne votre richesse materielle. 
Vous devez apprendre serieusement cela. - Ayant entendu ces 
paroles du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux et les mettaient 






5 Cf Anguttara I, 91: dve 'm&ni bhikkkave dandni; katamano dve? 
amisa-danah ca dhamma-danah ca . . ■ tr. Woodward. Gradual Sayings I, p.81; 
Nyanatiloka. Angereihie Sammlmg I. p.89; Kausalyayan, Amgmar-Nikay I, ^94. 

6 C-a^ le dharma dans le sens du Dhp 354, 

7 Cf. Anguttara I 92: dve 'me bhoga . . ■ Woodward, ibid.; Nyanatiloka. 
ibid.; Kausalyayan, ibid. Dans les textes bouddhiques chinois, ndeogramme 
pour bhoga rend normalemeni karman ou vipaka, mais il veui dire aussi 
'richesse' ce qui s'accord avec le pali bhoga. 



Buddhist Studies Review 9, 2 (1992) - Ekottarigama XIII 



respectueusement en pratique, 

5. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
Sravasti . . „ il disait aux bhiksu: e Il y a deux sortes de faveurs 
(ou bontes): celle de la verite et la faveur materielle. La faveur 
de la verite est la plus grande. Cest pourquoi, 6 bhiksu!, il faut 
rendre la faveur de la verite. Vous devez apprendre 
serieusement cela. — Ayant entendu ces paroles du Bouddha, les 
bhiksu etaient heureux et les mettaient respectuesement en 
pratique. ' 

6. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
Sravasti . . ., il disait aux bhiksu: 9 Un borne a souvent ces deux 
comportements: soit il persiste a faire ce dont il est incapable, 
soit il s'ennuie et abandonne ce qu'i! peut realiser. Un sage a 
aussi deux comportements: i! n'entreprend jamais des choses 
irrealisables, il n'abandonne jamais un pro jet en cours de 
realisation. C'est pourquoi, 6 bhiksu! il faut avoir les 
comportements du sage et non pas ceux du borne. Vous devez 
apprendre serieusement cela. — Ayant entendu ces paroles du 
Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux et les mettaient 
respectueusement en pratique. - 

7. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 



8 Cf, Anguttara, ibid:, dve 'me . . . anuggaha 
Nyanatiloka, ibidj, Kausalyayan, p.95. 

9 Cf Anguttara 1, 84: dve 'me bhikkhave bala . 
Nyanatiloka, p,84; Kausalyayan. p.85 et suiv. 



Woodward, ibid,; 



Woodward, pp.76-7; 






f 



176 



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Buddhist Studies R ev]ew % 2 (l992) Ekott . rig , mjl xnl 

Sravasti . il disait aux bhiksu: ">ll y a deux methodes 
pranques: | une consiste 4 ^.^ a ^.^ fondemem 

pour dcvelopper la connaissance et la sagesse; I'autre consiste a 
se debarrasser [de toute notion, de toute pensee] pour se 
concentrer SU r la veneration du Tathagata. Vous devez 
apprendre seneusement cela. - Ayant entendu ces paroles du 
Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux et les mettaient 
respectueusement en pratique. 

8. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
bravasti . ., ,| disait aux bhiksu: II y a deux methodes 
pratiques: I une consiste a mediter pour developper la force 
mentale; I'autre consiste a se concentrer sur la veneration du 
Joyau de la Doctrine {dharmaratna), du stupa du Tathagata 
Ipour avoir une confiance] sans crainte. Vous devez apprendre 
seneusement cela. - Ayant entendu ces paroles du Bouddha, les 
bh.ksu etaient heureux et les mettaient respectueusement en 
pratique. 

9. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
Sravasti . ., ,| disait aux bhiksu: II y a deux methodes 
prauques: la meditation et la concentration sur la veneration du 
temple du Bouddha. Le temple du Bouddha est le temple de la 
*onte, de la compassion pour tous les etres vivants sans 
disinction. Vous devez apprendre seneusement cela - Ayant 
entendu ces paroles du Bouddha, les bhiksus etaient heureux et 
les mettaient respectueusement en pratique. 



10 Cf. Angut.ara. he. dt, p.94 et suiv; dve me bhikkhave dhamma 
sanunho ca vipassana ca. Woodward, p.82; Nyanatiioka. p. W . Kausaiyayan. p.97. 



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Buddhist Studies Review 9, 2 (1992) - Ekottu-agama XIII 

10. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
Sravastl . . ., il disait aux bhiksu: II y a deux moyens d'avoir la 
vue juste: soit ecouter renseignement, soit mediter. Vous devez 
apprendre seneusement cela. — Ayant entendu ces paroles du 
Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux et les mettaient 
respectueusement en pratique.' 



Partie 16 
L'extinction du feu 

1. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
Sravasti, dans le bois de Jeta, au pare d'Anathapindada, le 
venerable Nanda 11 , en se promenant dans le pare calme [nomme] 
'Eclat de l'elephant' de la citadelle de Sravasti, pensait: II est 
vraiement tres difficile pour un homme de rencontrer le 
Tathagata en ce monde. II faut des centaines de milliers 



11 Quant a 1'histoire de Nanda, le notes au bas de la page dans l'edition du 
Taisho se reporteni aux Theragitha, w.279-82, et les mimes stances sont 
signalees par G.P. Malalasekera, Dictionary of Pali Proper Names H, p.17 dans 
son article sur 1 Nandaka (v.l. Nanda) Thera. — A householder of Savaithi. 
Having entered the Order after hearing a sermon of the Buddha, he developed 
insight and soon attained arahantship . . . The Tkeragatha contains several 
verses uttered by him to a woman to whom he was once married. She met 
him begging alms in Savatthi and smiled to him with sinful heart . . .*. 

Pour une traduction anglaise de ces stances ainsi que des notes 
philologiques. voir K.R. Norman. The Elders Verses \ (London 1969), pp33 
175-6; 'A curse upon bodies, evil-smelling, on Mara's side, oozing . . .'. Pour 
une traduction en hindi, malheureusement peu connue, voir Bh Dharmaratna, 
Thera Gatha (Sarnath, Banaras 1955). pp,95-5. 



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Buddhirt Studtw Review 9, 2 (1992) - Ekottwigwa. XITJ 



d'arinees pour voir son apparition. Cest rarissime. Cest comme 
eclosion de la flew de Itow. II est aussi tres dTfficl 
de voir une personne qui n 'a plus aucun attachement, aucun 
desir, aucune passion, qui a atteim le Nirvana. 

En ce moment le devaputra Mara (Kamadeva), ayant percu 
la pensee du venerable Nanda, s'envola vers Sundarl" une 



12 Sur la rarete de la vision dun Bouddha, e n comparison avec la rarete 
des . n.«„ tudunbora. cf. a) Theraga.ha-attakatha II. 45 (Ml* Pm 

»TZ y \L m ^ E WaldSChmidt - ^ "«*^«"^« Dt (Berlin 
' " ' 6 (P356, " A ciumi un P-^We du Divyavadana), 40J4, 42.10- c ) ib 
ft» C^pari^r* „ {BerlJn 195?) M ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ 

Ml. du Catusparisat comportant la comparison de Vudutnbara-puspa est 
C «e e dan, LAbhidharmakoia (ed. U. Wogihara), p.103. 22; d) pour des detail 
sur Udumbara-puspa, voir Thich HuyS„-Vi. L'Esseniiel du 
BouddHtsme (traductions vietnamienne et franchise du Sutrasamuccaya T 1635 
(P.49 et suiv). JoinvUle-le-Pom 1986, pp.239-40. et Bhikkhu Pasadika 
N« S ar } una S Sttrosawcaya: A Critical Edition of the mDo kun las btus pa' 
(Copenhagen 1989), pp,l-3. ^ 

B Cf. Mala^kera. op. c i,. p , 217 , sur Sundarl-Nanda, la flft de Suddhodana 
et Mahapajapati „ |, SO eur de Nanda Thera (le demi-frere du Bouddha) qui 
-vant davoir atteim I'etat de arahant en temps vou ,u, falil ^^ de ^ 
propre beauie'. 

M h tradition de 1'EA sembie etre le resultat de q u elque desordre dans les 

-«end„ de Nandaka. du demi-frere du Bouddha. peut-etre de 

lanapadaka a ySnf , a femme du dernje ,, ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ 

Car, a la ft, de cette partie de IEA. Le Bouddha declare que Nanda est le 
premter parmi ses disciples en ce qui concerne le maitrise de soi. ce qui 
s accord avec lAhguttara I 25: indn ye s U - g uUad va r anatn , prononce „' 
Nanda le demi-frere. Daiileurs, Nandaka ou Nanda, auquel se rapportent les 



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Buddhist Studies Review 9, 2 (1992) - Ekottaragama XIII 



femme du clan Sakya, tourna en ronde dans le ciel en chantant 
cette epigramme: 

AujourdTiui vous devez vous rejouir, 

" faire belle pour gouter les cinq jouissance des 

ol4 



Vous 
sens 



ictia , 
Car Nanda vient de quitter I'ordre religieux, 
II viendra s'amuser avec vous. 

Sundarl, une femme du clan Sakya, se rejouit a cette 
nouvelle, Elle s'empressa de porter de beaux vetements, de se 
maquiller radieusement, de decorer luxueusement toutes les 
pieces, de faire venir de bons musiciens. Elle essayait de recreer 
la bonne ambiance preferee de Nanda 

Le roi Prasenajk, en allant a la salle de conference pour une 
reunion, entendit dire que le venerable Nanda eut quitte Tordre 
religieux pour reprendre ses vetements et sa carriere civils, et 
qu'il y avait un deva qui etait venu annoncer la nouvelle a 
Sundarl, [ex-]epouse [de Nandal Le roi fut tenement triste. II 
monta sur son elephant blanc pour aller voir le venerable Nanda 
au pare nomme 'Eclat de Telephant' entoure d'un fosse. II vint 
au devant du venerable Nanda, se prosterna a ses pieds, puis 



stances du Theragatha citees ci-dessus, est declare le premier parmi les 
exhortateurs des nonnes (Ahguttara, ibid.). En outre, dans le Saundara nanda 
dAsvaghosa Janapadakalyani est appellee SundarL 

14 C-a-d 'the five desires, arising from the objects of the five senses, things 
seen, heard, smell, tasted or touched' (Soolhill, Hodous, p!21). Voir aussi — 
avec des references — Nyanaliloka, Buddhist Dictionary, p. 74 (s.v. 
kama, kama-guna). 



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Buddhist Studies Review 9, 2 (1992) - Ekott»rig«m« XIII 

s'assit a ses cotes. Le venerable Nanda lui demands Pourquoi 
Sa Majeste est-elle venue ici avec une mine aussi triste? A-t-elle 
besoin de moi? 

— Le roi Prasenajit repondit: En allant a la salle de 
conference pour une reunion, j'ai entendu dire que vous avez 
quitte l'ordre religieux pour retourner a la vie mondaine. Cest 
pourquoi je suis venu ici pour voir si c'est vrai. 

— Nanda dit en sou riant: Pourquoi Sa Majeste crolt-il a la 
rumeur? Sa Majeste n'a-t-elle pas entendu le Tathagata parler de 
moi? II a dit que j'ai elimine toutes les passions, que je n'ai plus 
de renaissances, que j'ai mis fin a la conduite de brahma, que 
j'ai fait ce qu'il y avait a faire, que je ne retourne plus jamais en 
embryon. II a dit que je connais la Verite [supreme], que je suis 
devenu arhat, que mon esprit est libere totalement. 

— Le roi repondit: Je n'ai pas entendu le Tathagata dire 
que le bhiksu Nanda n'a plus de renaissances, est devenu arhat, a 
son esprit libere totalement. Au contraire j'ai entendu qu'un 
deva est venu prevenir Sundari, la femme du clan Sakya, de 
votre retour. C'est pourquoi Sundari, [votre ex-Jepouse, a fait 
decorer les salles, jouer de la musique, elle s'est habillee de 
beaux vetements pour vous accueillir. C'est parce que j'ai 
entendu cela que je suis venu ici toute de suite. 

— Le venerable Nanda dit: Sa Majeste n'a pas vu de ses 
propres yeux, n'est pas sure de ce qu'on dit, pourquoi a-t-elle 
prononce ces paroles? Les ascetes et les brahmanes aiment tous 
le bonheur, la joie du detachement, la joie des voeux accomplis, 
la joie de Nirvana; n'ont-ils pas constate le danger de la four- 
naise du desir sexuel. II serai t illogique [qu'ils puissent affirmer 



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Buddhist Studies Review 9, 2 (1992) - Ekottaragama XIII 

autre chose]! L'objet du desir sexuel n'est q'un squelette cache, 
qu'un amas de chair, qu'une lame de couteau recouverte de miel. 
Pourquoi desire-t-on un petit interet qui apportera un tres grand 
malheur? C'est comme une branche cassee par ses fruits 
abondants; c'est comme un emprunt qu'on doit rembourser 
bientot; c'est comme une foret d'epees, un poison, des fleurs et 
des fruits toxiques. Voila ce qui est le desir sexueL Celui qui a 
encore la passion sexuelle, qui ne considere pas le desir sexuel 
comme une fournaise ou comme un fruit toxique, ne pourra 
jamais traverser ni le courant des passions, ni le courant des 
prejuges (lit. 'vues'), ni le courant de rignorance. Et celui qui ne 
traverse pas encore le courant des passions, le courant des 
prejuges et le courant de 1'ignorance, ne pourra jamais acceder 
au Nirvana proprement dit. Sa Majeste doit savoir que les 
ascetes et les brahmanes ont compris et recherchent la joie du 
detachement, la joie des voeux accomplis, la joie du Nirvana. lis 
ont compris que le desir sexuel est comme une fournaise, et que 
son objet n'est qu'un squelette cache, qu'un amas de chair, 
qu'une lame de couteau recouverte de miel, qu'une branche 
cassee par ses fruits abondants. qu'un emprunt qu'on doit 
rembourser bientot, qu'une epee, qu'un poison. lis ont constate 
cela clairement, Us ont compris a fond le danger, le feu du desir 
sexuel est eteint, Us ont traverse le courant des passions, le 
courant des prejuges, le courant de 1'ignorance. Tout cela est 
certain. Et apres ils arriveront au Nirvana proprement dit. 
Pourquoi Sa Majeste a-t-elle prononce ces paroles? O Sa 
Majeste! sachez que je suis devenu arhat, que je n'ai plus de 
renaissances, que j'ai mis fin a la conduite de brahma, que j'ai 
fait ce qu'il y avait a faire, que je ne retournera plus jamais en 
embryon, que mon esprit est completement libere. 

Ayant entendu cela, le roi Prasenajit se rejouit, le coeur 



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plein de borne, il dit au venerable Nanda: Je n'ai plus de doute. 
Tout est clair. Je sais maintenant que vous etes devenu arhat 
Je dois mexcuser pour retourner a mes nombreuses occupations 
pour mon pays. 



— Nanda dit: 
du pays. 



II faut trouver du temps pour vous occuper 



Le roi Prasenajit se leva, se prosterna aux pieds de Nanda 
et quma le lieu. Un instant apres le depart du roi, Mara fit son 
apparition dans le ciel et s'adressa a Nanda par ce poeme: 

Le visage de votre adorable epouse est comme la June, 

De For, de I'argent, un corps couvert de diamants; 

Sa beaute est vraiment inoubliable. 

U y a toujours les cinq puissances des sens a gouter 14 ; 

Le chant, la batterie, la danse 

Et sa voix douce et harmonieuse 

Out le pouvoir de chasser la tristesse et les soucis 

Et d'apporter la joie dans cette foreL 

Le venerable Nanda, sachant que Mara voulait le perturber 
repondit: 

Jadis je pensais ainsi: 

Le plaisir sexuel n'etait jamais suffisant, 

J'etais ligote par mes passions, 

J'ignorais la vieillesse, la maladie, la mort 

Aujourd'hui j"ai traverse I'ocean des passions, 

Je suis pur et immunise, 

Je sais que ITionneur est aussi souffrance, 

Que seul le Dharma est la joie eternelle; ' 



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Buddhist Studies Review 9, 2 (1992) - Ekottaragama XIII 

Je ne suis plus touche par l'amour humain 
Ni par le desir sexuel, la colere, I'lgnorance, 
Je ne pratique plus les habitudes mondaines; 
Le borne doit savoir cela. 

Mara, apres avoir entendu ces mots, fut decu et disparut. 

Quand les bhiksu rapporterent cette histoire au 
Bienheureux, celui-ci leur dit: Pour la maitrise des sens le 
bhiksu Nanda est le meilleur des bhiksu; le bhiksu Nanda est 
libre de Tamour, de la haine et de 1'erreur. Cest pourquoi il est 
devenu arhat. Parmi mes disciples le bhiksu Nanda est le 
meilleur dans la maitrise des sens. — Ayant entendu ces paroles 
du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux et les mettaient 
respectueusement en pratique. 

2. Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
SravastI, dans le bois de Jeta, au pare d'Anathapindada, il disait 
au bhiksu: 1S I1 y a deux conditions de Nirvana Quelles sont ces 
deux? La condition de Nirvana avec la base toujours restante et 
celle sans base. De quelle sorte est la condition de Nirvana qui 
a la base toujours restante? Ici le bhiksu a detruit les cinq 
en t raves qui appartiennent a ce bas monde 16 , s'approcha du 



15 Cf. Hivuttaka, p.38 (Nibbanadhatusuita); F.L. Woodward, The Minor 
Anthologies of the Pali Canon 11: hivuttaka: As It Was Said (London 1935, 
1985), p,143; J.D. Ireland (tr.). Itivuitaka. The Buddha's Sayings. (Kandy 1991), 
pp.31-2; Bh. Dharmaraksit, hivuttaka, Hindi Anuvad (Sarnath, Banaras 1955), 
p.2Z 

16 C-a^d, les 5 orambhagiya, avarabhagiya, une epithete des 5 premiers sam- 
yojana (PTS Dictionary, 170): sakkayaditthi, vicikiccha, silabbatapardmasa. 



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Nirvana final (parinirvana) et ne retournera plus en ce monde 
[apres sa mort]. Cest ce qui s'appelle la condition de Nirvana 
avec la base tou jours restante. Et de quelle sorte est la 
condition de Nirvana sans base? Cest comme cect: Un bhiksu 
a vaincu tes mauvaises influences (impuretes, asrava) une fois 
pour toutes; [il a realise] la delivrance mentale (cetovimukti) et 
la delivrance par la sagesse (prajhavimukti). 11 a lui-meme 
personellement atteint la maitrise parfaite: detruite est la 
naissance et la mort, mise a sa fin est la conduite de brahma; il 
n'y aura plus d'etre — ceci il sait vraiment, Cest ce qui 
s'appelle la condition de Nirvana sans base. Done, 6 bhiksu, 
vous devez employer les moyens salvifiques pour arriver a la 
condition de Nirvana sans base. Cest ainsi, 6 bhiksu, qu'il faut 
vous appliquer. - Ayant entendu ces paroles du Bouddha, les 
bhiksu etaient heureux et les mettaient respectueusement en 
pratique.' 

Traduit en francais par Minh-Thien Tran-Huu-Danh 



kamacchanda. vydpada. Tout ce passage de I'EA semble etre en contradiction 
avec la tradition bouddhique prevalante. Selon le parallele pili. le moine qui a 
realise le saupadisesanibbana est un arahant qui a detruil toutes les 10 
entraves; selon I'EA. d'autre part, 'Nirvana avec la base toujours restante' 
appartient a 1'anagamin, qui retournera jamais. Cf. Abhidharmakosa (ed. 
Pradhan) 358, 15-16 (VL36) et L de La Vallee Poussin, U Abhidharmakosa de 
Vasubandhu IV (chapitre VI). p.210: 'Le Sutra dit quon devient Anagamin par 
I'abandon des cinq liens nommes avarabkagiya . . .', Voir aussi E. Lamotte, 
Traite V. p P 5216-17. 

Notes par les redacteurs adjoints 



186 









NEWS AND NOTES 



Exhibitions 



1. As part of last year's Japan Festival in the U.K., in association 
with the Agency for Cultural Affairs (Japan) and the Japan 

Foundation, the British Museum organised a rare display of 
sculpture from the Kamakura period (1185-1333). The wooden 
artefacts concerned feature among the greatest of mediaeval art 
of Japan and reflect the spiritual dimension to the world of the 
triumphant samurai regency. During that era there was a 
magnificent revival in the arts and religion which saw the 
emergence of the two schools which have dominated the 
religious scene ever since: Jodo and Zen. Magnificent figures 
of temple guardians were interspersed with Buddhist deities and 
depictions of Zen masters in this exhibition (18 Sept - 24 Nov 
1991) which has been recorded in a volume by Victor Harris and 
Ken Matsushima, Kamakura, The Renaissance of Japanese 
Sculpture. (Robert E. Morrell's timely survey of this period, 
Early Kamakura Buddhism, will be reviewed in BSR). 

2. Designed to run concurrently with the Kamakura display, the 
British Library put on show relevant papers from its rich 

holdings of Japanese materials to illustrate the pioneer work of 
'Engelbert Kaempfer: the first interpreter of Japan' (11 Oct 1991 - 
1 Mar 1992). This seventeenth century German traveller and 
physician spent two years in Nagasaki and smuggled out his 
manuscript acquisitions, which were subsequently inherited by 
Sir Hans Sloane who was instrumental in founding the British 
Museum. 



Buddhist Studies Review 10, 1 (1993) 

doctrine undergoes ideological attack when it becomes 
important enough to be a menace; and doubtless Brahmanism 
aroused too much interest for the liking of convinced Christians. 
No such attack was necessary in the case of Buddhism, for this 
religion made almost no impression on Western thought* 70 . 
However, far from having anything in common with Western 
thought (certainly posterior to the ideas generated by the 
Athenian Academy), the essential Buddhadharma was ahead of 
the prevailing mental attitude, even of that of the most 
liberally-inclined Gnostics, obsessed as they were with 
cosmological speculations and, as everywhere in the West, 
unable to conceive of a system of thought and practice dis- 
connected from some form of theism. 



70 The Silk Road, op, tit., P ,105. 



82 



EKOTTARAGAMA (XIV) 

Traduit de la version chinoise par 
Thich Huyen-Vi 

Fascicule septieme 
Partie 16 

3. ''Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Buddha residait a 
Sravasti, dans le bois de Jeta, au pare d'Anathapindada, il disait 
aux bhiksu: Je vais etablir deux comparaisons [du 
comportement humain]: celle avec le comportement du corbeau 
et celle avec le comportement du cochon. Ecoutez bien et 
reflechissez bien. Void la comparaison de I'homme avec le 
corbeau: 

Celui qui habite dans un lieu calme, cherche sou vent a 
satisfaire ses desirs sexuels, pratique de mauvaises habitudes, 
puis par pudeur il regrette et cherche une personne respectable 
pour parler des ses actes indignes. Pourquoi? Parce qu'il est 
critique par des honnetes gens, et qu'il se repent Cest comme 
le corbeau qui a peur de la faim, mange de la chair pourrie, puis 
il frotte son bee pour i'essuyer parce qu'il a peur que d'autres 
corbeaux savent qu'il a mange de la pourriture. 

'Void la comparaison de 1'homme avec le cochon: Celui 
qui habite dans un lieu calme, cherche a satisfaire ses desirs 
sexuels, a pratiquer de mauvaises habitudes, mais il est 
impudent, il ne regrette pas ce qu'il a fait, au contraire il se 
vante de son courage, de sa competence dans la satisfaction des 



1 Voir T 2, 579a2<; et suiv. 






Buddhist Studies Review 10, 1 (1993) 

cinq desirs fondamentaux de 1'homme 2 , II se sent superieur aux 
autres parce qu'il a eu des plaisirs que d'autres ne connaissent 
pas. Cest comme le cochon qui mange des aliments malsains, 
qui se couche sur des saletes, gambade de joie en s'adressant aux 
autres cochons. 

Cest pourquoi, 6 bhiksu, il faut eviter [ces deux com- 
portements]. Vous devez apprendre serieusement cela. — Ayant 
entendu ces paroles du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux et 
les mettaient respectueusement en pratique. 

4. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu . . . le Bouddha residait a SravastI . . . il 
disait aux bhiksu: Je vais vous parler des gens qui se 
component comme un ane et d'autres qui se component comme 
un buffle. Ecoutez et reflechissez bien. 

'Void celui qui se eomporte comme un fine. II a les 
cheveux, les moustaches et la barbe rases, il porte les trois 
vetements religieux, il a la foi solide — c'est pourquoi il a quitte 
sa famille pour etre admis au samgha 3 Cependant il n'a pas la 
purete sensorielle 4 : quand il voit quelque chose, de nombreuses 
illusions sont nees dans son esprit et de nombreux sentiments 
sont nes dans son coeur, il ne sait pas maitriser ses sensations 
visuelles; il en est de meme pour route, I'odorat, le gout et le 
toucher, il ne sait pas maitriser ses pensees, il se laisse entrainer 
par des idees malsaines. il ne sait non plus maitriser ses 



2 C-a-d 'les cinq desirs qui naisseni des objets des cinq sens; les choses 
vues, entendues, senties. gouiees ou touchees, Aussi les cinq desirs de la 
richesse. de la luxure, de la nourriture et des boissons, du renom et du 
sommeil" (Soothill et Houdous, Did. of Chin, Buddh. Terms, pl21). 

3 Utu 'pour etudier le Chemin ou la Verne.' 

4 Lilt, 'ses organes sensoriels ne sont pas etablis". 

1 



84 



Ekotturagama XIV 

mouvements pour avoir une demarche et des postures correctes. 
II ne sait pas porter les vetements religieux et le bol a aumone 
comme il faut. En le voyant, ceux qui menent la vie brahmique 
(brahmacarya) rigolent et disent: 'Get imbecile a l'air d'un 
moine, mais un moine ne lui ressemble certainement pas', n 
replique tout de suite a haute voix: 'Je suis aussi un moine! Je 
suis aussi un moine!'. Cest comme un ane parmi les buffles; il 
dit: 'Je suis aussi un buffle!', alors que oreilles, cornes, queue, 
voix, tout est different; et les buffles, en le voyant, lui donnent 
des coups de cornes et des coups de pieds pour le chasser. 

'Void celui qui se eomporte comme un buffle. II a les 
cheveux, les moustaches et la barbe rases, il porte les trois 
vetements religieux, il a la foi solide - c'est pourquoi il a quitte 
sa famille pour etre admis dans le samgha 3 . II a obtenu la 
purete sensorielle 5 : il mange et boit avec moderation, il ne 
manque jamais les seances de pratique religieuse et il est resolu 
a developper les trente-sept auxiliares de I'illumination 
(saptatrirflsad bodhipaksika dharmahf. Quand il voit quelque 
chose, il ne laisse pas son esprit entrainer par des illusions 
visuelles, ni son coeur par des sentiments de desir ou de haine; 
il essaye de voir chaque chose telle qu'elle est; ceci fait naitre 
en lui la bonte naturelle et fait disparaitre toutes les mauvaises 
idees. II en est de meme quand il entend, quand il sent, quand il 
goute, ou quand il touche. Grace a cela son esprit est pur et son 
coeur serein. En le voyant de loin, ceux qui menent la vie 
brahmique se disent: 'Nous avons de la chance d'avoir un 
camarade de classe comme lui'; puis ils viennent volontiers 
pour subvenir a ses besoins de telle facon qu'il ne lui manque de 



5 Liu; 'ses organes sensoriels sont calmes et etablis". 

6 Voir BSR 2. 1-2, p.46. n.17; 3. I p38, n.13. 






85 



Buddhist Studies Review 10, 1 (1993) 



rien. Cest comme un bon buffle parmi les buffles, car leur 
pelage, leur queue, leurs oreilles, leurs comes, leur voix se 
ressem blent tous. Les autres buffles viennent le lecher partout 
pour temoigner leur sympathie. 

'Cest pourquoi, 6 bhiksu! il faut faire comme le buffle et 
non pas comme 1'ane, Vous devez apprendre serieusement cela'. 

Ayant entendu ces paroles de Bouddha ... en pratique. 

5. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu . . . le Bouddha residait a Sravasti . . . il 
disait aux bhiksu: Je vais vous parler de ce qui est bien et de 
ce qui est mal. Ecoutez et reflechissez bien. 

'1 — Tuer est mal, respecter la vie est bien. 

*2 — Voler est mal, respecter la propriete d'autrui est bien 7 . 

*3 — La luxure est mal, s'en abstenir est bien. 

'4 — Mentir est mal, dire la verite est bien. 

'5 — La medisance est mal, s'abstenir de la medisance est 
bien 8 . 

'6 — Parler pour creer un affrontement entre deux 
personnes est mal, parler pour creer la comprehension entre 
deux personnes est bien'. 

'7 — La parole inconsideree est mal, s'abstenir de la parole 
inconsideree est bien. 

*8 — La convoitise est mal, s'abstenir de la convoitise est 
bien. 

*9 — La colere est mal, la serenite est bien. 

10 — La vue fausse est mal, la vue correcte est bien. 



7 Lite 'prendre seulement ce qui est donne est bien', 

8 'La medisance' litteralemem 'les propos sensuels, ies remarques impropres'. 

9 Litu 'deux langues est mal . . ,'. 



86 



Ekottaragama XIV 

'Ceiui qui pratique ces mauvaises actions tombera dans 
Tanimalite, dans la voie des fant6mes af fames, dans 1'enfer. 

'Celui qui pratique ces bonnes actions beneficiera du 
bonheur dans le ciel, en ce monde des hommes, ou dans le 
monde des asura 10 . 

'Cest pourquoi, 6 bhiksu, il faut eviter les mauvaises actions 
et pratiquer les bonnes 11 . Vous devez apprendre serieusement 
cela. 

Ayant entendu ces paroles du Bouddha ... en pratique. 

6. ' Ainsi ai-je entendu . . . le Bouddha residait a Sravasti . . . il 
disait aux bhiksu: Je vais vous precher la Doctrine subtile, belle 
au commencement, belle au milieu, belle a la fin, avec son sens 
et sa teneur, manifestant la vie brahmique dans son integrate 
plenitude 12 . II y a deux dharma. Ecoutez et reflechissez bien. 
Cest la distinction entre: 

la vue fausse et la vue correcte, 



10 Contraire a l'EA qui considere heu reuse b renaissance comme un asura, 
seton la tradition pali, e'est apaya. un etat de malheur et de perte; cf, par ex, 
Itivuitaka 93. 

11 Pour un paralelle eloigne de cette section de TEA, voir Angullara V, 260 
et suiv; panatipato bhikkhave adhammo, panatipata veramani dhammo . . . Sur 
les dix karmapatha, 'chemins de facie' (avec references), voir Lamotte. Traite L 
pflOL 

12 Ce passage s'approche de, mais ne s'accorde pas exactement avec le cliche 
qui parait. par ex., dans Digha I. 62; pour un traduction francaise, voir J. 
Bloch, J. FilUozai. L, Renou, Canon bouddhique pali, Suttanipata, Dighanikaya 1, 
fast 1, p.55 (Paris 1989). Pour une version Sanskrit correspondante, voir Ch. 
Tripathi, -^Die Einleuung des Dasotiarasuira', dans Indianisme et Bouddhisme, 
p.357 (Louvain-la-Neuve 1980): (dharmam vo) deiayisyami adem kalyanam . . - 



Buddhist Studies Review 10, 1 (1993) 

la conception fausse et la conception correcte, 

la parole fausse et la parole correcte, 

Taction fausse et Taction correcte, 

la maniere de vivre fausse et la maniere de vivre 
correcte, 

Tef fort faux et Teffort correcte, 

Tattention fausse et Tattention correcte, 

la concentration fausse et la concentration correcte 13 . 
Voila, je vous ai montre le domaine de ce qui est faux et le 
domaine de ce qui est correcte. Le Tathagata a fait tout ce qu'il 



13 Cf. BSR 4, 2, p.133, n.14; 5, 1, p.52; 6.1. p.39 (le noble chemin a huit 
branches). Jusqu'ici le noble chemin a huit branches a ete enumere trois fois 
dans TEA, ici inclus, et en chaque cas la liste differs legerement. 
Naturellement il est impossible de dire si cette inconsistance soil due a 
1 'original indien employe dans la preparation de la traduction chi noise ou au 
traducteur, Comme dans la traduction ici la liste traditionelle est donnee 
invariablemeni (en correspondence a drsti. samkalpa, vak, karmanta, 
ajiva, vyayama, smrti, samadhi (le samyak etant omis dans l'interel de la 
concision), une liste synoptique des recensions de TEA peut se donnen 

568a6-8: 580b8-10 

drsti drsti 

vyayama vyayama 

karmanta vak 

ajiva karmanta 

upayakausalya ajiva 

vak upaya-kausalya 

smrti smrti 

samadhi samadhi 

La maniere de rendre les huil membres du noble chemin dans 1'EA (non 
pas la succession de chaque membre) s'accord avec celle du Mahavyutpatti 
997-1104, sauf les recensions de samkalpa et de vyayama Le traducteur de 
1'EA interprete samkalpa comme etant les moyens salviftques, et 
vyayama comme }■£ Creigner, gouverner; preparer; trailer, guerir; reprimer, 
punir' — cf. Soothill, p.265). 





EA 564all-lZ- 


L 


drsti 


Z 


upaya-kausalya 


3. 


vak 


4. 


karmanta 


5. 


ajiva 


6. 


vyayama 


7. 


smrti 


8. 


samadhi 









Ekottarigama XIV 

faut. Reflechissez bien, meditez bien sans relache. Celui qui ne 
met pas en pratique cette lecon des maintenant, n'aura plus le 
temps de se repentir. " 

Ayant entendu ces paroles du Bouddha ... en pratique. ^ f 

7. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu . . . le Bouddha residait a Sravastl ... 11 
disait aux bhiksu: Je vais vous parler du flambeau du Dharma, 
et je vais vous montrer aussi les actions qui creent ce flambeau. 
Ecoutez bien et reflechissez bien. Le flambeau eclairant est la 
fin de la convoitise, de la colere et de Tignorance. Les actions 
qui creent ce flambeau sont: la vue correcte, la conception 
correcte, la parole correcte, Taction correcte, la maniere de vivre 
correcte, Teffort correcte, Tattention correcte et la concentration 
correcte 14 . C'est done le bon karma qui cree le flambeau 
eclairant. Voila je vous ai parle du flambeau eclairant et des 
actions qui creent ce flambeau. Le Tathagata a fait ce qu'il faut 
Reflechissez bien, meditez bien sans relache. Celui qui ne met 
pas en pratique cette lecon des maintenant, n'aura plus le temps 
de se repentir, 

Ayant entendu ces paroles du Bouddha ... en pratique. 

8. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu . . . le Bouddha residait a Sravasti . . . il 
disait aux bhiksu: II y a deux forces (bald): celle de la patience 
(ksahti) et celle de Tattention mentale (manasikara). Si je 
n'avais pas eu ces deux forces, je n'aura is pas ete venu aux 
environs d'Uruvilva pour y pratiquer Tascetisme pendant six ans, 
je n'aurais pas pu mattriser Mara le Malin (litt^ katru) et realiser 
la supreme et parfaite illumination {anuttarasamyaksambodhi). 
C'est parce que j'ai la force de la patience et la force de 



14 Lituralemeni comme ci-dessus, EA 580b8-10 — cf. nJ3. 



89 



Buddhist Studies Review 10, 1 (1993) 

['attention mentale que j'ai pu, assis au pied de 1'arbre Bodhi 
(litt.: 1'endroit du Chemin), maitriser Mara et ses troupes et 
realiser la supreme et parfaite illumination. Cest pourquoi, 6 
bhiksu, il faut trouver les moyens salvifiques pour developper en 
vous la force de la patience et la force de I'attention mentale; 
[si vous reussissez en cela], vous obtiendrez le niveau de celui 
qui est 'entre dans le courant', le niveau de celui 'qui ne revient 
qu'une fois\ le niveau de celui 'qui ne revient plus*, le niveau de 
1'arhat 15 , le stade du Nirvana sans un reste de conditionnement 
(anupadhise?anirvanadhatu), le Parinirvana. Vous devez 
apprendre serieusement cela. 

Ayant entendu ces paroles du Bouddha ... en pratique. 

9. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
Srayastl, dans le bois de Jeta, au pare d'Anathapindada, le 
venerable Aniruddha demeurait a Kusinagara, la ou il est ne 16 . 
Un jour, les Caturmaharajakayika et cinq cents [autres] deva, y 
compris le vingt-huit rois des esprits errants, vinrent au devant 
du venerable Aniruddha, se prosternerent a ses pieds, puis se 
tinrent debout a ses cotes et chanterent ces vers: 

Nous vous saluons avec adoration, 6 venerable, 
Que les hommes ont beaucoup respecte! 
Veuillez bien nous montrer 
Quelle meditation nous devons pratiquer. 

En ce moment, un brahmacarin nomme Cho-pa-tcha 



15 Vol* BSR 1. 2. P J34, n.16. 

16 Sur Aniruddha. voir Malalasekera. DPPN I, pp.85-90; Lamotte 
VEnseignement de Vimalakirti, pp.167-9. Selon la tradition bouddhiste! 
Aniruddha etait originaire de Kapilavasm, non pas de Kusinagara comme 
rapporte ici par 1*EA. 



Ekottaragama XIV 

(ft^JLti), disciple de Fan-mo-yu ( *jfe^*^jrX vint aussi au 
devant du venerable Aniruddha, se prosterna a ses pieds, puis 
s'assit a ses cotes. Ensuite il demanda: 

— Jadis je vivais dans un palais royal mais je n'ai jamais 
senti cet exquis parfum naturel. Quelqu'un est-il deja venu ici? 
Ou est-ce le parfum des deva, des naga, des genies? 

— Regardez, dit Aniruddha, voila les Caturmaharajakayika 
et cinq cents deva, y compris les vingt-huit rois des esprit errants. 

— Pourquoi, dit le brahmacarin, je ne les vois pas? Ou sont 
les Caturmaharajakayika? 

— Aniruddha: Peut-etre parce que vous n'avez pas encore 
d'ceil divin (divyacaksusy. 

— Le brahmacarin: Si j'avais 1'oeil divin pourrais-je voir les 
Caturmaharajakayika et les vingt-huit rois des esprit errants? 

— Aniruddha: Bien sur! si vous aviez l'osil divin vous 
pourriez voir les Caturmaharajakayika et les cinq cents deva, y 
compris les vingt-huit rois des esprits errants. Mais, 6 
brahmacarin! Fceil divin n'a rien d'extraordinaire! II y a un 
Brahmadeva nomme Sahasracaksus (Indra) 18 qui peut voir des 
milliers de mondes comme on voit un diademe dans sa main; 
cependant il ne peut pas voir son propre corps habille. 

— Le brahmacarin: Pourquoi ce Brahmadeva Sahasracaksus 
ne peut-il pas voir son propre corps habille? 



17 Sur Aniruddha et l'ocil divin el sur les cinq yeux, avec toutes references 
utiles, voir E Lamotte, ibid.. 

18 A la-difference de TEA ici. selon la tradition Indra nappartient pas a la 
classe des dieux Brahma. 



91 



Buddhist Studies Review 10, 1 (1993) 



— Aniruddha: Parce qu'il n'a pas encore 1'oeil de la sagesse 



17 



supreme 

— Le brahmacarin: Si j'avais I'oeil de la sagesse supreme, 
pourrais-je voir mon propre corps habille? 

— Aniruddha: isTimporte qui a Pceil de la sagesse supreme 
peut voir son propre corps habille. 

— Le Brahmacarin: 6 venerable, veuillez m'apprendre ce 
qu'il faut faire pour avoir I'oeil de la sagesse supreme. 

— Aniruddha: Est-ce que vous pouvez respecter les 
observances (slla)? 

— Le brahmacarin: Quelles sont ces observances? 

— Aniruddha: S'abstenir de faire le mal, de faire ce qui est 
injuste. 

— Le brahmacarin: Oui, je pourrais respecter de telles 
observances. 

— Aniruddha: O brahmacarin! dorenavant vous devez 
respecter strictement les observances; vous devez aussi vous 
debarrasser des nceuds de I'orgueil imana), et des prejuges de 
Tego (aham) et du moi (atman). 

— Le brahmacarin: Qu'est-ce que Tego? Qu'est-ce que le 
moi? Quels sont les nceuds de I'orgueil? 

— Aniruddha: L'ego c'est le domaine de I'esprit {nama). Le 
moi c'est la forme (rupa). De ceux-ci sont produits les 
connaissances, les sentiments, les jugements et J'idee de l'ego et 
du moi qui sont les nceuds de I'orgueil. C'est pourquoi, 6 
brahmacarin! il faut chercher des moyens salvifiques pour 
elimftier ces nceuds. Vous devez apprendre serieusement cela. 



92 



Ekottaragama XIV 

Le brahmacarin se leva, se prosterna devant Aniruddha, fit 
trois tours autour du venerable et quitta le lieu. Sur son chemin 
de retour, en reflechissant sur ce qu'eut dit Aniruddha, il fut 
illumine, toutes ses impuretes s'effacerent et il obtint 1'ceil 
dharmique {dharmacaksus) u . En ce moment T'ien-hi-yu 
(fw£4£), un de ses amis, sachant ce qui s'etait passe pour le 
brahmacarin, vint se prosterner aux pieds d' Aniruddha, se tint 
debout a ses cotes et le complimenta par ces vers: 

Le brahmacarin n'est pas encore arrive chez lui, 
Sur son chemin il est deja illumine. 
II n'a plus d'impuretes, il a obtenu 1'ceil dharmique, 
II n'a plus de doute, plus d'hesitations. 

Le ven6rable Aniruddha repondit: 

J'ai devine que le brahmacarin 
Serait illumine sur son chemin de retour 
Car, a l'epoque du Bouddha Kasyapa, 
II avait deja ecoute cet enseignement. 

Apres cet evenement, le venerable Aniruddha quitta son 
pays natal, voyageait a travers plusiers pays [pour enseigner la 
doctrinel 

Ce jour-la il arriva a Sravasti, se prosterna aux pieds du 
Bouddha, puis se tint debout a ses cotes. Le Bienheureux lui 
donna quelques conseils. Aniruddha ecouta attentivement, puis 
le salua et se retira. Alors le Bienheureux dit aux bhiksu: 
Parmi mes disciples (sravaka) le bhiksu Aniruddha est le 



93 



Buddhist Studies Review 10, 1 (1993) 

meilleur [entre ceux qui] ont obtenu 1'ceil divin". Ayant 
en tend u ces paroles du Bouddha, les bhiksu etaient heureux et 
mettaient en pratique [la doctrine 1 

10. 'Ainsi ai-je entendu. Une fois quand le Bouddha residait a 
SravastI, dans le bois de Jeta, au pare d'Anathapindada, il y avait 
le venerable Rahula qui observait strictement les slla sans 
laisser aueune faille, aussi petite soit-elle; cependant il n'arrivait 
pas encore a maitriser toutes ses passions, son esprit n'etait pas 
encore libere. Plusiers bhiksu, voulant des explications, vinrent 
au devant du Bienheureux, se prosternerent a ses pieds, puis 
s'assirent a ses cotes. Ensuite ils demanderent au Bienheureux: 
Le bhiksu Rahula observe strictement les slla sans laisser 
aueune faille, aussi petite soit-elle; pourquoi n'arrive-t-il pas a 
maitriser ses passions et a liberer son esprit? — Le Bienheureux 
repondit par ce quatrain: 

Celui qui observe correctement les slla 
Aura ses organes sensoriels purifies. 
A fur et a mesure, il arrivera sans doute 
A eliminer toutes ses entraves passionnelles. 

C'est pourquoi, 6 bhiksu!, il faut tou jours observer les 
slla et perpetuer dans la pratique du vrai dharma pour eliminer 
les impuretes mentales. Vous devez apprendre serieusement 
cela. — Ayant entendu 1'enseignement du Bouddha, les bhiksu 
etaient heureux et le mettaient respectueusement en pratique'. 

Traduit en francais par Minh-Thien Tran-Huu-Danh 



19 Cf. Ahgutiara 1, 23: elad aggam bhikkhave mama savakanam bhikkhunam . 
. . dibbacakkhukanam yadidam Anuruddho. 

Notes par les redacteurs ad joints 



94 















BUDDHIST ETHICS COME OF AGE 
Damien Keown and The Nature of Buddhist Ethics 

rharlp.s & Prebish 

Frank Reynolds' useful publication 'Buddhist Ethics: A 
Bibliographic Essay', published in Religious Studies Review (5, 1 
[January 1979]), demonstrated quite amply how little literature 
was available on this important topic in Buddhist Studies just 
more than a decade ago. In the interim, a significant interest 
has developed in both the ancient and modern aspects of the 
Buddhist ethical tradition, resulting in a bevy of articles and 
volumes with such captivating titles as Ethics, Wealth, and 
Salvation (ed. Russell F. Sizemore and Donald K. Swearer; 
Columbia, S. Carolina, 1990), Inner Peace, World Peace (ed. 
Kenneth Kraft; Albany, NY, 1992) and The Social Face of 
Buddhism (Ken Jones's widely read treatise on socially engaged 
Buddhism, London 1989). None of these publications advances 
the topic nearly so much as Damien Keown's important new 
book The Nature of Buddhist Ethics*. 

Keown's book is a revised version of his Ph.D. dissertation 
at Oxford, and while he includes chapters on Buddhism's 
relationship to utilitarianism and to Aristotle, the real value of 
the work lies in its careful and comprehensive delineation of the 
definition and scope of Buddhist ethics. In his introductory 
chapter on The Study of Buddhist Ethics', he begins from vir- 
tually the same standpoint as my own volume Buddhist Ethics: A 



I 



* The MacmiUan Press, London 1992. ix. 269 pp. £4250 



95 



Buddhist Studies Review 10, 2 (1993) 

experience*. It is very difficult for us to accept this translation 
and the parallel drawn by him. The knowledge of the principle 
of dependent origination is nothing less than the highest 
knowledge which results in ultimate Release. The Buddha 
described this principle as the supreme Truth (dhammo) which is 
'profound, difficult to see, difficult to understand, quiescent, 
excellent, beyond discursive reasoning, subtle and knowabie only 
by the wise* (Mahavagga I, 5.ii). The Pali phrase dhamma- 
-nana means 'knowledge of the Truth'. James' conception of 
'knowledge of acquaintance' can hardly come near the Buddhas 
knowledge of the Truth. ^ Mm i Joshi 



EDITORIAL NOTE 

Ekottaragama Translation 

Owing to the fact that we have experienced some problems in 
obtaining a reliable (both from the time and the translation 
itself points of view) French version of this important work we 
have decided that in future it will appear in English, translated 
by Ven Huyen-Vi in collaboration with the assistant editors. 



212 



EKOTTARAGAMA (XV) 

Translated from the Chinese version by 

Thich Huyen-Vi 

in collaboration with 

Sara Boin-Webb and Bhikkhu Pasadika 

Seventh Fascicle ■ 

Part 17 
Anapanalsmrti] (a) 

1. 'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 
Sravasti, at the Jeta Grove, in Anathapindada's Park. Then, in 
time, the Exalted One put on his [outer] robes and took up his 
alms-bowl. Entering the city of Sravasti, he was followed by 
Rahula. Caring for the latter, he turned to the right and looking 
back, said: Now, Rahula, you must contemplate form as being 
impermanent. — Certainly, Exalted One, replied Rahula, form is 
impermanent. - O Rahula, the Exalted One went on to say, 
feeling, perception, formative forces and consciousness — they 
are all absolutely impermanent. — Again Rahula responded: 
Certainly, Exalted One; feeling ... and consciousness — all are 
impermanent. - Now Venerable (bhadanta) Rahula thought to 
himself: For what reason {kirnkarana) am I being cared for 
while just reaching the city? And why is it that on the way the 
Exalted One admonishes (avavadati) me? Now I ought to 



1 See T 2. 581b29 ff. and its Japanese translation at Hayashi. pl24 ff; cf M 
I, 420 ff. (Maha-Rahulovadasuua>. IB. Horner, Tke Middle Length Sayings II, 
91 ff. 



213 



Buddhist Studies Review 10, 2 (1993) 

return to my place; no need to enter the city and beg for alms- 
food. — So, midway on the spot. Venerable Rah u la returned to 
the Jetavanavihara 1 , and with robes and alms-bowl, he pro- 
ceeded to the foot of a tree and sat down cross-legged (pary- 
ahka), straightening body and mind. Fully concentrated and 
with one-pointed ness of mind (cittaikagrata), he contemplated 
form, feeling, perception, formative forces and consciousness as 
being impermanent. Meanwhile, the Exalted One had finished 
begging for alms-food in Sravasti and, after his repast at the 
Jetavanavihara, he took his walking-exercise (cankramana). In 
the course of time he came to the place where Rahula was to 
be found and addressed him as follows: You should practise 
[mindfulness of] breathing (andpanasmrti). If such is your prac- 
tice (dharma) all sorrow (sokasamjna) you may experience is 
bound to be completely left behind. You are still in the grip of 
worldly ways 3 and muddled thinking. Covetousness (lobha) and 
attachment (anunaya) have to be eradicated. Now, Rahula, you 
should cultivate friendliness (maitrl) in your heart. You have 
already cultivated it, but any dislike (dvesa), any aversion (pra- 
tigha) still in existence — an end has to be put to all that once 
and for all. O Rahula, you must also cultivate a heart [full of] 
compassion (karuna). You have surely cultivated it, but even 
the slightest [tendencies towards] cruelty (vihimsa) in your heart 
have to be wiped out You must further cultivate a heart [full 
of] sympathetic joy (mudita). [Although] you have already done 
so, you must [persist in your practice in order to] cleanse your 
heart totally of jealousy (trsya). O Rahula, do cultivate equa- 



2 After Hackmann, p.67. 

3 Lit. kumargtr, for j£ THV reads 2^ . 



214 



EkotUrigama XV 

nimity {upeksaf. You have certainly been doing so [but 

continue cultivating it] so as to extirpate conceit (mana) and 

arrogance (mada). 

Thereupon the Exalted One addressed these verses to Rahula* 

Eschew once and for all attachment to views and 

Always follow [instead] the Teaching wholeheartedly. 

He who is endowed [due to Dharma practice] with [insight-J 

Knowledge will therefore be held in esteem everywhere 

Holding [aloft] for mankind the torch of wisdom (vtdya), 

One will dispel the darkness [of delusion] and [thus] 

Be deeply respected by gods and nagas. 

[This is the] proper [way of] venerating one's Master. 

Thereupon the bhiksu Rahula, in reply to the Exalted One, 

uttered the following verses; 

I will not be attached to views and will 
Always follow the Teaching. {T 2, 582a] 
Being endowed with [insight-]knowledge [due to 
Dharma practice], [I will] thus be able [really] to venerate 

the Master. 

Having given his instruction, the Exalted One left and went 
back to his own quiet room, whilst Venerable Rahula was won- 
dering how one would practise [mindfulness of] breathing aban- 
don [vain] thoughts and overcome all sorrow. Then Rahula rose 
from his seat and went to the Exalted One's whereabouts On 
his arrival, he bowed down his head at [the Exalted Ones] feet 
and sat down at one side. Presently (muhurtenal he rose again 
and asked the Exalted One: How does one practise Imind- 
fulness of] breathing, abandon [vain] thoughts and overcome all 



4 LiL the Chinese corresponds to araksacUlo, 'a mind given to protection". 



215 



Buddhist Studi« Review 10, 2 (1993) 

sorrow? How does one obtain as sublime result (mahaphata) 
the taste of deathlessness (amrtarasa)! - The Exalted One re- 
plied: Well said, well said (sadhul Rahula! You are indeed 
capable of asking this question and thereby 'roaring the lion's 
roar' (simhanadanadin) in front of the Tathagata: How does one 
practise [mindfulness of] breathing ... the taste of deathlessness? 
Now, Rahula, listen attentively and take heed (srnu sadhu ca 
susfhu ca manasi'kuruf The time has come for me to elucidate 
and give you details (nir-dis). - Just so, Exalted One, rephed 
Rahula. While Venerable Rahula [joined his hands as a token 
of reverence] to receive the Exalted One's Teaching, he was 
given the following instruction: 

A bhiksu intent on a quiet, secluded and really lonely place 
[goes there], sits down cross-legged and straightens body and 
mind. Concentrating on the tip of his nose without letting men- 
tal proliferation (nanaiva) arise, he breathes out s a long [breath] 
and is fully aware of it; breathing in* a long [breath}, he is fully 
aware of it; breathing out a short [breath], he is fully aware of 
it; breathing in a short [breath], he is fully aware of it; 
breathing out a cool [breath] . . , breathing in a cool [breath] . 
breathing out a warm [breath] . . . breathing in a warm [breath], 



5 Cf, for instance; Mahavyut. 6215. 

6 le aivasaprasvasa which, according to the Chinese EA means exhalation 
and Inhalation'; also the St Petersburg Sanskrit dictionary and Monier Will.ams 
take praivasa to mean 'inhalation'. In general. Pali scholars translate the 
dvandva compound as 'inhalation and exhalation', whilst pundits in Thailand 
understand il the other way round. In the Index to the AbMdharmakoia- 
bkasya by A. Hirakawa (Tokyo 1973). however, the Tibetan and Chinese 
versions of the Sanskrit compound corroborate the interpretation of the 
majority of scholars: 'inhalation and exhalation'. See F. Edgerton's interesting 
entry in his BHSD, p.UO. 



216 



Ekotlaracama XV 

he is fully aware of it. He contemplates the whole bodily [pro- 
cess of] inhaling and exhaling 7 and is fully aware of everything. 
When there is breathing he is fully aware of its presence, and 
when there is no breathing he is also fully aware of its absence. 
In the event of breathing out conditioned by the mind, he is ful- 
ly aware of it; and in the event of breathing in conditioned by 
the mind, he is again fully aware of it. In this way. Rahula, one 
can practise [mindfulness of] breathing and thereby abandon all 
thoughts of aversion and confusion (vikfiptasarnjna), over- 
come all sorrow and thus obtain the taste of deathlessness as 
sublime result. 

When the Exalted One had imparted his subtle Teaching 
(sukfmadharma) in some detail to Rahula, the latter rose from 
his seat, paid his respects at the Buddha's feet, circumambulated 8 
[the former] thrice and left. Rahuta went to the foot of a tree 
in the Andhavana 9 , sat down cross-legged and straightened body 
and mind, concentrating on the tip of his nose without letting 
any redundant (adhika) thoughts arise. Breathing out a long 
[breath], he was fully aware of it; breathing in a long [breath], 
he was fully aware of it; breathing out a short [breath] ... a 
cool [breath] ... a warm [breath] .... he was fully aware of it. 
He contemplated the whole bodily [process of] inhaling and 
exhaling and was fully aware of everything. When there was 
breathing ... and no breathing he was also fully aware of its 
absence. In the event of breathing out . . , breathing in 
conditioned by the mind, he was again fully aware of it. 



7 Here, contrary to the foregoing, the succession of the respiratory process is 

reversed. Cf. n.6. 

8 I.e. pradaksina; see Soothill. p!69a: "turning or processing with the right 

shoulder towards an object of reverence". 

9 Cf. DPPN I, lllf. 



217 



Buddhist Studies Revliw 10, 2 (1993J 



Ekottaragam* XV 



Then Rahula wisely reflected (manasi-kr) thus: A mind full 
of attachment subsequently set free from tali passions] is clean- 
sed (nirmukta) of all that is karmically unwholesome (akusala). 
He [entered and] remained in the first absorption (dhyana) in 
which there is thinking, deliberation (savitarka, savicaraV and 
mindfully experiencing joy (priti) and happiness (sukha) Upon 
the cessation of thinking and deliberation, he [realised] perfect 
inner quiet and perfect concentration (adhydtmam sampra- 
sada, cetassa ekotlbhavar. He [entered and] remained in the 
second absorption in which there is neither thinking nor de- 
liberation, yet mindfully experiencing joy [born] of concen- 
tration (samadhija). Then perfectly mindful, after the cessation 
of joy (nisprltika), while experiencing just that physical well- 
being {sukhaw ca kayena pratisamvedayatiy 1 which the Noble 
Ones experience (upa-labh) with equanimity' \ complete 
satisfaction (paritosa) and mindfulness, he [entered andj 
remained in the third absorption. When he had gone beyond 
(prahana)" pleasure and pain and was rid of sorrow, he [entered 
and] remained in the fourth absorption which is free of both 
suffering and happiness and utterly pure [because of] equanimity 
and mindfulness. 

With the help of this concentration, his mind became 
utterly pure and was rid of flaws (rajas) and blemishes (dosa), 
while his body was exceedingly supple (mrdu). He recognised 
places from the past and remembered what he had previously 



10 See Mahivyui 1478, 

11 Ibid, 1479. 

12 Ibid, 1480. 

13 Cf. n.4. 

14 See MahavyuL 1481. 



done He vividly (dravyatas) recognised his [former] abodes 
during incalculable aeons. He also remembered former _cx s- 
.ences (jati) - one, two, three, four, five, ten, twenty, th.rty 
fort? fifty an hundred, a thousand, ten thousand, severa 
hundr'ed thousand previous lives, a period of evolution and of 
destruction [of the world] (vivar«r, sa m vartakalpa\ innumer- 
able periods of evolution and destruction, hundreds o^rmll^ 
incalculable aeons. [He remembered:] I was born and had such 
"nd such a name, belonged to such and such a lineag,, had such 
and such food, experienced such and such pams and pleasures, 
had [such and such] long and short lifespans. There I d.ed, here 
I was reborn; here I died [again] and was reborn there. - 

With the help of this concentration, his mind was utterly 
pure and rid of flaws, blemishes and ail fetters fr«*W™«; 
Furthermore, he [directed his] mind to the knowledge of beings 
coming into existence. With the purified and immaculate 
'divine eye' (divyacaksus) he saw [many] kinds of beings -how 
they are born and how they die He understood in accordance 
with fact {yathabhutam) that [beings] are good-looking, ugly, 
well-destined or ill-destined - depending respectively on the r 
good and bad behaviour (carita) and deeds (kjta). [He under- 
Led that] on the one hand, there are beings jho ^ bodily 
vocally and mentally misbehaved, insulted the Noble Ones, held 
al views, performed actions determined by false views and 
who at the breaking up of the body and after their death have 
gone to hell (narakal that, on the other hand there , „ , bemj. 
who bodily, vocally and mentally behaved well, did not msult 
the Noble Ones, always held right views, performed ac ions 
determined by right views and who, at the breaking up of the 



15 



Cf, ibid, 207: piirvanivasanusmrli-jAana. 



218 



219 



Buddhist Studies Review 10, 2 (1993) 

body and after death, have gone to a good, a heavenly world 
(sugati, divyam). This [su perk now I edge (abhijM) of his) is 
called the purified and immaculate 'divine eye' [thanks to which 
he] saw [many] kinds of beings . . . [and thanks to which hej 
understood in accordance with fact that [beings] are good- 
looking . . . depending respectively on their good and bad 
behaviour and deeds. 

Moreover, he directed his mind to effect the destruction 
(k?aya) of the mind's malign influences (asrava). He realised 
and knew in accordance with fact: This is unsatisf actor iness 
(duhkha); he realised and knew in accordance with fact the 
origin (samudaya) 1 * of unsatisf actoriness, its final cessation 
(duhkhanirodha) and what has necessarily to be done (avasya- 
karya) in order to overcome unsatisfactoriness 17 . 

By dint of such penetrating insight (vipasyana), his mind 
was freed from the malign influences of desire (kamasrava), of 
becoming {bhavce) and of ignorance {avidyaP). Having realised 
[ultimate] freedom (vimukti), he gained the [insight-Jknowledge 
of this freedom and knew in accordance with fact: Birth and 
death have come to an end, the holy life (brahmacarya) has 
been lived, what had to be done has been done, and there will 
be no more coming into existence. 

At that time Venerable Rahula became an Arhat 18 and, 



16 After Hayashi. who reads jfe for ^f . 

17 I.e. duhkanirodagamini pratipad: the path leading to the final cessation of 
unsatisfactoriness, 

18 According to the Pali tradition, at the end of the Cula-Rahulovadasutta 
(M III, 277-80; S IV. 105-7), Rahula's becoming an Arhat is mentioned (see 
Malalasekera II, 737-40); an account of his realisation of three kinds of 
super knowledge (abhijna), viz. remembrance of former existences, the "divine 



220 



Ekotiaragama XV 

after his realisation of arhatship, he rose from his seat, adjusted 
his robes and went to the Exalted One's whereabouts. [There] 
he bowed down his head at [the Exalted One's] feet, stood to 
one side and said to the Exalted One: [My] aspirations have 
come true: the eradication of all malign influences. - Then the 
Exalted One said to all the bhiksus [present]: Among ail those 
who realised arhatship, none is like Rahula. For what reason? 
As far as the eradication of malign influences is concerned, 
there is the bhiksu Rahula [who has achieved itj and in respect 
of observing rules and of being given to training (Msal there 
is again Rahula [who excels]. All previous Tathagatas and 
Perfectly Enlightened Ones, too, had this bhilcsu Rahula [as their 
son]", and it was the bhik$u Rahula who was anxious that he 
should be called 'son of the Buddha* who himself, following the 
Buddha, reached the ultimate goal (dhartna). - Amongst my 
disciples, the Exalted One went on saying to the bhik?us, the 
foremost among those capable of observing the rules of training 
is the bhik§u Rahula 20 . - Then the Exalted One uttered these 
verses: 

[If one] conscientously [observes] the rules of moral training 

One will perfect all one's spiritual faculties (indriya). 

One has to [develop them] step by step until one reaches [the 



eye' and eradication of all malign Influences, U not, however, given either at 
M 1, 420ff. or at the above place*. For a parallel to Rahula's abhijAas. cf. for 
instance, M 1, 22f. (Bhayabheravasutla). I.B, Horner, op. cit. I, 28f.; cf. also 
Nyanaponlka, Buddhist Dictionary (revised ed.), Colombo 1956, pJ2f. 

19 As for Rahula's being mentioned, not as having been the son of 'all 
previous Tathagatas', but the son of the Bodhisalta referred to in numerous 
Jatakas, see DPPN H. 739ff. 

20 Cf. A 1, 24: Etad aggam bhikkhave mama savakanam bhikkhunam 

sikkhakamanam yadidam Rahula, 



221 



Buddhist Studies Review 10, 2 (1995) 

ultimate goal} 
Completely ridding oneself of all fetters. — 
Having listened to the Exalted One's words, all the bhiksus 
were pleased and respectfully applied themselves to practice,' 

Abbreviations 

All Pali texts are quoted according to the Pali Text Society 
(PTS) editions 

A - Ahguttara-Nikaya (PTS). 

BHSD = F. Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit 

Dictionary, New Haven 1953. 
DPPN = Dictionary of Pali Proper Names by O.P. 

Malalasekera, 2 vols, London 1937-8. 
EA = Ekottaragama, T 125 

Hackmann = H. Hackmann, Erkiarendes Worterbuch zum 

chinesischen Buddhismus, Chinesisch-Sanskrit- 

Deutsck, ed. by J. Nobel (6 fascs., a-ch'a-ch'a - 

ni-shi-t'an), Leiden 1951-4. 
Hayashi = Japanese translation of the Ekottaragama: 

Hayashi Goro (Goho), Kokuyaku Issaikyo, 

Agon-bu B, Tokyo 1933, repr, 1969, p.124 ff. 
M = Majjhima-Nikaya (PTS). 

Mahavyut Mahavyutpatti, ed. R. Sakaki, 2 vols, Kyoto 1926. 
S = Samyutta-Nikaya (PTS). 

Soothill = W.E. Soothill, L. Hodous, A Dictionary of 

Chinese Buddhist Terms, London 1937. 
T = Taisho Shinshu Dahokyo or Taisho tssai-kyo, 

100 vols, Tokyo 1924 -. 
THV = Thich Huyen-Vi (his emendations or comments). 



222 



NEWS AND NOTES 

fi Kjiihitinns nn Central Asian Culture 

1. National Museum, New Delhi, 21 March - 11 April. Included 
were two lectures in honour of Sir Aurel Stein given by 

Prof. B.N. Mukherjee (University of Calcutta) and Krishna Deva, 
Retired Deputy Director General, Archaeological Survey of India. 

2. 'Lost Empire of the Silk Road* — Fond azi one Thyssen- 
Bornemisza, Lugano-Castagnola, 25 June - 31 October. 70 

examples of Buddhist art from Khara Khoto dating from the 
Ilth-13th centuries, rediscovered in 1908 and housed in the 
Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg. Includes a rare two-headed 
Buddha. 

3. 'Buddhism in Upper Central Asia from 1st to 10th century* — 
Mus6e Ouimet, Paris, September-November. 

4. *In the Steppes of Genghis Khan*. Art and Artefacts from 
Mongolia — The October Gallery, London, 6 May - 19 June, 

Lectures. 

1. Prof. Y. Karunadasa (Postgrad. Inst, of Pali and Buddhist 
Studies, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka) gave a rare series of twelve 

public lectures on Theravada Buddhism at the School of Oriental 
and African Studies (Univ. London) from May. The first six 
were based on the Nikayas with the remainder based on the 
Abhidhamma. 

2. Eric Cheetham will be the main speaker in a unique series 
of public lectures on Chinese Buddhism. Part I will 

comprise twenty talks at the Buddhist Society, London, every 
other Wednesday from 13 October at 6.30pm. The course spans 



223 



MA 

Sn 

SWTF 



Buddhist Studies Review II, 1 (1994) 

Catalogue, Berkeley 1979. 
= Madhyamagama, T 26. 
= Suttanipata (PTS) 

Sanskrit-Worterbueh der buddhistischen Texte 
aus den Turfan-Funden, begun by E. Wald- 
schmidt, ed. H. Bechert, compiled by G.v. Simson, 
M. Schmidt, S. Dietz, J.-U. Hartmann, Gottingen 
1973 f f. 






CORRECTIONS - EKOTTARAGAMA XV (BSR 10, 2 1993) 

p.215, n.4.: for araksacitm read araksadtta. 

p.216, 1.16: for ndnatvd read nanatva. 

p.218, 19: for cetassa read cetasa. 

p220, n.17: for duhkhanirodagamini read duhkhanirodhagamint, 

p.222, 1.17: for ni-shi-t'an read ni-shih-t'an. 

p.222, L20 for 'Agon-bu B' read Agon-bu 8*. 



66 



SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT 

We are delighted to welcome on to our Advisory Committee 
Charles S. Prebish, Associate Professor of Religious Studies, 
Pennsylvania State University. 

Prof. Prebish has agreed to act as our North American 
treasurer and editorial representative. To facilitate payment of 
subscriptions in US$, he has opened a bank account in the name 
of Buddhist Studies Review and invites American and Canadian 
readers, as well as others who would prefer to pay in US$, to re- 
new or commence subscribing by sending their remittance to 
him at The Pennsylvania State University, Religious Studies 
Program, 108 Weaver Building, University Park, PA 16802-5500, 
USA. (Annual subscriptions are $11.00 for individuals or $19.00 
for institutions.) 

In his capacity as our editorial representative, Prof. Prebish 
will collate publishable material for BSR. North American 
contributors of items on 'mainstream' Buddhism (i.e. the broad 
HInayana tradition and early Mahayana in India, Central Asia 
and China) are asked to submit their typscripts or computer 
print-outs to him at the above address for perusal. 



LETTER TO THE EDITOR 



Dear Sir, 

May 1 respond briefly to Laurence Mills's comments on my 
abridged translation of the Majjhima Nikaya, not out of any 
general wish to quarrel with a fair-minded review, but because 
one of his points perfectly illustrates the unique pitfalls of these 
texts in a way which warrants further examination. 

In Discourse 26 there are virtually identical passages cover- 
ing Gotama's period of tutelage under, first, Alara the Kalama, 
and then Uddaka Ramaputta. However, at the end there is a 



67 



EKOTTARAGAMA (XVI) 

Translated from the Chinese version by 

Thich Huyen-Vi and Bhikkhu Pasadika 

in collaboration with 

Sara Boin-Webb 

Eighth Fascicle: 

Part 17 

Anapanalsmrti] (b) 

2, 'Thus have I heard. 2 At one time the Buddha was staying in 
Sravasti, at Jeta Grove, in Anathapindada's Park. Then the 
Exalted One said to the bhiksus: It is extremely rare (sudur- 
iabhd) 1 for two persons to appear in the world. For which two 
persons? It is extremely rare for a Tathagata, a Perfectly and 
Completely Enlightened One and for a noble universal monarch 



1 The figure indicating this new section at T 2, 582c23 is 1; the following 
sections, however, are counted as sections 3, 4 etc. As the last, rather long 
section of fasc.7 is entitled 'Anapanasmrti 1* and the following 10 sections of 
fasc.8 'Anapanasmrti 2' (in our transl. differentiated as (a) and (b)) Hayashi 
(p.128) counts this first section of fase.8 as section 2. It seems a bit odd that 
fasc.8 is also entitled 'Anapanasmrti', for none of its sections deal with ana- 
panasmrti at all 

2 Cf, A 1, 76; Dve 'me bhikkhave puggala lake uppajjamana uppajjanti 
acchariyamanussa . . . Tathagalo ca araham samma sambuddho raja ca 
cakkavatti . . .. 

3 This expression is a key word in the Sutrasamuccaya and also plays an 
important role in many works of the later Lam-rim literature; cf. T 32 (No. 
1635), 49cl4 and passim. The Sanskrit equivalent is unascertainable because a 
number of quotations in ihe Sutrasamuccaya are ai least partially extant in 
Sanskrit, whereas this anthology as a whole has survived in Tibetan and 
Chinese only. 



Ekottaraganta XVI 

(aryacakravartin) to appear in the world. (T 2, 583a) It is 
extremely rare for these two persons to appear in the world. — 
Having listened to the Exalted One's words, all the bhiksus were 
pleased and respectfully applied themselves to practice.' 

3. *'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying . . . 
in Anathapindada's Park , . . said to the bhiksus: It is extremely 
rare for two persons to appear in the world. For which two 
persons? It is extremely rare for a Pratyekabuddha and for a 
completely passion-free (ksinasrava) disciple of the Tathagata, 
for an Arhat, to appear in the world. It is, O bhiksutsl extreme- 
ly rare for these two persons ... — Having listened ... all the 
bhiksus were pleased and respectfully applied themselves to 
practice.' 

4. Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying . . . 
in Anathapindada's Park . . . said to the bhiksus: There are two 
things (dharma) in the worlds that are to a very great extent 
conducive to mental defilements (Jtlesdp. Which are those two? 
(a) That which creates roots of what is karmically unwholesome 
(akusala), viz. anger (krodha); (b) neglect of virtuous actions 
(sucarita), of roots of virtue (guna). These, bhiksus, are the two 



4 At Hayashi, p.128, the same reference to A is given as with fasc.8, section 
2 (see n.2), which is incorrect. At two different places in A L 77, we have 
passages only reminiscent of this section: Dve 'me bhikkhave buddha. Katame 
dve? Tathagato ca araham samma sambuddho paccekabuddho ca . , . Dve 'me . 
. . asaniya phalantiya na santasanti . . , Bhikkhu ca khinasavo hatthajaniyo ca, 

5 In a recent work (S. Anacker, Seven Works of Vasubandhu. Delhi 1984, 
p.l46f.), it has been insisted that kiesa ought to be translated as 'afflictions' 
instead of 'defilements'. While this holds true for classical Sanskrit and for the 
rendering of the said term by the Tibetans, according to Pali, Buddhist Sans- 
krit and Chinese sources the meaning of 'defilement' can aJsa be vindicated 
beyond any doubt. 






50 






Buddhist Studies Review 11, 1 (1994) 

things that are enormously conducive to mental defilements. 
Therefore, O bhiksus, one must become aware of and under- 
stand these things [conducive to] mental defilements, and one 
must also become aware of and understand the things that are 
not [conducive to] the defilements. One must think of getting 
rid of the things pertaining to the defilements and think of 
practising those pertaining to what is free from defilements. 
Thus, O bhiksus, you should train. — Having listened ... all the 
bhiksus . . . applied themselves to practice.' 

5. 6 'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying . . . 
in Anathapindada's Park . , . said to the bhiksus: Whatever 
thoughts, inclinations or any other kind of formative forces 
(samskara) may be pertaining to beings who hold false views 
(mithyadrstika) — all that cannot be appreciated at all and is 
something with which mankind [cannot] be happy. The reason 
for this is that false views are karmically unwholesome. [Let us 
take], for example, seeds of bitter fruit, seeds of the nimba fruit, 
of the kosatakt, of the bitter bottle-gourd (tiktakalabu) 1 or of 
any other kind of seeds of bitter [fruit]. Similarly, whatever 
bodily, vocal and mental actions may be performed by beings 
holding false views; whatever their thoughts, inclinations or bad 
behaviour (duscarita) may be — all that cannot be appreciated 






6 Cf A I, 32: Micchaditthikassa bhtkkhave purisapuggaiassa . . . Ditthi . . . 
papika ti. Seyyalkapi . . . nimba-bijam va kosataki — bijam va tittaka- 
Ifibu-bijam va . . . Ditthi . . . papika ti. 

7 These three kinds of bitter fruit enumerated in the text are translated 
after the Pali parallel because, among the characters standing for the various 
kinds of bitter fruit (T 2, 583a22-23), one does not seem to be covered in 
Sino-Japanese dictionaries, whilst the others are given as signifying kinds of 
wild grass; the last kind of bitter fruit occurs in ihe text as an enigmatic 
transliteration: bi-di-pan-chi. 



52 



Ekottaragarna XVI 

at all and is something with which mankind [cannot] be happy. 
The reason for this is that false views are just karmically 
unwholesome and malign (papaka). Therefore, O bhiksus, one 
should abandon false views and practise [guided by] right views. 
Thus, O bhiksus, you should to train. — Having listened ... all 
the bhiksus . . . applied themselves to practice.' 

6. 8 Thus have I heard ... the Buddha was staying ... in 
Anathapindada's Park . . . said to the bhik§us: Whatever 
thoughts, inclinations or any other kind of formative forces may 
be pertaining to beings who hold right views (samyagdrstika) — 
all that can wholeheartedly be appreciated and respected and is 
something with which mankind [can] be happy. For what 
reason? Because right views are something excellent (pra- 
nita, bhadraka). [Let us take], for example, sweet fruit [or] 
sugar-cane, grapes or any other deliciously sweet fruit. Someone 
cultivates good soil and grows [suitable] varieties. Afterwards 
the crop as a whole will be so delicious that people will relish it. 
This is due to the fact that the [crop of] fruit originates from 
very sweet [varieties! Similarly, whatever thoughts, inclinations 
or any other kind of formative forces may be pertaining to 
beings who hold right views — all that is something with which 
one can be happy. And why is it that mankind is not at all 
displeased [with all that]? Because right views are something 
excellent. Thus, O bhiksus, you should train. — Having listened 
... all the bhiksus applied themselves to practice.' 



8 Cf. A, ibid., Sammaditthikassa bhikkhave purisapuggalassa . . . Ditthi 
bhaddika ti. Seyyathapi . . . ucchubijam va salibijam va muddikabijam va 
Ditthi . . . bhaddika ti. 



53 



Buddhist Studies Review 11, 1 (1994) 



Ekotturagama XVI 



7, "Thus have I heard ... the Buddha was staying ... in 
Anathapindada's Park. Then Venerable Ananda was dwelling in 
a quiet and secluded spot. While contemplating at his solitary 
[place] the following occurred to him: All sentient beings indulge 
in thoughts of sensuous greed (kamaraga), consequent upon 
which greed arises and insatiably, day and night, they are 
obsessed with that. — As evening approached, Venerable 
Ananda rose from his seat, adjusted his robes and went to the 
Exalted One's whereabouts. Upon his arrival, he bowed down 
his head at [the Exalted One's] feet and sat down at one side, 
The Venerable Ananda said to the Exalted One: While staying 
at a quiet and secluded place, the following occurred to me: All 
sentient beings indulge in thoughts . . . sensuous greed arises and 
insatiably, day and night, they are obsessed with that. — It is 
just as you have said, Ananda, replied the Exalted One, all 
sentient beings indulge in thoughts of sensuous greed which 
consequently increases their greed and ... all night long, they 
are obsessed with that. For what reason? 

Long ago, in times long past, there was a noble universal 
monarch named Mandhatr who ruled with righteousness 
(dharmena) and absolute impartiality. He had come into posses- 
sion of all the seven treasures, viz., of the wheel-treasure 



9 In this section the Buddha narrates the story of the "noble universal 
monarch' Ding-sheng. According to Hayashi (p.130), Ding-sheng is identical to 
Mandhata referred to at A II, 17 {etadaggam bhikkhave kamabhoginam yadidam 
raja Mandhata) and at Therigatha. v.486 (catuddipo raja Mandhata ast kama- 
bhoginam aggo I atitto kalankato na c'assa paripurita iccha //), For further 
references see DPPN II. p.444f. 

As for Mandhatr in Buddhist Sanskrit literature, see (a) Divyavadana. ed, 
P.L- Vaidya (Darbhanga 1959), pp.130-41 (Mandhatavadanam); (b) Avadana- 
Kalpalata I, ed, P.L. Vaidya (Darbhanga 1959), pp.38-45. See also below, n,16. 



54 






(cakraratnd), the elephant-treasure (hastiratna), the horse- 
treasure (asvaratna), the jewel-treasure (maniratna), the noble- 
woman-treasure (abhijatastriraina), the householder-treasure 
(grhapatiratna) and the commander-in-chief -treasure {parinaya- 
karatna) 10 . Moreover, he had a thousand sons who were healthy 
and strong and so brave that all malevolent [forces] had to 
surrender; he ruled over the whole world in which the use of 
knife and stick had fallen into desuetude 11 . 

You should [further] know, Ananda, that Mandhatr, the 
noble universal monarch, then thought to himself: Now this 
Jambudvipa is my territory whose people, [thanks to] an abun- 
dance of precious things, are affluent, 1 used to hear from 
honourable elderly persons about a western country (desa) 
[called] Aparagodanlya whose people, [thanks to] an abundance 
of precious things, are [also] affluent. Now I should go there to 
incorporate that territory into [my realm]. — Immediately 
thereafter, Ananda, the following sprang to Mandhatr's mind: 
Taking with me the four sections of my military forces (catur- 
angabala) 12 , I shall leave this Jambudvipa. — So he went to 
Aparagodanlya whose inhabitants, on seeing the noble monarch 
arrive, all gave him a most respectful welcome, kneeling down 
and asking polite questions. — Welcome (svagatam), Your 
Majesty (maharaja), [they shouted,] now [we] the people of 
Aparagodanlya are rich, but what we actually need is a noble 
monarch. Please rule over the people here and let [us] follow 



10 After the Chinese which literally has leading troops", whilst parina- 
yaka simply means 'leader, guide". 

11 I.e., no more fighting (THV). 

12 I.e., after Mahavyut. 3638-4], a) hastikaya (war-elephant regiment), b) 
asvakaya (cavalry), c) rathakaya (chariot regiment), d) pattikaya (infantry). 



55 



Buddhist Studies Review 11, l d»4) 

[your] code of laws {dharmasasana). - At once, Ananda, the 
noble monarch M. took control of Aparagodaniya and became 
the people's sovereign. 

Once after a lapse of several hundreds of thousands of 
years when the noble monarch M. was at leisure, the following 
came to his mind; I am the master of Jambudvlpa whose people^ 
are affluent, and the seven treasures are showered upon [mej 
knee-deep [as it were]. And now I am also master of this 
Aparagodaniya whose people ... are affluent Furthermore, I 
used to hear . . . about [an eastern country called] Purvavideha 
whose people ... are affluent. Now I should go there to incor- 
porate that territory into [my realm] and rule it with righteous- 
ness. - Then, Ananda, the noble monarch M. planned the 
following: Taking with me ... my military forces, I shall leave 
this Aparagodaniya and proceed to Purvavideha. - When the 
inhabitants of that country saw the noble monarch arrive, all 
gave him a most respectful welcome . . . With different mouths 
but one voice they shouted: Welcome, Your Majesty! Now [we 
the people of Purvavideha are rich ... let [us] follow [your] 
code of laws. - At once, Ananda, the noble universal monarch 
M took control . . _ 

Once, after a lapse of hundreds, thousands and ten thousands 
of years, when the noble monarch M. was at leisure, he thought: 
I am in [possession of] Jambudvipa whose people . . - are 
affluent, and the seven treasures. . . 1 am also the master of this 
Aparagodaniya ... and Purvavideha whose people ... are 
affluent. I used to hear . . . about [a northern country called] 






13 After Hackmann, p.208. 



56 



I 



Ekottaragama XVI 

Uttarakuru 14 whose people ... are affluent and said to be 
independent, yet not stubborn, not short-lived, but actually 
[noted for their] longevity, [everybody] having a life-span of a 
thousand years. When their long lives, [so it is said,] (T 2, 584a) 
come to an end, they are definitely reborn in a celestial world 
and are not doomed to another [lower] existence (anyagati). 
They wear clothes made of cotton (karpasa) 15 and eat non- 
glutinous rice [grown] by itself (svayam) 11 '. Now I should go 
there to incorporate that territory into [my realm] and rule it 
with righteousness. — And again, Ananda, the noble monarch M. 
devised the following: Taking with me . . . my military forces, I 
shall leave Purvavideha and march into Uttarakuru. — [So he 
went on his expedition, and when he] saw that country from 
afar, all green and with lush vegetation, he asked the retinue to 
his left and right: Do all of you not see this country — so green 



14 After Hayashi, pJ3L 

15 After Soothill. p.232b; cf. DPPN I, p.356: The clothes worn by the in- 
habitants resembled divine robes*. 

16 For parallel descriptions of Uttarakuru and her people, see D III, 199ff_ 
T.W. and C.A.F. Rhys Davids, Dialogues of the Buddha III (London 1923), 
p,192ff.; M. Watshe. Thus Have / Heard, The Long Discourses of the Bud- 
dha (London 1987). p.474ff.; H. Hoffmann, Bruchstucke des Atandtikasutra aus 
dem zentralasialischen Sanskritkanon der Buddkislen and Nachtrage z« 'Klei- 
ners Sanskrit-Tezte, Hefte lll-V, compiled by L. Sander (Stuttgart 1987), 
p.62ff.; for further references, see DPPN I, p.355f.; L, Sander and E. Wald- 
schmidt (ed.), Sanskrithandschriften aus den Turfanfunden, part IV (Wiesbaden 
1980). pp.244-6; on two leaves (Nos 256. 257) (catalogue No.558), a description 
of Uttarakuru and of the assembly of Trayastrimsa gods is given. Two further 
small fragments, also pertaining to the description of Uttarakuru, are found 
together with facsimiles (plate 67), in Sander, Waldschmidt, op. cit., part V 
(Stuttgart 1985), p.160 (catalogue No.1162). The vocabulary of the Turfan version 
of this Avadana is exhaustively dealt with in the Sanskrit-Wbrterbuch der 
buddhistischen Texts aus den Turfan-Punden (Got tin gen 1973ff.); see, for 
instance, fasc.5, pp.349, 350, under Uttarakuru and Uttarakuruka. 

57 



Buddhist Studies Review 11, 1 (1994) 



and covered with lush vegetation? - Oh yes, [we] see it. they 
replied. - [And again] the monarch addressed the masses of his 
retinue with these words: That is the soft grass [of Uttarakuru] 
whose softness and that of celestial clothes are exactly alike, and 
all the [inhabitants of Uttarakuru who are] wise and virtuous 
(satpurusa) are in the habit of sitting on it. - When [they] had 
gone a little further, [they] saw that country from afar, all 
covered with dazzling yellow, and now the monarch asked his 
retinue: Do you not see this country all covered with such dazz- 
ling yellow? - All of us see it, they answered, and the supreme 
monarch went on explaining: That is the fabulous non-glutinous 
rice that grows by itself, and all the [people of Uttarakuru who 
are] wise and virtuous habitually live on that [rice as their] food. 
Now, Your Excellencies, all of you will also have to eat that 
non-glutinous rice. — When the noble monarch [and his retinue] 
had gone a little further [they] saw a [large] area of flat land, 
and on the horizon they made out a tall palace (prasada) that 
[when they came nearer] looked quite magnificent Once more 
[the monarch] asked his retinue: Do you see that [large] area of 
flat land? — Certainly, all of us see it, they replied, and the sup- 
reme monarch went on telling them this [area] was called Cot- 
ton Tree Garment (Karpasavastra) and that they, [his retinue J 
would also be required to wear clothes made of cotton. When 
the inhabitants of that country, Ananda, saw the supreme mon- 
arch arrive, all rose, came forward and gave him a most res- 
pectful welcome . . . With different mouths 17 but one voice . . .: 
[We] the [people of Uttarakuru are rich ... let [us] follow [your] 
code of laws, — At once, Ananda, the noble monarch took 
control . . - 

However, after a lapse of hundreds ... of years, when the 



17 For h 



* read P (THV). 



58 



Ekottaragama XVI 

noble monarch M. was at leisure, he thought: Now I am the 
master of Jambudvipa, ... of Aparagodanlya, Purvevideha and 
Uttarakuru whose people are affluent [thanks to] an abundance 
of precious things. I used to hear . . . about the Trayastrimsa 
gods whose happiness is incomparable, whose life-span is really 
immense, whose clothing and sustenance are [provided] auto- 
matically and whose noblewomen are so many that one cannot 
tell their number. Now I should go to [their] celestial palaces 
(vimana) in order to rule over [them] with righteousness. — The 
noble monarch's next idea, Ananda, was [again] to take with 
him ... his military forces and to leave Uttarakuru. Sub- 
sequently [he and his retinue] climbed up to the Trayastrimsa 
gods 18 . When from afar Sakra, the chief of gods (Sakro deva- 
ndm indrah), saw M., the noble monarch, come [nearer] he said: 
Welcome, Your Majesty! You may sit down here. — Hardly 
had M,, the noble monarch, arrived, Ananda, when he sat down 
on the same throne together with Sakra, chief of gods, and 
when the two personalities were sitting together it was 
impossible to distinguish [one from the other]; their features, 
bearing, speech and voice were exactly alike. 

M., the noble monarch, Ananda, stayed there for several 
thousands and some hundreds of years, and thereafter the [same 
train of] thought [overcame him]: Now I am the master of 
Jambudvipa whose people ... [1 am] also the master of 
Aparagodanlya ... of Purvavideha . . . and of Uttarakuru . . . 



18 Cf. DPPN I, p.l002f.: Tavatirnsa stands at the lop of Mount Sineru . . . 
The Jataka Commentary mentions several human beings who were invited by 
Sakka, and who were conveyed to Tavatimsa — e.g. Nimi, Cuitita, Man- 
dhaia and the queen Silavaii. Mandhata reigned as co-ruler of Tavatimsa 
during the life period of thirty-six Sakkas, sixty thousand years (J II, 312)' 
(Mandliatujataka). 



59 



Buddhist Studies Review 11, 1 (1994) 



and I have even reached the heaven (svarga) of the Trayas- 
trimsa [gods]. Now I am surely capable of harming this Sakra, 
chief of gods, so as to [avail myself of] the opportunity (antara) 
[to become] the sole sovereign of all gods. — No sooner had M., 
the noble monarch, conceived of this idea, Ananda, than he 
could not help falling from his throne. [He fell and fell] until he 
reached Jambudvlpa, and with [him] fell the four sections of his 
military forces. Simultaneously, he lost his wheel-treasure and 
did not have the slightest notion of its whereabouts. [His] 
elephant-treasure and horse-treasure died at the same time; [his] 
jewel-treasure just disappeared, and likewise the noblewoman- 
treasure, householder-treasure and commander-in-chief-treasure 
passed away. ML, the noble monarch, was taken seriously ill, and 
all close and distant relatives assembled and condoled with htm 
on his disease. [Then somebody asked]: What shall we answer, 
Your Majesty, if anyone comes along and puts a question like 
this: What teaching has the supreme monarch M. bequeathed 
just before breathing his last? What shall be the [authorised] 
answer to such a question? — If after my death anyone puts 
such a question, replied the noble monarch M., [you] should 
announce the following: The monarch M. ruled the whole world 
and was nevertheless insatiable. Then he went up to the 
Trayastrimsa gods and stayed with them for several hundreds 
and thousands of years. But still he was desire-ridden and 
wanted to harm the chief of gods. Consequently, he [brought 
about] his own downfall and imminent death. — 

Well, Ananda, do not have any suspicion, do not have any 
doubts (ma samsayajato bhuh)l Do not consider the monarch 
M. of the past an altogether alien person, For what reason? At 



60 



Ekottaragama XVI 

[that] time I was the monarch M. 19 and it was I who ruled the 
whole world, went up to the Trayastrimsa gods and was insati- 
able as regards the five [kinds of] sense-pleasure (kamaguna). O 
Ananda, by dint of this 'skill in means' (upayakausalya) one 
should fully understand how one fares (gati) [if] one yields to a 
mind full of covetousness and attachment and [thus always] 
increases thoughts dominated by sensuous greed and insatiability 
(asamtusti). If one really wants to [obtain] complete satisfaction 
(samtusti), one should derive it from the wisdom of the Noble 
Ones {aryaprajha). — Before the great assembly the Exalted 
One uttered the following verses: 

Sexual misconduct is like the rainy season; 

When it occurs there is just excess. 

Pleasure [derived from it] is minimal 

While suffering is overwhelming. 

Those who understand [this] eschew [sensuous greed 1 

Even though one might enjoy heavenly bliss 

[Or] simply the five [kinds of] sense-pleasure — 

[All that] is just nothing when compared 

With a heart free of desire [as realised] by 

The Fully Enlightened One's Disciples. 

Covetousness and attachment continuing for 

A hundred million aeons exhaust 

[AH] merit and also lead to hell. 

When [actually] does one experience [real] happiness? 

In the twinkling of an eye [however one may] suffer 

hellish pain. 



19 Cf. Divy (V), 139, 20-1: yo 'xau raja M&rdhatah, aham ev Ananda tena 
kalena lena samayena / In this text three versions of the cakravartin's name 
occur: Mandhair, Mandhata and MQrdhata. At ib.. 139, 15-16. Kasyapa is 
identified with Sakra, chief of gods: Kaiyapo bhiksus terta kalena Una 
samayena Sakra devanam indro babhuva / 

61 



Buddhist Studies Review 11, 1 (1994) 

Therefore, Ananda, with the help of this 'skill in means' one 
should understand sense-desire (kama) and the overcoming of 
sense-desire [so that] one's thinking is rid of all indulgence for- 
ever. Thus you should train. - Having heard the Buddha's 
words, Ananda was pleased and respectfully applied himself to 
practice.' 

8. 20 Thus have 1 heard. At one time the Buddha was 
staying in SravastI, at the Jeta Grove, in Anathapindada's Park. 
Then the brahmin Sheng-lou 21 went to the Exalted One's 
whereabouts. After the exchange tof greetings] (vyati-sr) and 
asking [polite] questions, the brahmin Sheng-lou sat down at one 
side and then asked the Exalted One the following question: 
How should one regard a false friend {kumitraT! — One should, 
replied the Exalted One, liken him to the moon. — And how 
should one regard a spiritual friend (katyanamitra)1 the brahmin 
went on to ask. — One should liken him, too, to the moon, was 
the Exalted One's reply. — What the sramana Gautama has just 
said, insisted the brahmin, he has put in a nutshell, without 
having explained its meaning in detail. If only Gautama would 
fully explain the meaning so as to make plain what is not yet 






20 At T2, 584c (footnotes), reference is made to the verses at A III, 34 (A 
V. 31); the same reference is given at Akanuma, p.127, Hayashi, p.133. and at 
Lancaster, p.222. However, there is only partial thematic agreement between A 
verses and EA. The Pali verses actually have their counterpart at MA, Tl, 660b 
10-21, as indicated by Akanuma. 

21 Could this be a transliteration of Saila, Sela = Pali Sela? Cf. DPPN II, 
p,1288, on Sela, a brahmin of Ahgultarapa. Although formally Sheng-lou might 
correspond to the Sela of (he Pali Canon, it is only their originally having 
been brahmins which they have in common. Whilst Sheng-lou, at the end of 
the discourse, takes refuge as an upasaka, Sela, according to Sn. pJ12, became 
an arhaL 



62 






Ekottaragama XVI 

plain. — Listen attentively, brahmin, said the Exalted One, and 
take heed; 1 shall elucidate the full meaning for you. — With the 
words: {Be it] so (evam), Gautama, the brahmin Sheng-lou 

[consented] to receive the Buddha's teaching. 

Take, for instance, brahmin, said the Exalted One, the moon 
at the end of the month, day and night moving in orbit; she is, 
however, deficient in one respect: she is not at her full. As the 
moon is on the wane, the time will certainly 22 come " that she 
will be invisible and that nobody will see her. Similarly, brah- 
min, a false friend passes [his time] day and night, gradually 
losing trust (sraddha), neglecting his moral training (sila), his 
studies (sravana), liberality (dana) and being wanting in insight- 
knowledge (jhana), Consequently, since the false friend is bereft 
of trust . . . and insight-knowledge, the time will come for him 
after the breaking up of the body and after death, to go to hell. 
For this reason, brahmin, [i.e. as a warning], I have just com- 
pared the false friend to the moon at the end of the month. 

[Now,] brahmin, let us take, for example, the new moon in 
her waking phase. While she orbits day and night, her bright- 
ness gradually increases, bit by bit, [until she] is in her fullest 
phase. Then, (T2, 585a) on the fifteenth day (pahca- 
dasl, pahcadasika), she is absolutely at her full so that there is 
not a single sentient being that does not see [her]. Likewise, 
brahmin, a spiritual friend passes [his time] day and night, while 
he progresses in his moral training, in his studies and in 
liberality and while his trust and insight-knowledge increase. 
Accordingly, since the spiritual friend progresses . . . and since 
his trust and insight-knowledge increase, the time will come for 



22 
23 



Lit. "perhaps'. 
Lit, 'come back". 



63 



Buddhist Studies Review 11, 1 (1994) 



Ekottaragama XVI 



him, after the breaking up of the body and after death, to go to 
a good, a heavenly world (sugati, divyam). Therefore, brahmin, 
[i.e. in order to encourage,) I have just compared the spiritual 
friend, faring (gati) [well], to the moon at her full - Then the 
Exalted One uttered these verses: 

If one is greedy and full of desire, 

Given to aversion and hatred, always deluded, 

The karmically wholesome will slowly decline 

Like the moon in her waning phase. 

If one is no more greedy and full of desire, 

No longer given to aversion, hatred and delusion, 

The karmically wholesome will slowly increase 

Like the moon in her waxing phase. 

For this reason, brahmin, one should study and practise (siks) 
just like the new moon [waxing steadilyl 

After that, the brahmin Sheng-lou addressed the Exalted 
One: Well said (sadhu), Gautama 24 ! It is just like getting some- 
thing bent straightened [again!; seeing, as it were, light [after) 
darkness; it is like finding one's way after having gone astray — 



24 The following parallels the well-known stock conversion formula occur- 
ring e.g. al A 1, 173, 3-10: Seyyathapi bho Goiama nikkujjitatn va ukkujjeyya, . . 
Upasakam mam bhavam Goiama dharetu ajjaiagge panupetam saranam galan 
ti. For Sanskrit parallels, see, for instance, Divy (V), 44, 10-U: eso 'ham bhaga- 
vantam saranam gacchami . . . upasakam ca mam dharaya adyagrena 
yavajjivam pranopetam saranam gatam abhiprasannam; ibid., 301, 20-2; parts 
of this conversion formula are quoted in the Abhidharmakosabhasya. For lexi 
and references, see Bh. Pasadika, Kananische Zitate im Abhidharmakosabhasya 
des Vastibandhu (SWTF, Beiheft 1), Gouingen 1989, quotation Nos. 289. 290 
(reference, under these quotations, lo the present EA passage, T2, 585a 15-16, is 
wanting). 






after dullness just clarity! The sramana Gautama has set forth 
to me the Dharma [by way of] innumerable (asamkhyeya) 
means (updya). Now, of my own according (svayamX I take 
refuge (saranam gam) in the Exalted One, in his Teaching and 
in the monastic Community (lit. bhikmsamgha). May I hence- 
forth be accepted as a lay follower (upasakaX for the rest of my 
life abstaining from killing sentient beings (prandtipata) 25 . — 
After listening to the Buddha's words, Sheng-lou was pleased and 
respectfully applied himself to practice.' 



Additional Abbreviations 

Akanuma = C. Akanuma, The Comparative Catalogue of 

Chinese Agamas and Pali Nikayas, Nagoya 1929, 

Delhi 1990. 
D = DIgha-nikaya (PTS) 

Divy (V) = Divyavadana, ed. PL. Vaidya, Darbhanga 1959 
J = Jataka, together with its Commentary, ed. V. 

Fausb0ll, 6 vols., London 1877-96; vol.7 (Index, D. 

Andersen), 1987. 
Lancaster = L.R. Lancaster in collab. with Sung Bae Park, 

The Korean Buddhist Canon, A Descriptive 



25 For 'abstaining from pranatipata' most parallels have panupetam I prano- 
petam, 'alive, [as long as] life lasts'. Vasubandhu's quotations, however, have 
pr ana pel a which, at Abhidharmakosabhasya (Pradhan ed.), 215, 8-9 (IV30), is 
commented upon: pranatipatadyapetam Uy art ho madhyapadaiopat — 'Quel 
est le sens de cette expression pranapeta? II faut entendre, par ellipse, pranati- 
patapeta, exempt de meurtre, ayant renonce au meurtre". — L, de La Vallee 
Poussin, U Abhidharmakoka de Vasubandhu, Vol.III. p.72 (Paris 1923-31, repr. 
Brussels 1971). 



64 



65 



MA 

Sn 

SWTF 



Buddhist Studies Review II, 1 (1994) 

Catalogue, Berkeley 1979. 
= Madhyamagama, T 26. 
= Suttanipata (PTS) 

Sanskrit-Worterbueh der buddhistischen Texte 
aus den Turfan-Funden, begun by E. Wald- 
schmidt, ed. H. Bechert, compiled by G.v. Simson, 
M. Schmidt, S. Dietz, J.-U. Hartmann, Gottingen 
1973 f f. 






CORRECTIONS - EKOTTARAGAMA XV (BSR 10, 2 1993) 

p.215, n.4.: for araksacitm read araksadtta. 

p.216, 1.16: for ndnatvd read nanatva. 

p.218, 19: for cetassa read cetasa. 

p220, n.17: for duhkhanirodagamini read duhkhanirodhagamint, 

p.222, 1.17: for ni-shi-t'an read ni-shih-t'an. 

p.222, L20 for 'Agon-bu B' read Agon-bu 8*. 



66 



SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT 

We are delighted to welcome on to our Advisory Committee 
Charles S. Prebish, Associate Professor of Religious Studies, 
Pennsylvania State University. 

Prof. Prebish has agreed to act as our North American 
treasurer and editorial representative. To facilitate payment of 
subscriptions in US$, he has opened a bank account in the name 
of Buddhist Studies Review and invites American and Canadian 
readers, as well as others who would prefer to pay in US$, to re- 
new or commence subscribing by sending their remittance to 
him at The Pennsylvania State University, Religious Studies 
Program, 108 Weaver Building, University Park, PA 16802-5500, 
USA. (Annual subscriptions are $11.00 for individuals or $19.00 
for institutions.) 

In his capacity as our editorial representative, Prof. Prebish 
will collate publishable material for BSR. North American 
contributors of items on 'mainstream' Buddhism (i.e. the broad 
HInayana tradition and early Mahayana in India, Central Asia 
and China) are asked to submit their typscripts or computer 
print-outs to him at the above address for perusal. 



LETTER TO THE EDITOR 



Dear Sir, 

May 1 respond briefly to Laurence Mills's comments on my 
abridged translation of the Majjhima Nikaya, not out of any 
general wish to quarrel with a fair-minded review, but because 
one of his points perfectly illustrates the unique pitfalls of these 
texts in a way which warrants further examination. 

In Discourse 26 there are virtually identical passages cover- 
ing Gotama's period of tutelage under, first, Alara the Kalama, 
and then Uddaka Ramaputta. However, at the end there is a 



67 



Buddhist Studies Review H, 2 (1994) 

follow suit. If they do, executive and clerical officers also are 
righteous. This being so, the subjects are righteous too. Sun 
and moon always move smoothly [in their circuits], winds and 
rain are timely, catastrophes do not occur. The gods are pleased, 
and the five species of grain (sasya) 26 flourish. Sovereigns and 
ministers [work together] in harmony and with mutual respect, 
regarding each other as brothers; altogether, there are no [feel- 
ings of] either superiority or inferiority. [Everyone's] digestive 
system is in perfect order 27 , and everyone's complexion shines, 
betraying good health. There are no calamities, and [people's] 
life expectancy is very high indeed. People respect and love 
each other. — Then the Exalted One uttered these verses: 

Let us take, for example, buffaloes crossing a river. 

[If] their leader strays all [the herd] is led astray; 

[This deviation] is due to the leader. 

As for people, they also need a leader. 

But can we expect ordinary people [to be upright], 

If their leader is unrighteous? 

On account of the sovereign's unrighteousness the masses 

suffer. 

Thus one should know that [his] unrighteousness 

Also affects each and every subject [of his]. 

If the leader of a [herd of] buffaloes crossing a river, 

For example, fords at the exact [place], all [the herd] 

following him 

Is on the right track thanks to his leadership. 

The people, too, need a leader. If he is righteous, 



26 Viz, after Monier-Wtlliurns, dhanya (rtee or corn), tnugda (beans), 
tila (sesame), yava (bailey), ivetusarsapa (while mustard) or masa (pulses). 

27 Lit. "food digests itself. 



Ekoltarugama XVII 

The ordinary people all the more [try to follow suitl 
On account of the sovereign's setting an example of 

righteousness 

The people, without exception, [follow it] and live happily. 

Thus one should know that [his] righteousness 

Also affects the people as a whole. 
Therefore, bhiksus, one should forsake unrighteousness and be 
upright. Thus, bhiksus, one should practise. — After listening to 
the Buddha's words, the bhiksus were pleased and respectfully 
applied themselves to practice.' 



Additional Abbreviations 

Nyanatiloka = Nyanatiloka, Buddhist Dictionary, Manual of 
Buddhist Terms and Doctrines, Colombo 1952. 

SHT = Sanskrithandschriften aus den Turfanfunden, 

ed. (parts 1-3) E. Waldschmidt, W. Clawiter, L. 
Holzmann, Wiesbaden 1965, 68, 71; ed. (parts 4-5) 
L. Sander, E. Waldschmidt, Wiesbaden 1980, Stutt- 
gart 1985; ed. (part 6) H. Bechert, K. Wille, 
Stuttgart 1989. 

Vin = Vinayapitaka, ed. H. Oldenberg, 5 vok, London 

1879-83 (PTS). 



CORRECTIONS - EKOTTARAGAMA XVI (BSR 11, 1 1994) 

p.50, 1.8 and passim : for Anapanafsmrti] read Anapanafsmrti]. 
p.50, n.3. : for 'unascertainable' read 'ascertainable'. 
p.53, 1.14 : for pranita read pranita. 
p.65, 1.18 : for '1987' read '189T. 



170 



171 



Buddhist Studies Review 11, 2 (1994) 

(On Buddhism and Christianity) 

G. Dharmasiri — A Buddhist Critique of the Christian Concept 
of God, Colombo 1975. 

Paul Tillich — Christianity and the Encounter of World 
Religions, New York 1962 (German tr. in 
Gesammette Werke, Vol.V, Stuttgart 1964). 



156 



EKOTTARAGAMA (XVII) 

Translated from the Chinese version by 

Thich Huyen-Vi and Bhikkhu Pasadika 

in collaboration with 

Sara Boin-Webb 

Eighth Fascicle 

Part 17 

Anapana[smrti] (b) 

9. 'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 
SravastI, at the Jeta Grove, in Anathapindada's Park. Then the 
Exalted One said to the bhiksus: I am going to speak about the 
conduct (dharma) of spiritual friends (kalydnamitra) and false 
friends (papamitra) 2 . Listen attentively and take heed (srnu 



1 See T 2, 585al8 ff; Hayashi, p.135 ff. 

2 BSR 11, 1. p.62: for kumttra rend papamitra. This latter Sanskrit equivalent 
of the Chinese characters standing for 'false friend' is well attested in the 
Kasyapaparivarta, section 25 (ed. A.v. Stael-Holstein, Shanghai 1926, p.50). In 
Pali, too, the antonym of kalyanamitia is always papamitia. Here it may be 
stressed that the Sanskrit words in brackets interspersed in the translation of 
EA are tentatively given as approximate equivalents for the sake of the indo- 
logicaliy/buddhologically interested reader. We do not in fact know what the 
exact linguistic shape of EA was. Cf, in this context, Egaku Maeda, 'Japanese 
Studies on the Schools of the Chinese Agamas', in H. Bechert (ed.), Zur Schul- 
lugehorigkeit von Werken der tiinayana-Literatur, Part 1. Gottingen 1985, pJ03: 
'According to Prof. K. Mizuno, the 51 volume Ekottaragama is near to the 
Dharmaguptaka. Mahayana, and also Sarvastivadin. The area in which the Ekot- 
taragama prevailed was North-West India or Central Asia. The original lan- 
guage of the Chinese Ekottaragama was a kind of dialect like Buddhist 
Sanskrit*. On the other hand, EA has been associated with the Maha- 
sanghikas. See, in this context, K.R. Norman, Pali Literature, Including the 



157 



Buddhist Studies Review 11, 2 (1994) 

sadhu ca susthu ca manasi~kuru)\ We shall (evaml Exalted 
One, replied the bhiksus. Then the bhiksus [collected their 
thoughts] to receive the Buddha's teaching, and the Exalted One 
said: 

What is that which is called conduct of false friends like? 
There is [, for examplej a bhiksu — a false friend — in whom 
this thought arises: It is from a powerful clan that I have gone 
forth into homelessness in order to study the path {mar go) [to 
enlightenment]. As for the other bhiksus, they have gone forth 
into homelessness, being of humble descent, — While holding 
his own clan in [high J regard, he reviles others. That is what is 
called conduct of false friends. Again [that] false friend thinks 
like this: It is 1 who respectfully follow all instructions (desana) 
with greatest effort (vlrya), whilst the other bhiksus are not dili- 
gent in keeping the precepts {sllal - In this way he further 
slanders all others and at the same time indulges in self-praise. 
That is. . . conduct of false friends. Furthermore, [that] false 
friend 4 thinks like this: My concentration (samadhi) is perfect 
As regards the other bhiksus, they are not concentrated. Their 



Canonical Literature in Prakrit and Sanskrit of ail the Hinayana Schools of 
Buddhism. Wiesbaden 1983, p.57: "it is likely that the Chinese version of the 
Ekottaragama belongs to the school of the Mahusanghikas, and was translated 
not from Sanskrit but from some dialect of Middle Indo-Aryan or a mixed 
dialect of Prakrit with Sanskrit elements . , .', Norman here offers a resume of 
Waldschmidfs observations on EA in the toiler's 'Central Asian Sutra Frag- 
ments and their Relation to the Chinese Agamas', published in H. Bechert (ed.), 
The Language oj the Eurliest Buddlusi Tradition, Gduingen 1980, pp.137, 169-74. 

3 At BSR !0, 2, p.216, n.5, a reference to Muhavyut. 6215 regarding this 
Sans- krit equivalent is given. Regrettably, here a misprint of the Japanese ed. 
has been reiterated. Read: Malnivyui. 6315. 

4 ^ nWi <585u28> read $fjg£ . 






,, Ekoftiiruguma XVII 

i 

minds are totally confused and unreliable. - He always makes 
much of his concentration and indulges in self-praise [but] dis- 
parages all others. That is. . . conduct of false friends. More- 
over, [that] false friend thinks like this: My insight-knowledge 
(jnana) is the best (agra), the other bhiksus have no insight- 
knowledge. He makes much of his insight-knowledge and. . . 
disparages all others. That is. . . conduct of false friends. In 
addition, [that] false friend thinks: Now I am constantly supplied 
with food, a bed, with mattresses, bedding and medicine for the 
sick 5 . The other bhiksus cannot obtain these requisites [offered 
with] great respect (puja-pariskara). — He makes much of the 
things he acquires (tabhawstu) and indulges in self-praise Lyet 
also] disparages all others. That is. . . conduct of false friends. 
That is, bhiksus, what is called a false friend's wrong-doing 
{mithyakarmanta). 

What is to be understood by conduct of spiritual friends? 
There is [, for example,! a bhiksu - a spiritual friend — who 
does not think like this: It is from a powerful clan that I am de- 
scended, Iwhereas] these other bhiksus are not. [He, on the con- 
trary, thinks:] Myself and they are, indeed, not different. — That 
is what is called conduct of spiritual friends. Again [that] spiri- 
tual friend does not think like this: Now 1 observe the precepts, 
the other bhiksus do not. — I He, on the contrary, thinks:] As for 
myself and them, there is neither rising nor falling 6 . — Thanks 
to this disposition (slid), he neither indulges in self-praise nor 
does he slander others. That is, bhiksus, . . . conduct of spiritual 



5 I.e. the requisites (.puriskaru). with the exception of clvara, corresponding 
to pindapata-iayanasana-gtanapratyayabtiui.ytjya — cf. BHSD 331. 

6 'No rising, no tailing', 'no increase, no decrease' signal, in a higher sense, 
equality (THV). 



159 



Buddhist Studies It view 11, 2 (1994) 

friends. Furthermore, bhiksus, Lthat] spiritual friend does not 
think: My concentration is perfect, the other bhiksus' minds are 
confused and unreliable. [He, on the contrary, thinks:] As for 
myself and them, there is neither increase nor decrease. [Well] 
concentrated, he neither indulges. . . nor does he disparage 
others. That is, bhiksus, . . . conduct of spiritual friends. 
Moreover, . . . does not think like this: My insight-knowledge is 
perfect, the other bhiksus have no insight-knowledge . . . neither 
increase nor decrease. Thanks to his insight-knowledge, he 
neither indulges. . . nor does he disparage others. That is. . . 
conduct of spiritual friends. In addition, . . . does not think: I 
am able to obtain robes, blankets, food, a bed, mattresses, bed- 
ding and medicine for the sick 7 , but the other bhiksus cannot 
obtain. , . medicine for the sick, . . neither increase nor decrease. 
On account of these acquisitions he neither indulges. . . nor does 
he disparage others. That is . . . conduct of spiritual friends. — 

Then the Exalted One said to the bhiksus: I have just given 
you a definition (pari-cchid) of the conduct of faise friends and 
of spiritual friends respectively. Consequently, bhiksus, every- 
one should eliminate a false friend's conduct and everyone 
should mindfully cultivate the conduct of a spiritual friend. 
Thus, bhiksus, you should train. — Having heard the Buddha's 
words, the bhiksus were pleased and respectfully applied them- 
selves to practice.' 

10. 'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying, 
together with a large number of bhiksus, viz. five hundred 



7 Cf. n.5. Here lite first requisite, clvara, is included in the enumeration, 
whilst 'blankets' has no indie equivalent in this context. 



160 



Ekottarugnina XV11 

persons altogether, in Kapilavastu 11 , at Nyagrodha Grove. At 
that time, in the country were more than five hundred persons, 
[belonging to] the powerful and noble race of the great Sakyas. 
[They] had gathered in an assembly hall in order to discuss 
things of common I interest]. Then the brahmin Shi-dian 
approached those Sakyas whom he asked the following: Well, 
gentlemen, might there be anyone among the ascetics (sramana), 
brahmins or common {laukika) folk here who is able to debate 
with me? — Many of the Sakyas replied to the brahmin Shi- 
dian: Now here there are two persons of extraordinary capacity 
and comprehensive knowledge staying in Kapilavastu. Who are 
these two persons? One of them is Cudapanthaka 9 Bhiksu by 
name, the other Gautama Sakyavamsa, the Tathagata, who has 
realised (prapta) perfect enlightenment (samyaksambodhi). As 
for the people at large, they lack knowledge (avabodha), lear- 
ning {sravana) and wisdom [prajhal [Their] speech is petty and 
vulgar, and likewise are their attitudes, comparable to those of 
Panthaka! Moreover, in this particular community (eka- 
janapada) of Kapilavastu [there prevails] stupidity, ignorance 
and folly because of people's narrow-mindedness, vulgarity and 
wickedness {do sal comparable to that of Gautama! Now you 
can debate with them. Supposing, brahmin, you can debate with 
those two persons and even defeat them, we — over five 
hundred persons - shall have to worship [you] at any time and 
as required, and shall have to offer [you] one thousand pieces of 
sterling gold. - At that time the following thoughts occurred to 
the brahmin: All these Sakya tribesmen of Kapilavastu are 
clever; many of them are artful, cunning, false, unprincipled and 



8 See Sooth ill, p.482a: 'Sukyesu. defined as a name for Kapilavastu city'. 

9 After Hayushi, p.] 37. Huekmiinn. p.140. 



101 



Buddhist Studies Review II, 2 (1994) 



Ekoiiarugunia XV11 



corrupt. Even if I debate with the two and also get the better 
of it, how can the outcome be of great import? It might also be 
possible that one [of them] may defeat me, [I] would make a 
fool of myself and [suffer public] humiliation. Considering these 
two possibilities {sambhava), I cannot debate with them. — [He] 
expressed [his unwillingness] and left. 

Then, in time, Cudapanthaka 10 took up his alms-bowl and 
entered Kapituvastu I in order to] beg for alms-food. When the 
brahmin Shi-dian saw Cudapanthaka coming from afar, he 
thought: I should go and ask that man about 'meaning* (artha). 
— Having approached the bhiksu, he asked Cudapanthaka: 
What, srarnana, does an expression (vyanjana) u convey? — Wait 
(tistha), brahmin, C. replied, why do you insist on putting this 
question? The reason for [your] coming here is that [you ac- 
tually] want to ask about 'meaning'. Now you may ask (T2, 
586a) about that. — Srarnana, said the brahmin, I wonder 
whether you are able to debate with me. — So far, retorted C, I 
have been able to debate with Brahma, to say nothing of you 
[resembling] perhaps a blind man without eyes, — A blind man, 
rejoined the brahmin, is not a person without eyes, is he? To 
have no eyes does not imply blindness, does it? [When you take] 
this [having no eyes and being blind] to be one [and the same] 
thing, how does it not [lead to] great confusion? — Now C. 
soared into the air aud effected eighteen transformations (pan- 



to Hayashi (ib.), after nil additional reading given in T footnotes, adds 'put 
on his [outer! robes' (lit. "wearing robes'). 

II As for the English rendering of arihu and vyanjana, see M. Walshe, Thus 
Have i Heard, The Long Discourses of the Buddha (London 1987), p.432. 



162 



nama) u . [Seeing them], the brahmin thought: This srarnana has 
nothing but his bases of supernormal power {rddhipada)^ [to 
rely upon], but he does not" know' how" to debate. Should [he] 
explain to me this 'meaning', I would become [his] disciple 
(sisya). 



12 II is not known what the eighteen transformations are. DPPN 1, 898f, 
provides the information that Cudapanthaka was at first a dullard. Later on he 
'attained arahantship with the four paiisambhida, which included knowledge of 
all the Pitakas'. He was also 'skilled in creating mind-born forms'. Another 
piece of information on 'Culla-panlhuko', with reference to Pacittiya No.22. is 
found in H. Hecker, Buddhismus und Humor, 'Bod hi -Blatter' 28, Dicken. Swit- 
zerland 1993, p.38: Culla-patuhako, whenever preaching to nuns, taught them 
only one verse ad nauseam. When they finally complained about the boring 
and barren instructions, their teacher went high in the air and continued lec- 
turing on the said verse, but this time with stupendous success. On Cudapan- 
thaka in the context of Tibetan iconography, see H.W. Schumann. Buddhis- 
ttsche B'dderwelt, Cologne 1986, pp.62, 221 f, 227. A helpful hint for our under- 
standing of Cudapanlhaka's 18 parinamas seems to he Vin IV (PTS 1882), p.54: 
at ha kho ay as ma Cuiapamhako vehasam abbhuggantm akase antatikkhe cahka- 
malt pt iiuhaii pi nisiduti pi seyyam pi kappeii dhumdyaii pi pajjalati pi 
ahiara pi dhayuli (anuiradltayaii). According to this passage. Cudapanlhaka's 
thaumaturgic feat consists irf walking, standing, sitting and tying in the air, of 
manifesting himself as though smouldering, blazing up and disappearing. For 
an English transl. of Vin. ib, see LB. Horner. The Book of the Discipline II 
(Oxford 1940), p.274. At SHT V. pp.236-9 (catalogue Nos. 1349, 1464+ 1516), two 
fragments are found belonging tu the Cudapaiithaka-Avadana of the Mulasar- 
vasiivadins whose close parallel is Divy(V) No35, p.427ff. At SHT, ib., besides 
important bibliographical information, in the footnotes further details concer- 
ning Cudapanthaka are given consistent with Sarvastivada and Mulasarvastivada 
sources. At Divy(V) 433, 24-5, Cudapanthaka works his miracles before he 
starts teaching the nuns. By dint of his samadhi he becomes invisible, then 
soars into the air and displays other magical performances: ayusman Panthakas 
tadrupam samadhim sumapanno yaitui sumahite cine sve asane 'ntarhitah, 
purvasyam disi upurivihayasamubltyudgamya. . . rddhi- praliharyani vidarsya. . . 
13 Cf. BHSD, p,151f, and Nyauatiloka, p.59. 



163 



Buddhist Studies Review 11, 2 (1994) 

When, thanks to his clairaudience (divyasrotra), Venerable 
Sariputra heard what in their discussion C. and the brahmin 
Shi-dian were talking about, he immediately transformed his 
body and assumed the shape of Panthaka, whilst he caused Pan- 
thaka's outer form not to manifest itself and to remain hidden. 
[He] said to the brahmin: If you think, brahmin, this sramana 
has nothing but his bases of supernormal power [to rely upon] 
and is unable to debate, listen attentively to what I have to say. 
[I shall] tell you something about meaning, and this basic eluci- 
dation (nirdesamula) should really make [you] understand. Now, 
brahmin, what is your personal name? — My name is Brahma", 
replied the brahmin. [Sariputra in the form of] C. [went on] ask- 
ing: Are you a male (purusdp. — Yes, I am, was the brahmin's 
reply. C: Are [you] a human being (manusya)? — The brahmin 
answered in the affirmative. C: But then (kirn tar hi), brahmin, 
a male is also a human being and a human being at the same 
time a male! [When you take] this [being a male and a human 
being necessarily] to be one [and the same] thing, how does it 
not [lead to] great confusion? Well, brahmin, to be blind and to 
have no eyes is not the same thing. — How then, sramana, the 
brahmin wanted to know, is what is called blindness [to be 
understood]? — C: It is, for example, not seeing this world (iha- 
loka), the future world (paraloka), [how] beings are born and 
[how] they die, [not seeing] beautiful and ugly appearances 
(subha-, asubharupa), agreeable (hit a) or unpleasant (vaimpya) 



14 Besides the above 'Brahma', another way of tentatively restoring the 
(first?) name of Shi-dian would be Brahmadeva or Brahman (= brahmana). In 
the text above the brahmin tries to provoke Cudapanthaka, who reacts accor- 
dingly by saying: "So far 1 have been able to debate with Brahma, to say 
nothing of you . , .'. The same name occurring here might signify I hat the 
brahmin now considers himself and the sramana equals as far as debating is 
concerned, or there is simply a play on words here: Brahma = the deity, and 
Brahman ■ brahmin priest. 

164 



Ekoltaragama XVII 

things, sentient beings' actions and behaviour being karmically 
wholesome and unwholesome. [It is] not knowing in accordance 
with fact (yathabhutam) [due to] permanent non-perception. So 
this is what is called blindness. — And how, the brahmin asked 
[again], is one a person without eyes? — C: [That means that] 
one has eyes, [but] not the eyes of incomparable wisdom (anut- 
taraprajha). One is called a person without eyes because one 
lacks these eyes of wisdom. — Enough, enough, sramana, said 
the brahmin, [let us] leave aside this somewhat superficial eluci- 
dation (vyavakirnanirdesa). Now I would like to ask something 
of profound meaning (gambhirartha). How does one, sramana, 
by not taking one's stand on anything whatsoever realise Nir- 
vana? — C: By not taking one's stand on the five aggregates of 
grasping (upadanaskandha) [as being oneself and belonging to 
oneself]. - The brahmin: Do these five aggregates of grasping 
come into being by being conditioned (sapratyaya) or by not 
being conditioned? — C: By being conditioned and not by not 
being conditioned. — The brahmin: On what do the five aggre- 
gates of grasping depend? — The bhiksu: On desire (trsnd), — 
The brahmin: On what does desire [depend]? — The bhiksu: On 
birth (jdti). — The brahmin: What [should we] call [the cause of 
renewed] birth? - The bhiksu: Desire. - The brahmin: As for 
desire, what path is there [to overcome it]? — The sramana: The 
noble eightfold path (aryastahgamargaX viz. right views, right 
bodily action, right speech, right livelihood, right effort, right 
intention, right mindfulness and right concentration 15 . This is 
what is called the noble eightfold path. 



15 Cf. BSR. 10. 1, p.88, n.13, where three slightly different versions of the 
eightfold path are mentioned as occurring in EA. Here is a fourth of which 
'right effort' freely renders the Chinese corresponding to samyak-samu- 
dacara (right behaviour or practice), and 'right intention' the characters for 
samyag-upaya-lcausalya (right skill in means). 

165 



Buddhist Studies Review 11, 2 (1994) 

When C. had set forth the Dharma at length and the brah- 
min had listened to the bhiksu's teaching, the immaculate 
(visuddha) Dharma-eye opened [to the latter], ridding him of all 
impurities (malaY 6 . Then and there, in the [brahmin's] body 
there arose a windy humour [cutting like] a knife [which 
brought about] his death. At that time Venerable Sariputra 
again assumed on his [original] shape and, moving through the 
air, returned to where he was staying. Venerable Bhiksu C. 
went to the public assembly hall where a large multitude of 
Sakyas remained. On his arrival there he said to them: Please 
make haste and get melted butter (sar pis-taila) and firewood 
and go to carry out the brahmin Shi-dian's funeral. — Im- 
mediately the Sakyas got melted butter. „ . and went to perform 
the funeral. . . [Thereafter,] at a crossroads they erected a stupa, 
and then all the Sakyas without exception approached Venerable 
Bhiksu C. On arriving they bowed down their heads at [C.*s] 
feet, sat down at one side and addressed these verses to him: 
Having carried out the funeral and erected a stupa, 
[We have] complied with the Venerabte's instructions. 
[Thereby] we [hope to] obtain immense good (him) 
Thanks to the chance [we] have got of making this won- 
derful merit 
Then also Venerable C. addressed the following verses to the 
Sakyas: 

Now is set in motion the foremost (agrya) Wheel of the 

Dharma, 
[While] the adherents of all other schools (anyatirthya) 



16 Cf. Vin I, II (PTS 1879): virajam vitamalam dhammacakkhurn udapadi; E. 
Waldschmidt (ed.). Das Catus parisatsutra (based on Turfan Mss) (Berlin 1957), 
13,1: vi(rajo viga)tamatam dharmesu dharmacaksur ulpannam. 



166 



Ekottaragania XVII 

remain in eclipse 17 . 
[The Dharma's] wisdom is like the great ocean 
Which brings about the brahmins' eclipse. 
One's actions, karmically wholesome and unwholesome, 
Pertaining to the past, present and future, 
Will not be inoperative for a hundred million aeons. 
For this reason one should make merit. 

When Venerable C. had taught the Sakyas the Dharma at 
length, all of them said to him: Whenever the Venerable needs a 
robe, blanket, food, a bed, mattresses, bedding or medicine for 
the sick, all of us would like to serve [you] with supplies. [We] 
earnestly beg [you] to accept our invitation and not to hesitate 
or refuse. Venerable C. kept silent [and thereby signalled his] 
consent. After listening to Venerable C's [further] talk, the Sak- 
yas were pleased and respectfully applied themselves to practice.' 

11. Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying, 
together with a large [number of] bhiksus, viz. five hundred 
persons altogether, in Rajagrha 18 , at Karanda's Bamboo Grove 19 . 
Then the wicked Devadatta went to the whereabouts of Prince 
Vararuci 20 to whom he said: Formerly people had an extremely 
high life expectancy, whereas nowadays they have a maximum 
life-span of a hundred years only. Prince, you should know that 
a man's life is impermanent; [although one makes many] pre- 
parations for progress through life, [finally all come to] naught. 



17 Lit. 'surrender'. 

18 Afler Sooihill, p.304a, Hackmann, p327. 

19 After ib„ p.316b, 70 respectively. 

20 Or Baiaruci/Paiuruci after the Chinese transliteration Pd-luo-liii-zhi. 
According to the yontexl, this must be another name of Ajataiatru. Cf. DPPN 
I, p34, where it says: 'We do not know what Ajatasattu's real name was". 



167 



Buddhist Studies Review H, 2 (1994) 

Alas, in the midst of one's life one dies! h that not painful? 
Prince, the time [has come; you] should assassinate your royal 
father [and then] rule over your subjects. I must now kill the 
sramana Gautama and then realise the incomparable, really full 
and complete enlightenment. The realm of Magadha [will have] 
a new king and a new Buddha. [That] will be wonderful, will it 
not? It will be like the sun penetrating the clouds and dispelling 
gloom, like the moon annihilating darkness 21 [when she appears] 
amid hosts of stars". — Prince Vararuci lost no time in ar- 
resting his royal father, putting him in gaol and appointing new 
ministers to assist him in ruling over the people. 

Then many bhiksus were entering the city of Rajagrha to 
beg for their alms-food. They heard that Devadatta had 
wheedled the prince into arresting his royal father, putting him 
in gaol and appointing new partisan ministers. After their 
begging for alms-food they returned to their place, stowed away 
their [upper] robes 23 and alms-bowls and went to the Exalted 
One. They bowed down their heads at the Exalted One's feet 
and said to him: When entering the city at dawn to beg for 
alms-food [we] heard that the foolish Devadatta has persuaded 
the prince to have his royal father arrested and imprisoned and 
to appoint new partisan ministers. He further urged on the 



21 Lit. 'clouds'. 

22 This paragraph has a comparatively terse Pali parallel at Vin II, 190 (PTS 
1880): Atha kho Devadatto yena Ajatasattu kumaro tenupasankami, upasahka- 
mttva, . . tena hi tvam, kumara, pitaram hantva raja hohi, Aham bhagavantam 
hantva buddho bfiavissdmiti. For an English transl., see I.B. Horner, The Book 
of the Discipline V (Oxford 1952), p.266f. 

23 I.e. samghati, -ti; ef. C.S. Upasak, Dictionary of Early Buddhist Monastic 
Terms (Varanasi 1975), p.212f; the rendering "waist-cloth' at BHSD, p.549, is not 
correct. 



168 



Ekottaragama XVII 






prince by saying: Kill your royal father, I shall use violence 
against the Tathagata. In this realm of Magadha there [will be] 
a new king and a new Buddha. Will that not be wonderful? — 

On this occasion [the Exalted One said to the bhiksus: If a 
person in charge (svdmin) of order and development does not 
rely upon prudence (naya\ upon law (jiiyama)Y\ ministers and 
senior civil servants are unrighteous (adharmika). If ministers. . 
, are unrighteous, princes are unrighteous too. If they are, all 
executive and clerical officers are also unrighteous. This being 
so, the subjects are also unrighteous. Consequently, the masses 
run riot and the military 25 get out of control. This general law- 
lessness prevailing, sun and moon deviate from their circuits [so 
that] time [measuring] is put into disorder. On this account the 
year [as unit of time and for calculating] age comes to naught. 
Sun and moon being turned topsy-turvy, there is no real light 
and the constellations show themselves in quite a strange way. 
From this drastic change of the constellations follow cyclones, 
and it is the cyclones that enrage the gods. Due to the gods' 
wrath, winds and rains are untimely. (T2 587a) Consequent 
upon this, grain seedlings in the soil do not grow, and the com- 
plexion [of all] sorts of sentient beings - of slow, quick or rapid 
motion — changes; their lifetimes [become] exceedingly short. 
If, on the other hand, kings rule with righteousness, all ministers 
are righteous (dharmika) too. If they are righteous, princes 



. 



24 The Chinese corresponding to the text in brackets has been relegated by 
the editors to footnote 20 (T2, 586c), but Uanslated by Hayashi. 'If a person in 
charge. . .' parallels A II, 74-6 (No.70): Yasmim bhikkhave sarnaye rajano 
adhammika honti. . - (See F.L. Woodward. The Book of the Gradual Sayings II 
(PTS 1933), p.84f. 

25 Lit. 'soldier, horse' answering to the Japanese terra heiba, 'arms and war 

horses, military affairs'. 



169 



Buddhist Studies Review H, 2 (1994) 

follow suit. If they do, executive and clerical officers also are 
righteous. This being so, the subjects are righteous too. Sun 
and moon always move smoothly [in their circuits], winds and 
rain are timely, catastrophes do not occur. The gods are pleased, 
and the five species of grain (sasya) 26 flourish. Sovereigns and 
ministers [work together] in harmony and with mutual respect, 
regarding each other as brothers; altogether, there are no [feel- 
ings of] either superiority or inferiority. [Everyone's] digestive 
system is in perfect order 27 , and everyone's complexion shines, 
betraying good health. There are no calamities, and [people's] 
life expectancy is very high indeed. People respect and love 
each other. — Then the Exalted One uttered these verses: 

Let us take, for example, buffaloes crossing a river. 

[If] their leader strays all [the herd] is led astray; 

[This deviation] is due to the leader. 

As for people, they also need a leader. 

But can we expect ordinary people [to be upright], 

If their leader is unrighteous? 

On account of the sovereign's unrighteousness the masses 

suffer. 

Thus one should know that [his] unrighteousness 

Also affects each and every subject [of his]. 

If the leader of a [herd of] buffaloes crossing a river, 

For example, fords at the exact [place], all [the herd] 

following him 

Is on the right track thanks to his leadership. 

The people, too, need a leader. If he is righteous, 



26 Viz, after Monier-Wtlliurns, dhanya (rtee or corn), tnugda (beans), 
tila (sesame), yava (bailey), ivetusarsapa (while mustard) or masa (pulses). 

27 Lit. "food digests itself. 



Ekoltarugama XVII 

The ordinary people all the more [try to follow suitl 
On account of the sovereign's setting an example of 

righteousness 

The people, without exception, [follow it] and live happily. 

Thus one should know that [his] righteousness 

Also affects the people as a whole. 
Therefore, bhiksus, one should forsake unrighteousness and be 
upright. Thus, bhiksus, one should practise. — After listening to 
the Buddha's words, the bhiksus were pleased and respectfully 
applied themselves to practice.' 



Additional Abbreviations 

Nyanatiloka = Nyanatiloka, Buddhist Dictionary, Manual of 
Buddhist Terms and Doctrines, Colombo 1952. 

SHT = Sanskrithandschriften aus den Turfanfunden, 

ed. (parts 1-3) E. Waldschmidt, W. Clawiter, L. 
Holzmann, Wiesbaden 1965, 68, 71; ed. (parts 4-5) 
L. Sander, E. Waldschmidt, Wiesbaden 1980, Stutt- 
gart 1985; ed. (part 6) H. Bechert, K. Wille, 
Stuttgart 1989. 

Vin = Vinayapitaka, ed. H. Oldenberg, 5 vok, London 

1879-83 (PTS). 



CORRECTIONS - EKOTTARAGAMA XVI (BSR 11, 1 1994) 

p.50, 1.8 and passim : for Anapanafsmrti] read Anapanafsmrti]. 
p.50, n.3. : for 'unascertainable' read 'ascertainable'. 
p.53, 1.14 : for pranita read pranita. 
p.65, 1.18 : for '1987' read '189T. 



170 



171 



Buddhist Studies Review 12, 1 (1995) 

on Turfan MSS), Part I-III, Berlin 1952-62. 
It = Itivuttaka, ed. E. Windisch, London 1889 (PTS), 



Addendum to EA XVII 

At BSR 11, 2 (1994), pp.162-3 (n.12), 'eighteen transformations' are 
referred to in the text without specification. These eighteen 
parinamas are specified at Mochizuki Shinko, Bukkyo dai- 
jiten (2nd ed.), Kyoto 1954, pp.2366-7, under juhachi hen: ' 
1. kampana (vibrating), 2. jvalana (flaming), 3. spharana (suffu- 
sion), 4. vidarsana (manifestation), 5. anyatl-bhavakarana (sic) 
(changing completely), 6. gamandgamana (going and coming), 7. 
samksepa (compressing), 8. prathana (extending), 9. sarvarupa- 
karya-pravesana (penetrating all [sorts of] forms), 10. sabhdgato- 
pasamkrdnti (i.e, the ability to preach the Dharma, while taking 
on the appearance, speech etc. (lit. 'gone to the assembly') of 
noblemen, brahmins . . . celestial beings), 11. avibhava (sic) 
(appearing), 12. tirobhdm (disappearing), 13. vasitva-karana (acting 
freely or by having power), 14. pararddhy-abhibhavana (over- 
powering / controlling others by means of supernormal power), 
15. pratibha-ddna (imparting quickwittedness), 16. smrti- 
dana (imparting recollection), 17. sukha-dana (imparting happi- 
ness), 18. rasmi-pramaksana (emitting rays of light). 

The encyclopedia further explains the items such as, for 
instance, Nos. 7, 8, viz. as the ability to reduce, e.g„ the Hima- 
layas to an atom and, vice versa, to enlarge the latter to the 
former's dimensions. Given as sources of the list of the eigh- 
teen parinamas are e.g. the Asokarajavadana (T50, No.2042) and 
some other works which do not belong to the earliest strata of 
Buddhist literature. 



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59 



Buddhist Studies Review 12, 1 (1995) 

two can be compared with vv,1082-4 of the Pali Theragatha 
(p.96): 

dasa devasahassani sabbe te brahmakayika 
dhammasenapatlm dhirarn mahajhayim samahitam 
Sari putt am namassanta titthanti pahjallkata: 
namo te purisajahha, namo te purisuttama, 
yassa te nabhijanama yam pi nissaya jhayasi. 

'Ten thousand gods, all of the Brahma class, stood with 
joined hands, paying homage to Sariputta, general of the 
Dhamma, steadfast, great meditator and concentrated one: 
'Homage to you, most noble among men; homage to you, best 
of men. We know not on what you meditate.' 

I do not know the source of the third stanza in which 
Sariputra is presented as the flower adorning the Bodhi tree, 
here symbolizing the Tathagata. The Parijataka (in Pali, Pari- 
cchattaka) is a tree growing in the Garden of Joy (Nandana- 
vana) belonging to the Trayastrimsa gods. 

The Sutra of Sariputra analysed here is a typical example of 
these composite sutras artificially wrought by the editors of the 
EA by setting end to end other sutras or fragments of sutras. 
However, these compilers took some liberties with their sources, 
they developed them and, as the need arose, changed them in 
order to introduce convictions that were dear to them and, in 
general, inspired by the Mahayana. 



46 



EKOTTARAGAMA (XVIII) 

Translated from the Chinese Version by 

Thich Huyen-Vi and Bhikkhu Pasadika 

in collaboration with Sara Boin-Webb 

Ninth Fascicle 

Pan 18 

Shame and Remorse 

(hry-apatrdpya) 1 

1. 2 'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 
Sravasti, at the Jeta Grove, in Anathapindada's Park. Then the 
Exalted One said to the bhiksus: There are two good states (su- 
dharma) which protect the world. Which are those two? Shame 
and remorse. If these two states, O bhiksus, were not to exist, 
the world would not distinguish between father and mother, 
between elder and younger brother, wife and children, between 
friend and elder, great and small; [just a though one would] 
conveniently treat the six kinds of domestic animal as belonging 
to one and the same species: pigs, poultry, dogs, cattle, goats and 
sheep. Since these two good states are in the world for its 
protection, one distinguishes between father and mother, elder 
and younger brother, between wife and children, [grades of] 



1 According to CPD, p.720, otappa (apatrapya) means 'shunning, shrinking 
from, fearing for (evil-doing , . .)'. The Chinese kui stands for "ashamed, re- 
morse'. The latter term is defined not only as 'pain caused by a sense of guilt', 
but also as 'reluctance to commit a wrong or to act cruelly", Cf. SWTF, p.520b, 
under apa-trapya: Schamempfinden, . . . Skru pel haft igkeit'. 

2 See T2. S87b4 ff,; Hayashi, p.142 ff. 



47 



Buddhist Studies Review 12, 1 (1995) 



seniority, between great and small, and likewise no[body would] 
treat the six kinds of domestic animal exactly alike. Con- 
sequently, O bhiksus, it is necessary to have a sense of shame 
and remorse. Thus, bhiksus, you should train. — Having heard 
the Buddha's words, the bhiksus were pleased and respectfully 
applied themselves to practice' 3 . 

2. 'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 
SravastT, at the Jeta Grove, in Anathapindada's Park. Then the 
Exalted One said to the bhiksus; There are two persons in the 
world who — even at the cost of their lives — are insatiable. 
Which are those two? One [of them] acquires goods and chattels 
which he steadily hides and hoards; the other also becomes 
wealthy but is fond of [sharing with] people. Such are the two 
persons, insatiable even at the cost of their lives. — Now there 
were two bhiksus who said to the Exalted One: We do not 
understand, Exalted One, the meaning of this terse statement. 
How does one acquire, hide and hoard wealth? And how does 
one become wealthy for the sake of people? Would the Exalted 
One be kind enough to elucidate its meaning? — Listen at- 
tentively, said the Exalted One, and take heed; the time has 
come for me to explain the meaning to you. — Just so, replied 
[the bhiksus]. Then the Buddha addressed the [following ex- 
planation] to the bhiksus: 



3 Cf. A I, 51: Dve 'me bhikkhave sukka dhamma lokarn palenti. Katame dve? 
Uiri ca ottapah ca. Ime kho , . . dve sukka dhamma lokarn na pdleyyum 
nayidha pahndyetha mdtd ti va mdtuccha ti va . . .; F,L, Woodward, Gradual 
Sayings I (PTS 1932), 46. Practically the same text occurs at It, 36; F.L. Wood- 
ward, Minor Anthologies II (As it was Said) (PTS 1935), 141 f. Whilst the Pali 
texts contain a warning against sexual promiscuity, the Chinese seems more 
concerned with a disruption of the Confucianist hierarchical system of ethics. 



48 



Ekottaragama XVIII 

There is a son of good family (kulaputra) who becomes 
proficient in many a field such as agriculture or writing, cal- 
culating, astronomy, geography, divination, diplomacy or [service 
as] a courtier. Undaunted by frost and summer heat, hunger 
and cold, he perseveres with great zeal and, all on his own, [fi- 
nally] succeeds. He is so efficient that he acquires goods and 
chattels. [Now, however,] he is unable to have his meals 
I properly]; moreover, he can neither be with his wife or female 
slaves nor with his relatives and is [thus] kept entirely apart 
from them all. As for his acquired goods and chattels, either 
kings take them by force or they are taken away by thieves; 
either fire burns or water scatters them and carries them away 
to other places; [thus all his efforts] are rendered futile. And not 
only that — members of his family do not stop making his 
wealth disappear. That is, O bhiksus, what is called a person 
who acquires, hides and hoards wealth. 

How does one become wealthy and share? There is a son of 
good family who becomes proficient in many a field such as 
agriculture . . . Undaunted by frost ... he perseveres with great 
zeal and . , . succeeds . . . acquires good and chattels. That 
person gives generously (dana) to sentient beings, to father and 
mother, to female slaves and his wife; he makes liberal offerings 
to ascetics and brahmins. He cultivates all kinds of virtue 
(guna) and makes merit [ensuring] heavenly (divya) existence. 
That is, O bhiksus, what is meant by becoming [wealthy] and 
giving generously. These are, O bhiksus, the two insatiable per- 
sons, the former acquiring goods and chattels which he hoards; 
one should conscientiously (smrtimat) give up [his way of act- 
ing]. The latter becomes [wealthy] and gives generously. One 
should emulate [him] at such practice (kriya). Thus, bhiksus, one 
should train. — Having heard the Buddha's words, the bhiksus 
were pleased and respectfully applied themselves to [their own] 



49 



Buddhist Studies Review 12, 1 (1995) 



practice'' 



4 At T2, 587c (n.10), Hayashi, p.142, and Lancaster, p.222, reference is made 
to A.II.l.I (Vajja) (= A I, 47-9). The Chinese passage, however, does not parallel 
the Pali text. Nevertheless, some other Pali places resemble the EA text: cf. A 
IV, 281, 23 - 282, 6; 284, 28-31: Idha Byagghapajja kulapatto yena kamma- 
llhdnena jivikam kappeti yadi kasiyd yadi vanijjdya . . . rdjaporisena . , . 
Ayam vuccati , , . utthanasampada , . . Idha Byagghapajja kulapultassa bhoga 
hanti utthdnaviriyadhigatd . . . 'kinti me ime bhoge neva rajano hareyyum, na 
cord hareyyaum, na aggi daheyya. na udkam vaheyya, na appiya ddyddd 
hareyyun' ti? . . . Idha . . . kuiaputto vigatamalamaccherena cetasd . . . 
ddnasamvibhdgarato, Ayam vuccati . , , cdgasampadd, — E.M. Hare, Gradual 
Sayings IV (PTS 1935), 188, 3-18; 190, 28-30, Cf. also M I, 85, 30-7; 86, 9-15; 
Idha bhikkhave kuiaputto yena sippatthdnena jivikam kappeti, yadi mudddya 
yadi gananaya yadi sahkhanena yadi kasiyd . . . rdjaporisena . , , sitassa 
purakkhato unhassa purakkhato . . . khuppipdsaya miyamdno . . . kinti me 
bhoge n' eva rajano hareyyum . . . Tassa evam drakkhalo gopayato te bhoge 
rajano vd haranti , , . dayddd hwanti, So socati , . , yam 'pi me ahosi tarn 'pi 
no na' tthlti. — LB. Horner, Middle Length Sayings { (PTS 1954), 112, 32 - 113, 
4; 113, 19-27. 

As for the enumeration of various kinds of expertise enabling one to make 
a living and become rich, their Chinese EA list is slightly shorter than that of 
M, loc. cit^ but the EA items reveal a stage of astounding sophistication unlike 
that of the Pali, Although Horner's translation of ganand, sahkhdna, viz. as 
"calculation and computing', seems rather sophisticated loo (the Chinese EA 
simply has 'calculating^ muddd. rendered by her as 'reckoning on the fingers', 
appears comparatively jejune, Probably the Indie original of EA had 
lekha instead of mudra, for the second kind of expertise in the EA has 
literally been translated as shu shu, 'UpUlekhd', and 'to lay before, to slate 1 ; 
mudra, on the other hand, is represented in Chinese by the character meaning 
'seal, stamp, impression', which later on in the context of Chinese cultural his- 
tory stands for printing. As regards the development of the terms 
muddd, ganand, samkhdna, see a) O.v. Hinuber, Der Bcginn der Schri/t und 
fruhe Schriftlichkeit in Indien, Academy of Sciences and Literature in Mainz, 
Stuttgart 1990, pp.30-5; b) the review article on v. Hinuber's book by P. 
Kieffer-Pulz, in Gouingische Gelehrte Anzeigen 246, 3/4, Gottingen 1994, 



50 



Ekottaraguma XVIII 

3. Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 
SravastT, at the Jeta Grove, in Anathapindada's Park. Then the 
Exalted One said to the bhiksus: One should always be given to 
[practising] the Dharma (lit. dharmadaya) instead of being given 
to [hankering after] material things (amisaddya) 5 . So it is now 
[up to] you [whether] the results (vipaka) [of your actions] will 
protect you [or not]. As my disciples {srdvaka) you should re- 
spect the Dharma rather than covet possessions (labha). If lyou] 
covet possessions, you will be quite guilty of transgression 
(atyaya) towards the Tathagata. For what reason? In all likeli- 
hood people will be biased against (lit. na pari-cchid) the 
Dharma and revile the Exalted One's Teaching. After vituper- 



pp.211-2. In the Vinaya of the Pali Canon (Vin IV. 6, 32;, 7,1-5), as v. Hinuber 
has shown, muddd and lekhd are mentioned together {op. c'tU p.30). Cf. also 
Abhidharmakosabhasya. p.275, 1-6 (P. Pradhan ed.), where writing (lipi) occurs 
together with engraving {mudra}, oral counting {ganand) . . . and reckoning 
(samkkyd) in connection with an explanation of bodily, vocal and mental 
karman (cf. L. de La Vallee Poussin, L'Abhidharmakosa de Vambandhu 11L 
Paris 1923-31, repr. Brussels 1971, p.253-4). The items 'astronomy, geography, 
divination, diplomacy" of the above-mentioned EA list have no equivalents in 
the Pali parallels and betray an appreciably later stage in the compiling of 
canonical texts. 

5 This text is a parallel to the Dhammadayasutta, M I, 12-16. It also parallels 
MA, Tl, 569c 24 ff. The setting and introductory part of MA, however, differ 
entirely from that of the Pali and EA versions (cf. Thich Minh Chau, The 
Chinese Madhyama Agama and the Pali Majjhima Nikdya, A Comparative 
Study, Saigon 1964, p.335). As for the Pali dhammaddydda, dmisaddydda, 'heirs 
of dhamma, heirs of material things' (cf. Horner, op. cit n 16), MA has 'seekers 
of the Dharma, seekers of food'; according to the St. Petersburg Sanskrit 
Dictionary, ddya means both "inheritance' and 'giving, gift' (deriving from da, 
to give), 'taking, receiving', might have been non-existent in the Indie original. 
— In Hayashi, p,147, through inadvertence, the Pali and MA parallel places are 
given with reference to EA, 9th fasc, part 18,' No.4 instead of No.3. 



51 



Buddhist Studies Review 12, 1 (1995) 

ating against it, they will in future be unable to follow the way 
leading to Nirvana. If [you are greedy for material things, you 
will] bring shame Qajja) upon me, for report will have it that 
the Tathagata's disciples are acquisitive, remiss in practising the 
Dharma, [themselves] biased against the Dharma [by their 
indirectly] reviling the Exalted One's Teaching and not actually 
following it; that after their [indirectly] vituperating against the 
Exalted One's Teaching, they will in future be unable to follow 
the way to Nirvana. Now you bhiksus should conscientiously 
be given to [practising] the Dharma instead of being given to 
craving (kama). If [you practise seriously, you] will be [men of] 
real learning (bahusrutya) and have a good reputation (yasas) 
far and wide. Respect the Dharma and do not hanker after pro- 
perty. Then [you need] not be ashamed of anything, for then 
[you] as the Tathagata's disciples will practise the Dharma in 
real earnest and without being in the grip of desire. That is, O 
bhiksus, what is to be understood by conscientiously being given 
to [practising] the Dharma instead of being overcome by the 
lure of possessions. Why, O bhiksus, do I make such a state- 
ment? (T2, 588a) Is there any reason for it? — 

The bhiksus replied to the Exalted One: Would the Exalted 
One be so kind as to expatiate upon the subject? — The Exalted 
One went on saying to the bhiksus: Once somebody had invited 
me to a food offering s . There happened to remain some leav- 
ings (sesa) fit to be thrown away. Now two bhiksus came from 
far away whose bodies were totally exhausted and whose 
complexion had completely changed. I spoke to the bhiksus 
about the leavings that had remained and were fit to be thrown 



6 On [his special meaning of puja in Chinese, see SoolhiH, p.249b. 
Hack ma nn, p305b. 



52 



Ekottaragama XVIII 

away and told them that the remains [of the meal] which at that 
very moment were required, were put at their disposal. — 
Today the Exalted One has some remains [of his meal], one of 
the bhiksus thought, which are fit to be thrown away. Just now 
these are required and are put at our disposal. If we do not 
have them, this food will have to be taken away and discarded 
at a spot clear of [vegetation or], if at hand, in water. So now 
we certainly do the right thing if we partake of this food [in 
order to] satisfy our hunger and regain our strength, — The 
other bhiksu [, however, recalled what] he had learnt: The 
Awakened One has taught us to be given to practising the 
Dharma and not to be given to craving, and thus the most ex- 
cellent [thing] to be cultivated is non -attachment (aprasahga) 
with regard to possessions, in one's practising the Dharma the 
thing to be revered most. Now for the rest of the day I can 
bear staying without food being, as it were, self-sufficient. 
There is no need [for my part] to benefit from that meritorious 
act {punya) of faithful almsgiving. — [Thus] that bhiksu, of his 
own [accord] no longer thinking about alms[food], did not 
partake of it, [irrespective of] his body being totally exhausted 
and not worrying himself about his life. To the former [lit: 'the 
second'] bhiksu, on the other hand, it occurred: The Exalted One 
has some leavings fit to be thrown away. Unless we have them, 
we cannot recover from our total loss of strength. [I] am going 
to partake of this food [in order to] satisfy my hunger, regain 
my strength and [spend the rest of] the day and the night peace- 
fully. — Then the bhiksu did accordingly and peacefully in re- 
treat completely recovered his strength. Although that bhiksu, 
the Exalted One went on, partook of the food offering, staved 
off the pangs of hunger and completely recovered his strength, 
[thereby not having done anything wrong,] he is not as much 
worthy of respect, of veneration and honour as the bhiksu [who 



53 



Buddhist Studies Review 12, 1 (1995) 



did not want to eat] (lit. 'the former'). For a long time (dlrgha- 
ratram) that other bhiksu will have an excellent reputation and 
be [a man of] far-reaching learning; as for his forebearance 
(samvaraX he knows how to be contented with little and is 
genuinely modest. O bhiksus, you should be given to practising 
the Dharma, not to covetousness. The motivation (vasa) for 
what I have said before is this very subject-matter (nidana) [just 
related], — When the Exalted One had given his discourse, he 
rose from his seat and went away. 

At that time a large number of bhiksus thought: What the 
Exalted One has set forth in brief is quintessential, but [he] 
refrained from continuing at great length. He rose from his 
scat and entered his quiet room. Now who in this multitude 
would in fact be capable of fully treating the subject-matter (lit.: 
artha) put in a nutshell? — Then it occurred to many a bhiksu: 
It is Sariputra of whom the Exalted One has a high opinion. All 
of us should go to his whereabouts. — At once a large number 
of bhiksus went to Venerable Sariputra's abode. [There they] 
exchanged respectful greetings (vandana) and sat down at one 
side. Thereafter they communicated to Sariputra everything 
they had a chance to hear from the Exalted One. Then Ven- 
erable Sariputra asked the bhiksus: In what way are the Exalted 
One's disciples acquisitive and remiss in practising the Dharma, 
and how are they given to cultivating their Dharma practice 
instead of hankering after possessions? — We would come even 
from afar, replied the large number of bhiksus to Sariputra, to 
request an elucidation [so as to] practise accordingly. As 
Venerable Sariputra is an authority, [he may kindly] expatiate 
for us on this subject-matter. — Listen attentively, said Sariputra, 
and take heed. Let me expatiate upon it for your benefit. — 
Just so, replied the multitude of bhiksus, and Sariputra [began 
to] elucidate: 



54 



Ekoltaragama XVIII 

There are disciples of the Exalted One who do not practise 
in accordance with what they have learnt, viz. the cultivation 
(sthdpana) of tranquillity (samathaf and recollection (smrti), 
and many bhiksus do not get rid (pra-ha) of those things which 
the Exalted One requires them to abandon, Prevalent in them 
are sloth (kaustdya) and distraction (viksiptawmjM); what they 
ought to do they are unwilling to do, and what they ought to 
refrain from they readily do. There are three cases (sthana), 
reverend sirs (bhadraX which senior (ayusmat) bhiksus [should 
be] ashamed of. Which are the three? There is the case which 
senior bhiksus should be ashamed of [in that they], as the Ex- 
alted One's disciples, do not cultivate, as they always [should], 
the happiness of tranquillity. Senior bhiksus do not get rid of 
those things which the Exalted One requires them to abandon — 
[that is the second case] they should be ashamed of. Prevalent 
in senior bhiksus is distraction; recollection and one-pointedness 
of mind (ciftaikagrata) are [conspicuous by their] absence — 
[that is the third case] they should be ashamed of. You should 
know, reverend sirs, that there are three cases which bhiksus of 
middle standing {madhyama) . . . newly ordained (nava; lit. 'of 
few years') bhiksus should be ashamed of . . . [that is the third 
easel they should be ashamed of. That, reverend sirs, is what I 
have referred to as being acquisitive and remiss in practising 
the Dharma. — 

The bhiksus asked Sariputra: How is a bhiksu intent on the 
Dharma instead of hankering after possessions? — As far as that 
bhiksu is concerned, said Sariputra, while the Exalted One, the 
Tathagata, abides in the happiness of tranquillity, [as his] disciple 
he also tries to abide in such a state. [He as well as other really 



7 I.e. jijing; afier Hackmann. p,57a 



55 



Buddhist Studies Review 12, 1 (1995) 

serious] bhiksus get rid of those things which the Exalted One 
requires them to abandon; they are neither slothful nor con- 
fused; what they ought to do they do, and what they ought to 
refrain from they actually do not do. You should know, rever- 
end sirs, that there are three cases making for the excellent 
reputation of senior bhiksus. Which three? While the Exalted 
One abides in the happiness of tranquillity, as his disciples they 
should also abide in such a state; [that is the first case] making 
for the excellent reputation of senior bhiksus. Then those 
bhiksus get rid of those things which the Exalted One requires 
them to abandon; [that is the second case] making for the excel- 
lent reputation of senior bhiksus. Prevalent in them are steady 
heedfulness (aviksiptasamjna) and constant one-pointedness of 
mind; [that is the third case] making for the excellent reputation 
of senior bhiksus. You should know, reverend sirs, that there 
are three cases making for the excellent reputation of bhiksus of 
middle standing . . . and of newly ordained bhiksus. Which are 
the three? While the Exalted One abides in the happiness of 
tranquillity, as his disciples they should also abide . . making 
for the excellent reputation of bhiksus of middle standing and of 
newly ordained bhiksus. 

Craving (lobha), you should know, reverend sirs, is evil 
(dosa) a veritable disaster; the same holds good of aversion 
idvesa). In order to overcome desire and hatred there is the 
Middle Way, making for vision, making for insight-knowledge 
for the cessation of bondage (bandhanopasama) and conducing 
to Nirvana 8 . Avarice (matasarya) and jealousy (Irsya) are evil 



8 For a Sanskrit original, rf, for example, CPS II, p.I40 (11.15): madhyamfa) 
7alvSZe Ca)k?U - k<a)ra ^ f*™^^ *pasama(karan)y . . . nirvanaya 



Ekottarigama XVIII 

and are an extremely heavy burden {bhdra). The mental defile- 
ments (Mesa) are [like] a destructive fire, conceit (mada) and 
arrogance (mana) are particularly deep-rooted (sutaraml Deceit 
(maya\ dishonesty, shamelessness (ahrikya), unscrupulousness 
(anapatrapya) and sensuous greed (kamaraga) — it [seems next 
to] impossible to give them up; they surely get the better of 
[man]. Arrogance and excessive pride (adhimana) are also in- 
superable. (T2, 589a) [So as to] overcome these two [kinds of] 
haughtiness [as well as the other defects of character] there is 
the Middle Way, making for vision . . . and conducing to 
Nirvana. — What, Venerable Sariputra, asked the bhiksus, is the 
Middle Way, making for vision . . . and conducing to Nirvana? 
— Reverend sirs, replied Sariputra, you should know that this is 
the Noble Eightfold Path, viz., right views, right bodily action, 
right speech, right effort, right livelihood, right intention, right 
mindfulness and right concentration 9 This is, reverend sirs, what 
is to be understood by the Middle Way, making for vision . . . 
and conducing to Nirvana. - Having heard Venerable Sari- 
putra's words, the bhiksus were pleased and applied themselves 
to practice' 



Additional Abbreviations 

CPD = A Critical Pali Dictionary, begun by V. Trenckner, 
ed. D. Andersen, H. Smith, H. Hendriksen, vol.1, Copen- 
hagen, 192448, voUI (fasc. Iff.), Copenhagen 1960 ff. 

CPS = E Waldschmidt (ed.) Das Catusparisatsutra (based) 



<i This list corresponds to the enumeration at BSR II, 2, p.165 (n.15) but for 
the fact that here 'right effort" precedes "right livelihood". 



57 



Buddhist Studies Review 12, 1 (1995) 

on Turfan MSS), Part I-III, Berlin 1952-62. 
It = Itivuttaka, ed. E. Windisch, London 1889 (PTS), 



Addendum to EA XVII 

At BSR 11, 2 (1994), pp.162-3 (n.12), 'eighteen transformations' are 
referred to in the text without specification. These eighteen 
parinamas are specified at Mochizuki Shinko, Bukkyo dai- 
jiten (2nd ed.), Kyoto 1954, pp.2366-7, under juhachi hen: ' 
1. kampana (vibrating), 2. jvalana (flaming), 3. spharana (suffu- 
sion), 4. vidarsana (manifestation), 5. anyatl-bhavakarana (sic) 
(changing completely), 6. gamandgamana (going and coming), 7. 
samksepa (compressing), 8. prathana (extending), 9. sarvarupa- 
karya-pravesana (penetrating all [sorts of] forms), 10. sabhdgato- 
pasamkrdnti (i.e, the ability to preach the Dharma, while taking 
on the appearance, speech etc. (lit. 'gone to the assembly') of 
noblemen, brahmins . . . celestial beings), 11. avibhava (sic) 
(appearing), 12. tirobhdm (disappearing), 13. vasitva-karana (acting 
freely or by having power), 14. pararddhy-abhibhavana (over- 
powering / controlling others by means of supernormal power), 
15. pratibha-ddna (imparting quickwittedness), 16. smrti- 
dana (imparting recollection), 17. sukha-dana (imparting happi- 
ness), 18. rasmi-pramaksana (emitting rays of light). 

The encyclopedia further explains the items such as, for 
instance, Nos. 7, 8, viz. as the ability to reduce, e.g„ the Hima- 
layas to an atom and, vice versa, to enlarge the latter to the 
former's dimensions. Given as sources of the list of the eigh- 
teen parinamas are e.g. the Asokarajavadana (T50, No.2042) and 
some other works which do not belong to the earliest strata of 
Buddhist literature. 



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59 



Buddhist Studies Review 12, 2 (1995) 



more than sixty thousand men and women and to eighty 
thousand gods the immaculate Dharma-eye opened, ridding them 
of all impurities. At that time, in the intoxicated elephant's body 
there arose winds [cutting likel a knife [which brought about] its 
death 31 ; it was reborn in the palace of the four world-guardians. 
Having heard the Exalted One's words, the bhiksus, bhiksums, all 
upasakas and upasikas, gods, nagas and ogres were pleased and 
applied themselves to practice.' 



31 See A III, 101, 19-20 (not A I. 101 as given in PTSD, 674, under satthaka) : 
satlkaka va me vaia kuppeyyum, tena me assa ktrfakiriya; cf. also J III, 445, 26- 
8: satthakavaia„ jivitapariyantikam katva ... The translation at BSR 11, 2, p.166, 5, 
"there arose a windy humour' should be corrected to 'there arose winds'. 

Additional Abbreviations 

EncBuddh - G.P. Malalasekera et al. (ed.), Encyclopaedia of 

Buddhism, vol. 1 ff, Colombo 1961 ff. 
NidSa = C. Tripathi (ed.), Funfundzwanzig Sutras des 

Nidanasamyukta (based on Turfan MSS), Berlin 

1962. 
PTSD = T.W. Rhys Davids, W. Stede, The Pali Text 

Society's Pali-English Dictionary, London 1921-5. 

CORRECTIONS - EKOTTARAGAMA XVIII (BSR 12, 1 (1995) 

p. 47, I. 15: for 'just a though' read 'just as though'. 

p. 47, n. lr for otappa read ottappa. 

p. 48, n. 3: for ottapah read ottappah, 

p. 49, 1. 20: for 'good and chattels; read 'goods. . .*. 

p. 50, 1. 9: for hareyyaum read hareyyum, for udkam read udakam. 

p. 50, L 15: for miyamano read miyamdno. 

p. 50, 1. 18: for Middle Length Sayings ( read . . . Sayings I. 

p. 51, 1. 23: for 'Dhammadayasutta' read 'Dhammadayadasutta'. 

p. 5L 1. 31: after 'to give)' insert 'on which latter fa shi, shi shi of 

> page 155 



168 



L 



OBITUARIES 

Yehan Numata (12 April 1897 - 5 May 1994) 

One of the most generous Buddhist philanthropists of this 
century has recently died at a ripe old age. In many ways a 
humble and devout follower of Jodo Shinshu, he possessed a 
breadth of vision that impelled him 'to enable more people to 
understand the wonders of Buddhism'. 

He was born the third son of a Shin temple family living in 
the mountains of Hiroshima Prefecture and was recommeneded 
to become a priest. However, following his school education he 
was given the opportunity to study in the USA. He sailed to 
California and lodged with a family in Hollywood, but two 
years of menial domestic chores combined with his studies took 
their toll and he contracted tuberculosis. Thanks, as he said, to 
daily recitation of the Nembutsu and adoption of a positive 
state of mind, he recovered his health, worked his way through 
college and graduated in economics and business studies from 
the University of California in 1928. 

His mother had instilled into him that it was a natural duty 
to thank and serve the Buddha. To repay what he considered a 
debt of gratitude to the American people, he was instrumental 
in launching The Pacific World three years earlier. This bi- 
monthly periodical fostered an appreciation of Oriental culture 
in general and Buddhism in particular, and was sent to the 
major universities and libraries in the USA. After two years, 
financial constraints obliged Mr Numata to seek assistance in 
Japan where, with the support of Junjiro Takakusu, the former's 
periodical combined with the latter's magazine, The Young East, 
and appeared for a further two years. 

In 1930, Mr Numata returned to Japan and pioneered the 
production of micrometers (which had hitherto been imported at 



169 



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EKOTTARAGAMA (XIX) 

Translated from the Chinese Version by 

Thich Huyen-Vi and Bhikkhu Pasadika 

in collaboration with Sara Bom-Webb 

Ninth Fascicle 

Part 18 

(Shame and Remorse) 

4. iThus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying, together 
with a large [number of] bhiksus, viz. five hundred persons 
altogether, in Rajagrha, at Karanda's Bamboo Grove, Then, in time, 
the Exalted One put on his [outer] robes, took up his alms-bowl and 
entered Rajagrha to beg for his alms-food in a bazaar lane. Now in 
that lane there was a brahmin lady who was about [to prepare] a 
meal. At that very time a brahmin passed through a gate. Seeing the 
Exalted One some distance away, he went to the latter's 
whereabouts. - Do you ever see a [real] brahmana? he asked the 
Exalted One. As Venerable Maha-Kasyapa was just leaving that 
lane, the Exalted One raised his hand and, pointing to [Maha- 
Kasyapa], said: That is a brahmana. - Meanwhile the brahmin lady 
[had approached] the Tathagata and gazed on his face without say- 
ing a single word while the Exalted One uttered the following 
verses: 

He who is free from desire and hatred, 

Who has overcome ignorance and delusion, 

The Arhat who has put an end to malign influences - 

He is called a brahmana. 

He who is free from desire and hatred, 

Who has overcome ignorance and delusion, 

Since he has disentangled himself from all 

Fetters (samyojana) - he is called a brahmana. 

He who is free from desire and hatred, 

Who has overcome ignorance and delusion, 






1 See T2, 589a9 ff.; Hayashi. p. 1 47 ff. 



157 



Buddhist Studies Review 12, 2 (1995) 

Because of his having eradicated egotism and 
Self-conceit (asmimana) - he is called a brahmana. 
If one wishes to know the Dharma, 
The Teachings of the Perfectly Enlightened One, 
One should with entire sincerity take refuge 
In them being foremost and unsurpassed. - 

Thereafter the Exalted One suggested to Maha-Kasyapa: Please go 
[for alms] for the sake of that brahmin lady so that in this very life 
{tatraiva janmani) she may atone for previous wrongdoing (purva- 
papa). - 

According to the Buddha's suggestion, Kasyapa went to the 
brahmin lady's home and sat down on a prepared seat. She cooked 
many kinds of rich and delicious food in order to offer it respectfully 
to Kasyapa. He accepted the food and, with a view to saving sentient 
beings and for the sake of that lady2, he referred to the blessings 
resulting from works of merits ; [then he uttered the following 
verses]: 

The fire in which oblations (huta) are offered is the best, 

Of all that is written down (lipi) verses are foremost; 

A king is the person of exalted rank amidst his subjects. 

Among all bodies of water the ocean is unsurpassed, 

Among all heavenly bodies the moon is chief, and 

All sources of light outshines the sun. 

At the intermediate points of the compass^, 

At the zenith and nadir, in all regions of the cardinal points, 

In the heavens and in this world of mankind, the 

Buddha is supreme. Whoever wishes to make merit may 

Take refuge in this Perfectly Enlightened One (sambuddha). - 

When the brahmin lady heard those words, she was so elated 



2 Lit.: 'human being'. 

3 Cf. BHSD 260 f., under dakfinadesand. 

4 After Hayashi, p. 148, n. 10. 



158 



Ekottaragama XIX 

that she could not help jumping for joy. In front of Maha-Kasyapa 

she said: [I] will earnestly devote myself (adhi-muc) solely 

to[becoming] a [real] brahmana. Kindly accept my invitation always 

to collect alms-food in this house. - Maha-Kasyapa readily 

consented. [After some time,] seeing that Kasyapa had finished his 

meal, the brahmin lady fetched a humble seat and sat down in front 

of him. Now, by means of gradual instruction (anuptlrvika katha) 5 

Kasyapa set forth the Dharma with its subtleties (suksma), namely 

by expatiating on liberality, morality, on being born in a heavenly 

world, on desire causing impurity (samala), on the destruction of the 

malign influences as being the best, and on the desirability of going 

forth into homelessness. When Venerable Maha-Kasyapa knew that 

her mind had become receptive and unhindered, exalted and serene, 

he taught the Dharma [to her], as is all Buddhas' wont, [that is to 

say] unsatisfactoriness, its origins, final cessation and the way 

[leading to the final cessation of unsatisfactoriness]. While 

Venerable Maha-Kasyapa was winding up his discourse on behalf 

of the brahmin lady, just there on her seat the immaculate Dharma- 

eye opened to her, ridding her of all impurities'?. The immaculate 

Dharma-eye opened to her then and there, just as a new, clean and 

spotless [piece of] felt* dyes well without difficulties. As she had 

reached the Dharma, seen the Dharma, realised the Dharma, she was 

freed from doubts and won fearlessness 9. Of her own accord, she 



5 Cf. Divy(V) 221, 13; BHSD 30. As for Pali loci , see e.g. Vin I. 15 f.: eka- 
mantam nisinnassa... anupubbikatham kathesi, seyyathidam - danakatham stla- 
katham saggakatiiam, kamanam adiiutvam okaram satlkilesam. nekkhamme ani- 
samsam pakasesi... 

6 SeeBSR 10. 2, p. 220, n. 16. 

7 See BSR 11, 2, p. 166, n. 16. See also the entry on Dhammacakkhu atEnc- 

BuddhlV, 3, pp. 478-81. 

8 The Indie original surely had 'piece of cloth*, vastra , Pali vattha ; cf. Vin, 
ibid. : seyyathapi nama suddhatti vatthani apagatakalakant sammadeva rajanam 
patigganheyya... 

9 For a Pali parallel see, e.g., M I. 380: Atha kho... ditthadhammo pattadham- 
mo viditadhammo pariyogattiadhammo tinnavicikkcho vigatakathamkalho vesa- 
rajjappatio... A Sanskrit parallel occurs at NidSa 20.16: drstadharma praptadhar- 
ma viditadharma paryavagadhadharma timakaiiksas tTn}avicikitso,.vaisaradya- 



159 



Buddhist Studies Review 12, 2 (1995) 

took refuge in the Three Most Important (agrya) Things, that is in 
the Buddha, Dharma and in the Community of the Noble Ones, and 
undertook to observe the Five Precepts. Venerable Maha-Kasyapa 
went on imparting to the brahmin lady the Dharma with its 
subtleties, and after that he rose from his seat and left. 

Hardly had Kasyapa gone when that lady's husband returned 
home. The brahmin noticed that his wife's complexion was unusual- 
ly bright and out of the ordinary. So he asked her about this, and she 
gave the reasons for it, explaining everything to her husband. After 
listening to her words, the brahmin and his wife went to the 
monastery (vihara, arama)\o where the Exalted One was staying 
The brahmin and the Exalted One exchanged greetings (lit. prasna), 
and thereafter [the former] sat down at one side. The brahmin lady 
bowed down her head at the Exalted One's feet and [also] sat down 
at one side. - The brahmana has been to my house, said the brahmin 
to the Exalted Oneii, now [he must] be here. - Venerable Maha- 
Kasyapa had gone [to a place] not far from the Exalted One's and 
was sitting there cross-legged, straightening body and mind and 
wisely reflecting upon the subtle Teaching. Pointing towards Maha- 
Kasyapa, the Exalted One said: This Venerable is the brahmana par 
excellence. - In what respect, Gautama, asked the brahmin, is an as- 
cetic a brahmana? Is an ascetic not different from a brahmana? - If 
one wishes to speak of an ascetic, replied the Exalted One, take 
myself [, for example]. Since I have been conscientiously following 
all the rules of moral conduct (Ma) pertaining to ascetic discipline 
(vinaya) which ascetics respectfully [have to] observe, I am an as- 
cetic. If we now want to speak of a brahmana, take again myself, for 
example. As I have fully mastered in [theory and] practice the Dhar- 
ma followed by all brahmanas of the past, I am a brahmana. Take, 



prapto... Cf. also CPS It, p. 182 (16.15) and ibid., n. 3 in which Waldschmidt 
quotes another parallel, with reference to a bhiksunl, from Divy. 

10 After Hackmann, p. 127; lit. 'essence- hut', Soothill, p. 427: 'pure abode, ... 
a monastery or nunnery 1 . 

1 1 From this remark it can be inferred that the brahmin lady's husband is 
identical to the above brahmin who asks the Buddha about the existence of a 
'real brahmana'. 



160 



Ekottaragama XIX 

for instance, Maha-Kasyapa. Bhiksu Kasyapa is an ascetic, because 
he makes the most of ascetic discipline in its entirety. Take again, 
for instance, Bhiksu Kasyapa. He is a brahmana, for he is a past 
master of all pious acts of austerity (vrata) and rules of moral 
conduct which brahmanas respectfully observe. - After these 
[words] the Exalted One uttered the following verses: 

Him I do not call a brahmana who is an 
Expert in sacrificial formulae (mantra); 
His recitals [may] earn him a Brahma heaven, 
But such status does not free him from his fetters. 
[Only] he who is fetter-free, not bound for a [new] form 
Of existence, does realise ultimate emancipation (moksa). 
He who does no more cling even to heavenly bliss 
Is a [true] ascetic, a [true] brahmana. - 

Then the brahmin asked the Exalted One: Fetters being spoken 
of, what are these so-called fetters? - Sensuous greed, replied the 
Exalted One, is a fetter. Aversion or hatred is a fetter, and ignorance 
or delusion is a fetter. As for the Tathagata, he is completely rid of 
sensuous greed, once and for all; and the same holds good of aver- 
sion, hatred, ignorance and delusion. - If only the Exalted One 
would teach me his profound and subtle Dharma, requested the 
brahmin, so as to be no more in the grip of these fetters. - Accord- 
ingly, the Exalted One gradually imparted to the brahmin his subtle 
Teaching, expatiating on liberality... on the desirability of going forth 
into homelessness. When the Exalted One knew that the brahmin's 
mind had become receptive..., he taught him the Dharma as all Bud- 
dhas of the past were wont to do, that is to say unsatisfactoriness... 
While the Exalted One was winding up his discourse on behalf of 
the brahmin, just (T2, 590a) there on his seat the immaculate Dhar- 
ma-eye opened to Mm... As the brahmin had reached the Dharma, 
seen the Dharma, realised the Dharma, he was freed from doubts 
and won fearlessness. Of his own accord, he took refuge in the 
Three Most Important Things... and undertook to observe the Five 
Precepts. He had irreversibly become [one of] the Tathagata's true 



161 



Buddhist Studies Review 12, 2 (1995) 

sons". Having heard the Buddha's words, the brahmin [lady's] hus- 
band was pleased and applied himself to practice.' 

5. Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying, to- 
gether with a large [number of] bhiksus, viz. five hundred persons 
altogether, in Rajagrha, at Karanda's Bamboo Grove. At that time, 
King Ajatasarru had an elephant named Nalagiriia that was extreme- 
ly wicked and violent, impetuous and strong, but also capable of 
calming down immediately [after having become] enraged. Due to 
the strength of this elephant, Magadha was the only country that did 
not suffer the humiliation [of a defeat]. Now Devadatta approached 
King Ajatasarru in whose presence he said: I should like to bring to 
His Majesty's notice that these days that wicked elephant is capable, 
however, of calming down immediately [after having become] en- 
raged. It would be advisable to [give] that animal strong wine to 
drink so as to [get it] drunk. In the quiet of dawn the sramana 
Gautama will surely enter the city to beg for alms-food. [At that 
time] this intoxicated elephant should be released in order to [let it] 
trample the sramana^ to death. - No sooner had King Ajatasatru 
heard what Devadatta had to say than he issued the order in the 
country that on the following morning at dawn, [since] an 
intoxicated elephant had to be released, the public were prohibited 
from being on the move in the streets. Devadatta further said to King 
Ajatasatru: Should the sramana Gautama be omniscient, he ought to 

12 Cf. Bhagavato putto oraso at M m, 29, S II, 221, III, 83. In these places 
the 'legitimate sons' of the bhagavat respectively are Sariputta, Maha-Kassapa 
and, generally speaking, the arhats. It seems quite remarkable that here in EA a 
layman who has become a streamwinner is referred to as true son' (zhen z$ ) of 
the Tathagata. 

13 As for the following, cf. Vin IT, 194-6 (CuIIavagga VTL3.2); see I B Hor- 
ner, The Book of the Discipline V (PTS 1952), pp. 272-4. The Chinese clearly 
transliterates 'Nalagiri' whereas in Buddhist Sanskrit literature 'Nadagara' as the 
elephant's name has come down to us (see Divy{V), 186, 2). Cf. also 
Avadanaiataka (Dharmapala) (ed. P.L. Vaidya, Darbhanga' 1958), p. 82 f,; here 
the elephant is named Dhanapllaka; Avadana-fCalpalata I (ed. Vaidya Darbhanea 
1959), pp. 200-4 (Dhanapalavadana). 

14 Lit. 'him'. 



162 



Ekottaragama XIX 

foresee what is going to happen, and tomorrow he would certainly 
not enter the city to beg for alms-food. - Just according to Your 
Reverence's bidding, said King Ajatasatru; should he be an 
omniscient one, tomorrow at dawn he will not enter the city to beg 
for alms-food. - 

When the faithful laymen and laywomen of Rajagrha, the Bud- 
dha's major and minor devotees, heard that King Ajatasatru had 
ordered an intoxicated elephant to be released at dawn to attack the 
Tathagata, everybody was extremely sad and concerned. They went 
to the Exalted One's whereabouts, bowed down their heads at his 
feet and, standing at one side, entreated him: We beseech the Exalted 
One not to enter the city tomorrow at dawn because King Ajatasatru 
has just issued the order prohibiting the citizens from [all] walks of 
life tomorrow from being on the move in the streets. [The king] has 
said: We desire an intoxicated elephant to be released in order to 
harm the sramana Gautama. Should the sramana be omniscient, to- 
morrow at dawn he will not... beg for alms-food. - If only the Ex- 
alted One would not enter the city. Were the Tathagata to be attacked 
and [lethally] wounded, mankind would lose its 'Eye', it would be 
bereft of its refuge (paritrana). - 

In response, the Exalted One said: Please calm down, de- 
votees. Do not worry, do not be sad. Since the Tathagata's body is 
not reckoned an ordinary body, it is not subject to other people's vi- 
olence; and not only that, O devotees. One should know that Jambu- 
dvlpa, from the east to the west, is seven thousand yojanas^ in 
width! and from the south to the north twenty-one thousand yojanas 
in length. Aparagodamya, being shaped like a half moon, is eight 
thousand yojanas in length. Purvavideha is a continent that has the 
shape of a square and is nine thousand yojanas in length. Uttaraku- 
ru, ten thousand yojanas in length, is a round continent resembling 
the full moon. If these four continents were teeming with intoxicated 
elephants - as numerous as grains of rice [in rice-fields or] jute 
from thickets of [tropical] plants - this would not even cause horripi- 
lation (romaharsana) with the Tathagata, let alone [fear of] violence 



1 5 According to Monier-Williams, a measure of a distance of about nine miles. 

163 



Buddhist Studies Review 12, 2 (1995) 

against him. But not only that. Leave the four continents out of 
account. Likewise, there are a thousand continents, a thousand suns 
and moons, a thousand Mount Sumerus, a thousand fourfold 
oceansis, a thousand Jambudvlpas, Aparagodanlyas, Purvavidehas 
and Uttarakurus, a thousand [heavens inhabited by the retinues of] 
the four world-guardians {caturmaharajika), a thousand heavens of 
the Trayastrimsa [gods], of the Tusita [gods], Yama [gods], Nirma- 
narati [gods]i? and of the Paranirmitavasavartin [gods]. [Finally, 
there is] the so-called world-system (lokadhatu) [consisting of] a 
thousand [worlds], then that of two thousand worlds, the [world- 
system] called Sahasra-madhyama-lokadhatuis, the world-system 
[consisting of] three thousand [worlds] and, lastly, the [world-sys- 
tem] called Trisahasra-mahasahasra-lokadhatui9, Even if [this whole 
universe were] teeming with royal elephants like Airavana20, this 
would not indeed cause horripilation with the Tathagata, let alone 
[fear of] those elephants' inclination to harm the Tathagata. But not 
only that. As the Tathagata's supernormal powers (rddhi) are incon- 
ceivable (acintya), the Tathagata's appearance in the world does not 
come to an end because of any violence or harm caused to him by 
anybody. All of you please return home. It behoves the Tathagata to 
know by himself when to go the way of all flesh (parinama). - 

Then, at length, the Exalted One taught the subtle Teaching to 
the four assemblies (parisa, parsad)^ . After listening to the instruc- 
tion, all upasakas and upasikas rose, bowed down their heads at [the 
Exalted One's] feet and went back home. 

[The next morning] in the quiet of dawn, the Exalted One put 
on his [outer] robes and took up his alms-bowl. When he was about 
to enter Rajagrha to beg for alms-food, the world-guardian Dhrtaras- 



.16 See Soothill, p. 178: The four oceans around Mount Sumeru'. 

1 7 See BHSD, 302 (under nirmita (3)). 

18 See Mahavyut. 3043. 

19 The world-system consisting of a triple thousand great thousand [worlds]' 
after BHSD, 259. 

20 I.e. Indra's elephant; see Soothill, p.201. 

21 I.e. monks, nuns, male and female devotees; see BHSD, 331 . 



164 



Ekottaragama XIX 

tra, heading his retinue of gandharvasZ, came from the east to ac- 
company the Exalted One. At the same time, the world-guardian VI- 
rudhaka, heading his kumbhdndas^, [came from the south] to ac- 
company the Exalted One. [The world-guardian] of the west, Viru- 
paksa, heading [his retinue of] nagas, [also came] to accompany the 
Exalted One, and likewise the world-guardian of the north, Kubera 
(Vaisravana), heading many demons (raksasa) and ogres (pisaca). 
Simultaneously Sakra, the chief of gods, leading ten million devas, 
disappeared from the Trayastrimsa heaven24 and went to the Exalted 
One's whereabouts. So also did Brahma, leading ten million brah- 
makayika gods, [after leaving] the celestial palaces. Sakra, Brahma, 
the four world-guardians, [all inhabitants of] the twenty-eight 
heavens25 and the terrifying ogre-kings - all of them said to each 
other: Today we must see two supernormal beings, the Naga2& and 
the elephant, who are going to compete with each other. Which will 
win, which will lose27? - 



22 See Soothill, p. 341 f. 

23 I.e. a class of demons; see Soothill, p. 419. 

24 After T2, 590, n. 30; the text actually has Tusita', but Sakra, according to 
tradition, rules over the Trayastrimsa heaven, whilst the Tusita heaven is ruled 
by King Santusita (cf. DPPN I, 1034, II, 958). 

25 I.e. six heavens of the world of desire, eighteen of the world of form and 
four pertaining to the formless heavens. See Soothill, p. 22. 

26 Naga, here meaning 'elephant', is a well-known epithet of the Buddha; for 
references see PTSD, 349. For the elephant that is supposed to trample the Naga 
to death, the Chinese has the equivalent of hastin or karin. The Pali parallel has 
a play on words: nago nagena satigamessattti. 

27 It seems strange that here Sakra is one of those who asks such a question. 
In the Pali parallel, remarks in a similar vein are made by 'people who were of 
little faith, not believing, who were of poor intelligence' (Horner, op. cit., p. 
273). According to both Pali and Buddhist Sanskrit literature, Sakka / Sakra is 
a most zealous devotee of the Buddha (cf. DPPN II. 960; E. Waldschmidt (ed.), 
BruchstUcke buddhistischer Sutras aus dem zentratasiatischen Sanskritkanon 
(Leipzig 1932), pp. 58-113 (Sakraprasnasutra)). The EA passage in question and 
the preceding cosmological interpolation (not found in the Pali version), corrob- 
orate the conclusion reached by E. Lamotte in his examination of a composite 
sutra from EA (see BSR 12, 1, p. 46). On the other hand, EA contains a flood 
of details not found in other canonical writings, no matter whether in each case 



165 



Buddhist Studies Review 12, 2 (1995) 

When the four assemblies of Rajagrha saw the Exalted One 
some distance away enter the city to beg for alms-food and being 
followed by many bhiksus, [they and] all [other] citizens raised their 
voices and shouted [their concern]. On hearing the shouting, King 
Ajatasatru asked [the attendants to his] left and right: What is all this 
penetrating dm about? - That is the Tathagata entering the city to beg 
for alms-food, replied his attendants, seeing him, the people are 
making this noise. - The sramana Gautama, said Ajatasatru, is not [a 
man] of the Noble Path (aryamarga), [for] he does not know that 
people's minds prove fickle. - At once King Ajatasatru gave his 
chief mahout the following order: Quickly see to it that the elephant 
drinks strong wine and fasten a sharp, double-edged sword to its 
trunk; then let it loose. - 

After reaching the city gate, while the Exalted One, followed 
by many bhiksus, was just stepping into the gate, there occurred a 
big earthquake felt all over the world, and so many celestial beings 
[together with] the foremost gods were hovering in the air, scattering 
many kinds of flowers. When the bhiksus, five hundred in number, 
saw the intoxicated elephant rush [towards them], each of them took 
to his heels without really knowing where to run. On seeing the 
Tathagata some distance away, that violent elephant hastened in his 
direction. Standing close by the Exalted One and seeing the 
intoxicated elephant head [towards them], Ananda was so scared out 
of his wits that he stepped behind [the Tathagata]. - That elephant, 
he warned the Exalted One, is wicked and violent, impetuous and 
given to creating havoc. It must by all means be avoided. - Do not 
be afraid, Ananda, said the Exalted One, I am going to tame that 
elephant through the Tathagata's supernormal power. - At a distance 
neither [too] short nor [too] long, the Tathagata fixed his eyes on the 
violent elephant and magically created to the elephant 5 s left and right 
majestic lions, and behind it a gigantic sea of fire. When the violent 
elephant saw those majestic lions to its left and right and the sea of 



due to later editorial 'embellishment' or not, so that a full-scale study of this 
vast collection remains a desideratum, not to mention the considerable amount 
of lexicographical data contained in EA that have yet to be covered by lexicogra- 
phers dealing with Chinese Buddhism. 



166 



Ekottaragama XIX 

fire, it could not help urinating and defecating and, all of a sudden, it 
stood still. Then, while it stepped forward, moving closer to the 
Tathagata, the Exalted One uttered the following verses: 

Do not hurt the Naga, [for] it is extremely 

Difficult to meet a Naga [who rarely] appears [in the world]. 

By refraining from hurting the Naga 

A good form of rebirth will be obtained. - 

After hearing these verses uttered by the Exalted One, the violent 
elephant itself undid the double-edged sword [fastened to its trunk], 
just as though it was burnt by [it being like] fire. It knelt down in 
front of the Tathagata, took with its trunk the dust off the Tathagata's 
feet and caressed 2 ^ them. The Exalted One stretched out his right 
[arm] and stroked the elephant's forehead with his hand, addressing 
[it] with these [verses]: 

Anger and hatred will bring about one's hell 

And also the shape of a snake-like creature 2 ? , 

Therefore one should give up hatred lest 

One should end up in such a body [ like that of a snakepo, - 

(T2, 591a) Now so many celestial beings [together with] the fore- 
most gods, hovering in the air, showered several hundred thousand 
kinds of flowers upon the Tathagata who then set forth the subtle 
Teaching for the sake of the four assemblies, of those hosts of gods, 
nagas and ogres. On seeing the elephant having become tame, to 



28 Lit. 'licked'. 

29 Tentatively for a combination of two characters the first of which means 
'snake*, while the second, *Jc , could neither be found in Chinese nor in 
Japanese dictionaries. No explanation in Hayashi. 

30 See Divy(V), 185, 29-30 (Sahasodgatavadana): madhye ragadve$amohah 
kartavyah,... dveso bhujangakarena ... According to this text, it is the Buddha 
himself who gives iconographic instructions how to represent the Wheel of 
Samsara at whose centre allegorical animals should symbolise greed, hatred and 
delusion, among which a snake should stand for haired or aversion. The re- 
ference to this Divy passage, together with acknowledgements, already occurs in 
A. Waddell, Buddhism and Lamaism of Tibet (London 1895), p. 108, n. 2. 



167 



Buddhist Studies Review 12, 2 (1995) 



more than sixty thousand men and women and to eighty 
thousand gods the immaculate Dharma-eye opened, ridding them 
of all impurities. At that time, in the intoxicated elephant's body 
there arose winds [cutting likel a knife [which brought about] its 
death 31 ; it was reborn in the palace of the four world-guardians. 
Having heard the Exalted One's words, the bhiksus, bhiksums, all 
upasakas and upasikas, gods, nagas and ogres were pleased and 
applied themselves to practice.' 



31 See A III, 101, 19-20 (not A I. 101 as given in PTSD, 674, under satthaka) : 
satlkaka va me vaia kuppeyyum, tena me assa ktrfakiriya; cf. also J III, 445, 26- 
8: satthakavaia„ jivitapariyantikam katva ... The translation at BSR 11, 2, p.166, 5, 
"there arose a windy humour' should be corrected to 'there arose winds'. 

Additional Abbreviations 

EncBuddh - G.P. Malalasekera et al. (ed.), Encyclopaedia of 

Buddhism, vol. 1 ff, Colombo 1961 ff. 
NidSa = C. Tripathi (ed.), Funfundzwanzig Sutras des 

Nidanasamyukta (based on Turfan MSS), Berlin 

1962. 
PTSD = T.W. Rhys Davids, W. Stede, The Pali Text 

Society's Pali-English Dictionary, London 1921-5. 

CORRECTIONS - EKOTTARAGAMA XVIII (BSR 12, 1 (1995) 

p. 47, I. 15: for 'just a though' read 'just as though'. 

p. 47, n. lr for otappa read ottappa. 

p. 48, n. 3: for ottapah read ottappah, 

p. 49, 1. 20: for 'good and chattels; read 'goods. . .*. 

p. 50, 1. 9: for hareyyaum read hareyyum, for udkam read udakam. 

p. 50, L 15: for miyamano read miyamdno. 

p. 50, 1. 18: for Middle Length Sayings ( read . . . Sayings I. 

p. 51, 1. 23: for 'Dhammadayasutta' read 'Dhammadayadasutta'. 

p. 5L 1. 31: after 'to give)' insert 'on which latter fa shi, shi shi of 

> page 155 



168 



L 



OBITUARIES 

Yehan Numata (12 April 1897 - 5 May 1994) 

One of the most generous Buddhist philanthropists of this 
century has recently died at a ripe old age. In many ways a 
humble and devout follower of Jodo Shinshu, he possessed a 
breadth of vision that impelled him 'to enable more people to 
understand the wonders of Buddhism'. 

He was born the third son of a Shin temple family living in 
the mountains of Hiroshima Prefecture and was recommeneded 
to become a priest. However, following his school education he 
was given the opportunity to study in the USA. He sailed to 
California and lodged with a family in Hollywood, but two 
years of menial domestic chores combined with his studies took 
their toll and he contracted tuberculosis. Thanks, as he said, to 
daily recitation of the Nembutsu and adoption of a positive 
state of mind, he recovered his health, worked his way through 
college and graduated in economics and business studies from 
the University of California in 1928. 

His mother had instilled into him that it was a natural duty 
to thank and serve the Buddha. To repay what he considered a 
debt of gratitude to the American people, he was instrumental 
in launching The Pacific World three years earlier. This bi- 
monthly periodical fostered an appreciation of Oriental culture 
in general and Buddhism in particular, and was sent to the 
major universities and libraries in the USA. After two years, 
financial constraints obliged Mr Numata to seek assistance in 
Japan where, with the support of Junjiro Takakusu, the former's 
periodical combined with the latter's magazine, The Young East, 
and appeared for a further two years. 

In 1930, Mr Numata returned to Japan and pioneered the 
production of micrometers (which had hitherto been imported at 



169 



Buddhist Studies Review 13, 1 (1996) 



ness of death as the essence of this practice. I must stress, how- 
ever, that three other monastics categorically stated that 
maranasati was solely the awareness of death, and that the nine 
charnel-ground meditations belonged exclusively to the realm of 
asubhabhavana. 

I would like to conclude by summarising the divergences of 
interpretation that have been alluded to in this paper — that is, 
divergences between canonical literature, the Visuddhimagga and 
contemporary practice. The description of maranasati in canoni- 
cal literature is sparse and limited to the awareness of ageing and 
the proximity of death. Two simple methods for developing this 
awareness are described in the Ahguttara 30 , while many passages 
of the Jatakas and Thera- Therlgatha praise this awareness by 
offering numerous examples of persons who, having realised the 
inexorability of their fate, either decided to renounce worldly life 
or attained enlightenment. Buddhaghosa, however, built an eight- 
fold method for developing this awareness, a systematised method 
that is absent in earlier Pali literature. Yet contemporary practice 
shows a much wider interpretation which, according to' the ma- 
jority of the monastics interviewed, includes a subhab Havana and 
the awareness of anicca. 



copyrighted © Mathieu Boisvert 

(Director of graduate studies 

dep. des sciences religieuses 

Universite du Quebec a Montreal) 



EKOTTARAGAMA (XX) 

Translated from the Chinese Version by 

Thich Huyen-Vi and Bhikkhu Pasadika 

in collaboration with Sara Rom- Webb 



Ninth Fascicle 

Part 18 

(Shame and Remorse) 

6. '-'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 
SravastT, at the Jeta Grove, in Anathapindada's Park. Then 
Venerable Nanda donned exquisite robes, and with eye-shadow he 
brightened up his eye[lids] 5 wearing slippers ornamented with 
gold. Again, he rubbed 2 the cosmetic off his eyeilids] and, holding 
in his hands his aims-bowl, he was about to enter the city of 
Sravasti. 

From afar many bhiksus saw Venerable Nanda [on the point 
of j entering the city to beg for alms-food, while he was wearing 
exquisite robes. Now those bhiksus went to the whereabouts of 
the Exalted One, bowing down their heads at his feet, and sat 
down at one side. Hardly had [they taken their seats] when they 
stood up [again], saying to the Exalted One: As far as Bhiksu 
Nanda is concerned, he has donned exquisite robes and brightened 
up his eyeflidsl with eye-shadow and is [thus] entering the city of 



* 



30 The first thing is constantly to remind oneself that death could happen at 
any moment: after one day, one night, a meal, a single bite (A III 303 and also 
al A IV 3161 The other being the different reasons for dying such as being 
amen by a centipede, a snake or a scorpion, or falling, choking . . . I A III 307, 
and also at A IV 320]. 



1 See T 2, 591a8 ff; Hayashi, p.153 ff. 

2 For ££ Hayashi reads $£ (to compare; to criticise; to oppose), which does not 
seem appropriate. 



54 



55 



Buddhist Studies Review 13, 1 (1996) 

Sravasti to beg for alms-food 3 . - Now the Exalted One said to 
one of the bhiksus: Hasten to the whereabouts of Nanda [and tell 
him that] the Tathagata requests the gentleman's 4 presence. — So 
be it, Exalted One, replied the bhiksu complying with the Exalted 
One's bidding, bowed down his head at [the Tathagata's feet] and 
left for Bhiksu Nanda's whereabouts. On his arrival he said to 
Nanda: The Exalted One requests the gentleman's presence. - 
Hearing the bhiksu's words, Nanda immediately went to the 
Exalted One, bowed down his head at the [latter'sj feet and sat 
down at one side. - Why have you put on these exquisite robes? 
the Exalted One asked Nanda, and why are you wearing slippers 
while entering Sravasti to beg for alms-food 5 ? - Venerable 
Nanda kept silent, and the Exalted One asked again: Why, Nanda? 
Is it not out of faith and resolution that you have gone forth into 
homelessness in order to follow the way [leading to Nirvana]? — 
Yes, Exalted One, replied Nanda. - And now, son of good family, 
the Exalted One went on, having gone forth into homelessness 
out of faith and resolution in order to follow the way [leading to 
Nirvana], you do not [think] it necessary to practise [in accor- 
dance with] ascetic discipline (vinaya)Y! For what reason then do 
you want to enter Sravasti to beg for alms-food by wearing 



Here, as in many other places, the text is riddled with inconsistencies. Thus 
for .nstance. above Nanda rubs ihe cosmetic off his eyelids, but after that his" 
concerned fellow monks make out (from afar!?) the eye-shadow applied by 
Nanda. Perhaps it is meant that the rubbed off cosmetic did not altogether dis- 
appear but lefi stains which did not escape the other monks' notice. 

4 Lit.: The Tathagata is summoning the lord/minister of state'. This sentence 
is certainly meant to convey irony. 

5 According to Vin IV 194, it is an 'offence of wrongdoing' for a monk (un- 
less he is ill) to enter a village wearing sandals (na... sa-upahanena gdtno pavisi- 
labboY See I.B. Horner, The Book of the Discipline (Mahavagga). VoUV (PTS) 
London 1951, p.260. 



56 



Ekottaragama XX 

exquisite robes, pressed and tailor-made? What is the difference 
between these bright (sukla) garments [of yours and those of 
laymen]? — Thereupon the Exalted One uttered the following 
verses: 

When shall [we] see Nanda being capable of 
Embarking (a- pad) on a forest[ -dweller's] practice? 
Heartening is the ascetics' Dharma, [the virtues of] 
The pure (dhutaguna), whose practice (sam-car) [however] 
Has nothing to do with what is excessive (atyanhaf. 

Once and for all, Nanda, [the Buddha concluded his admon- 
ition,] do not indulge in this kind [of showiness], — Having 
listened to the Buddha's words, Venerable Nanda and all [those 
present belonging to] the four assemblies 7 were pleased and 
applied themselves to practice 18 . 

7. 'Thus have i heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 
Sravasti. . . Then Venerable Nanda [found it] unbearable to lead 
the holy life ibrahmacarya) and yearned to take off his monastic 



6 Concerning the question of which austerities are extremes and which are 
not, see J. Dantinne, Les qualiies de I'ascete (Dhuiaguna), Etude sernamique el 
docirinale, Brussels 1991, pp.1-4 (Preliminaires: le Bouddhisme el les austerites). 
Regarding the dhuia- dhiitagunas I dhutahgas, cf. BSR 3, 2 (1986). p.141, n.4; BSR 
4. 1 (1987), p.57, n.3; BSR 6, 2 (1989). pp.123-5, 128-9, n.5-8. 

7 For the "four assemblies' comprising bhiksus, bhiksunis. upasakas and 
upasikas. see Soothill, p.183; the Indie equivalents of Egjigt . parsad, parisa, are 
given in CT-yi (gen. ed.) Foguang dacidan, the Fo Kuang Shan Encyclopaedia of 
Buddhism, Kaohsiung 1989, p,1763c. Cf. BSR 2, 1-2 (1985), pp.44, 46, n.28 Cquatre 
categories de fideles' — no reference given), BSR 12, 2 (1995), p.164. n.21. 

8 Cf S II 281 (2L8): . . .ayasma Nando. . Motitani paccakoiitdni civardni 
parupitva akkhini ahjetva. . .; cf. C.A.F. Rhys Davids. F.L, Woodward, The Book 
of Kindred Sayings II (PTS), London 1922, p.191. As for Nanda, see also BSR 9, 2 
(1992). p,180f„ nJ3. 



57 



Buddhist Studies Review 13, 1 (1996) 



(lit. dharma) robes in order to wear the white [layman's] garb he 
was accustomed to. 

A large group of bhiksus went to the Exalted One, bowed 
down their heads at his feet and sat down at one side, — Bhiksu 
Nanda, they said to the Exalted One, [finds it] unbearable to lead 
the holy life and yearns to take off his monastic robes so as to 
live as a householder (grhasthaf as before. Now the Exalted One 
said to one of the bhiksus: Go to the whereabouts of Nanda and 
tell him that the Tathagata wishes to see the gentleman 10 . — So 
be it, Exalted One, replied that bhiksu complying with the Exalted 
One's bidding, rose from his seat, bowed down his head. . . and 
left. On his arrival he said to Nanda: The Exalted One is summon- 
ing you 11 . — So be it, replied Bhiksu Nanda and last no time in 
following that bhiksu back to the Exalted One's whereabouts. 
[There] he bowed down. . . and having sat down at one side was 
[thus] asked by the Exalted One: Why do you loathe, Nanda, 
leading the holy life? Why do you want to take off the monastic 
robes and return to live in white garb? — So it is, Exalted One, 
replied Nanda, [but] the Exalted One went on asking: For what 
reason, Nanda? — And Nanda admitted: My mind is burning with 
desire; I cannot control myself (sam-vr) 12 . — How is that, Nanda? 
the Exalted One went on, have you not, son of good family, gone 
forth into homelessness in order to follow the way [leading to 
Nirvana]? — Yes, I have, Exalted One, Nanda replied, I am a son 
of good family, and it is out of faith and resolution that I have 
gone forth into homelessness so as to follow the way [leading to 






9 I-e- USE — af ter Foguang, p,2324a. 

10 Cf. n.4. 

11 Lit \ . .is summoning Nanda'. 

12 Cf. Foguang, p.5539a (under J$j£ ). 



Ekottaragama XX 

Nirvana]. - Son of good family, said the Exalted One, this [frame 
of mind] is indeed not conducive to homelessness, to leading a 
life of purification (parisuddhi\ to follow the way [leading to 
Nirvana]. Why do you turn your back on the Dharma, why are 
you intent on indulging in what is defiling (vidusana)f You 
should know, Nanda, there are two things that make for in- 
satiability. Anyone who has taken to these things becomes 
insatiable. Which are the two? Desiring sexual intercourse 
(maithunaraga) and drinking alcohol. Anyone who indulges in 
these two things [has to] bear the consequence of his actions: he 
will be unable to realise the state of the Unconditioned (asam- 
skrtasthdna). Therefore, Nanda, one should bend one's mind to 
abandoning these two things so that, in due course, one succeeds 
in becoming free of malign influences (asrava). Now, Nanda, do 
your best to lead the holy life in order to obtain soon the fruit of 
the [Noble] Path, the certain reward [of your efforts! - Then the 
Exalted One uttered the following verses: 

If the roof of a house is not tight, the rain will leak in; and 
[If] one does not practise, desire, hatred 13 and delusion will 

[leak in. 

[If] the roof of a house is really tight, the rain will not leak 

[in; nor will 

Desire, hatred and delusion [if] one is really capable of 

[practising 14 . 



58 



13 Lit. 'anger, wrath'; as for the meaning of dvesa, see Foguang, p.61l4a. 

14 Cf. Drip 13-4; yatha ago/am ducchannam vutlhi samatmjjhaii I 

evam abhavitam ciuam rago samatvijjhati II 
yatha agaram succhannam vutlhi na samatmjjhaii I 
evam nubhavitam ciuam rago na samtivijjkati II 
At the beginning of this section Hayashi (p.154) and Lancaster (p.222) refer to 
a Pali parallel to EA. viz. Dhp-Atihakatha I, ed. H.C. Norman, London 1906 



59 



Buddhist Studies Review 13, 1 (1996) 

Thereupon the following thought occurred to the Exalted 
One: This son of good family has his head full of lustful thoughts. 
Now the best thing would be that I extinguish the fire by means 
of fire. — At once the Exalted One exerted his supernormal 
power and took Nanda by the hand. Just as a strong man 
instantly bends and lagain] stretches his arm, he took Nanda to 
the summit of Gandhamadana 15 [in the twinkling of an eye]. Near 
the summit there was a gigantic cave in which there was a blind 
female monkey. [Here] they stopped, and the Exalted One, 
holding Nanda's right hand, said to him: You are taking a good 
look at this blind female monkey, are you not? — Yes, I am, 
Exalted One, answered [the latter], and the Exalted One went on 
asking: Which is more beautiful — Sundari of the Sakya clan 16 or 
this blind female monkey? - The latter, replied Nanda, looks like 
a fierce dog whose nose has been injured by someone, or like a 
dog that is all the more malicious [because] it is smeared with 
poison. It is impossible to compare the Sakyan lady Sundari with 
this blind female monkey. This Sakyan lady always remains in 
my heart. [My feelings for her are] like a huge mass of fire 
devastating mountains and plains, or tike a column of fire blazing 
up because of dry combustibles. — 

After this [encounter, in the twinkling of an eye] the Exalted 



(PTS), p.I155ff, in which the above Dhp verses are quoted and explained 
(Nanadattheravaiihu). The Pali parallel to EA begins in fact at op. ciu p.118. For 
the siory of Nanda see DPPN 11. lOf. Two more parallels to the Nanda story in 
EA can be mentioned: Ud. 21-4; J 11, 92-5. 

15 See Sooth ill, pj]9, Hackmann, p.235f. 

16 As for Sundari Nanda / JanapadakalyanJ, see DPPN I. 934; [1, 1217; BSR 9, 2 
(1192), p .180f., rt.13, where Asvaghosas Saundara nanda is mentioned The same 
topic is also treated in Avadana-Kalpalati 1. ed. PL. Vaidya (Darbhanga 1959), 
pp.85-95 (Sundarmandavadana). 



60 



Ekottaragama XX 

One [and Nanda] - as quickly as one bends and [again] stretches 
one's arm - were no longer seen at the [top of the] mountain 
They proceeded to the heaven of the Trayastrirnsa gods^A that 
time all the gods there were assembled in the assemb y hall Su- 
dharma 18 Not far from it there was a palace (prasada) [in which! 
five hundred aspsaras" were enjoying themselves. As a matter ot 
fact only women were [there] and no men at all, From some 
distance, Nanda caught sight of the five hundred heavenly 
nymphs who, while amusing themselves, proved talented 
musicians. Looking at them, [Nanda] asked the Exalted One: Wha 
are these five hundred apsaras like, having fun and being good at 
making music? - Go, Nanda, said the Exalted One, and ask them. 
- So Venerable Nanda went to the palace to call on the five 
hundred nymphs. Some hundred kinds of fine seats were arranged 
[there? - Ail of you, Venerable Nanda asked the apsaras, what 
are you heavenly nymphs like, having such fun and amusing 
yourselves? - The apsaras replied: We are five hundred m 
number. Having no husbands, all of us are pure. We have heard 
that the Exalted One has a disciple named Nanda who is the son 
of the Buddha's aunt 21 . He leads the holy life of purity under the 
Tathagala. After his passing away (T2, 592a) he is bound to be 
reborn here. [Then! he will be our husband, and all of us will 
have immense fun. - On [hearing their words,] Venerable Nanda 



17 Lit. 'preaching hal1 ' !ecture hal1 ■ 

18 Cf DPPN I 1002-4 (under "Tavatimsa'). 

19 S* usually stands for the 'noblewoman-treasure of a universal monarch. 
The usage in this place seems to be peculiar to EA. 

20 Hereafter the Chinese repeats the above 'As a matter of fact, only women . 

S' As for Mahapajapati, the Buddha's aunt a nd foster-mother. Nanda's mother, 

see DPPN II, 522-4. 



61 



Buddhist Studies Review 13, 1 (1996) 

was overjoyed. Consumed by his emotions, he thought to himself: 
Now I am the Exalted One's disciple and, moreover, I am his 
aunt's son; and all these heavenly nymphs will definitely be my 
wives! — Then, having joined the Exalted One, Nanda was asked 
by him: Well, Nanda, what have the apsaras said? — They 
informed Ime], replied Nanda, they were unmarried, that they had 
heard of the Exalted One's disciple diligently leading the holy life 
and that [the disciple] after his passing away would be bound to 
be reborn there. — Nanda, the Exalted One went on, tell me, tell 
me! What have you been thinking? — This thought has occurred 
to me, answered Nanda: I am the Exalted One's disciple. . . and all 
the apsaras will definitely be my wives. — Excellent 22 , Nanda, said 
the Exalted One, you do your best to lead the holy life, and I will 
declare {ud-a-hr) that these five hundred women will have to be 
appointed (viniyoktavya) to be at your service. — Tell me, Nanda, 
the Exalted One continued, [who is more] beautiful, the Sakyan 
lady Sundari or these five hundred heavenly nymphs? — Just as 
the blind female monkey at the top of the mountain, answered 
Nanda, is ugly and disgusting by comparison with SundarT, she 
similarly is ugly by comparison with the apsaras. — You do your 
best, repeated the Exalted One, to lead the holy life, and I will 
herewith declare that these five hundred beings will be yours. — 

Again the Exalted One thought: Now I have to extinguish 
Nanda's 'fire' by means of fire. Just as a strong man instantly 
bends. . ., with his right hand the Exalted One took Nanda's arm 
and led him to the Avici hell [where] the hell-wraiths undergo so 
much suffering. In the centre of Avici, there was a huge gaping 



22 The usage of ft® standing for sadhu in this place seems peculiar to EA 



62 



Ekottsragama XX 

cauldron without anybody to be seen Laround or therein? 3 . On 
beholding [just that cauldron], one would become panic-stricken 
with one's hair standing on end (romaharsa). In front lot it] the 
Exalted One said: All these living beings have to suffer im- 
mensely, even though only this cauldron [can be seen] in this vast 
emptiness without anybody [in it], - This is, the Exalted One 
went on, what is called the hell Avici. — Nanda became more 
and more terrified with his hair standing on end. — This is the 
hell Avici, he repeated what the Exalted One [had said], and there 
is sheer emptiness and not [a single] offender [visible], — Go, 
Nanda, said the Exalted One, and ask somebody. — So Venerable 
Nanda called out: You hell-servants, what kind of hell is this? 
Why is this hell empty without anybody in it? — You should 
know, bhiksu, answered the hell-servants, the Buddha Sakyamuni 
has a disciple, Nanda by name, who leads the holy life of purity 
under the Tathagata. [Once that disciple's life] comes to an end 
and his body breaks up, he will be born in a fortunate heavenly 
realm. There he will have a life-span of a thousand years, know- 
ing nothing but enjoyment and happiness. However, when that 
[kind of existence] draws to a close, he will appear in this Avici 
hell, and it is this empty cauldron that will be his abode (lit. 
'room'). — Having listened to this announcement, Venerable 
Nanda was paralysed with fear with his hair standing on end. All 



23 Cf. EncBuddh II. 3, p.452 (Avici). Bearing in mind D 111, 75 and A I. 159, 
where Avici is employed as a simile with reference to dense populations, it 
seems strange that it is stated in this EA passage that nobody is seen in Avici, 
although in the preceding sentence the 'hell-wraiths' are mentioned. Most 
probably the ghastly emptiness of Avici is meant to serve the purpose of 
dramatic effect. As for such effect, the spectacular excursion to Avici in the 
Nanda story seems to be a distinctive feature of EA, not to be found in the Pali 
sources. 



63 



Buddhist Studies Review 13, 1 (1996) 



Ekottaragama XX 



of a sudden, he realised that this empty cauldron was just where 
he was destined. He turned to the Exalted One, bowed down his 
head at the tatter's feet and said to him: I humbly ask forgiveness 
(ksam) for my wrongdoing by not leading the holy life and 
therefore annoying the Tathagata. — Then Venerable Nanda 
uttered the following verses; 

To be born a human being cannot be esteemed highly 

[enough; 
Long life in a heaven is not eternal, [but] ends with one's 

[downfall. 

Hell [means! suffering, grief and pain. 

The only happiness — that is Nirvana. — 
- Excellent, said the Exalted One to Nanda, what you have 
uttered is well said; Nirvana as the highest (para) — [that is] 
happiness 24 . [I] acknowledge, Nanda, your confession; you have 
realised your wrongdoing [owing to] your ignorance and delusion. 
For this reason the Tathagata accepts your remorse (kaukrtya) for 
your transgressions (atyaya). Henceforth abstain from wrong- 
doing! — Thereafter, [once more] the Exalted One took Nanda by 
the hand Land in the twinkling of an eye] - as quickly as one 
bends and [again] stretches one's arm — they were no longer seen 
in that hell and reached Anathapindada's Park at the Jeta Grove 
in Sravastl. 



24 Cf. Theri-Gatha (ed. H. Oldenberg, R. Pischel, K.R. Norman. L. Alsdorf; 
PTS. London 1966) 476 (p.!70>. nirayesu bahu vinipatagalassa kilissamanassa 1 

devesu pi auanam nibbanasukha param n' all hi fl 
See K.R. Norman. The Elders' Verses II (PTS 1971), p.47: '. . Even among (he 
devas there is no protection; there is nothing superior to the happiness of 
quenching*. As for .he Pali reference, see also H. Hecker, Pali, Sysiematisches 
Wonerbuch der Exislem nebst Konkordanz IU (Hamburg 1995), p.294 (including 
lists of renderings by various translators). 



64 






There the Exalted One said to Nanda: Now you should 
cultivate two conditions (dharma). Which two? Tranquillity and 
penetrating insight 25 . You should further practise [in the light of] 
two facts: [in the light of the fact that] birth and death do not 
make for happiness; that the realisation of Nirvana is happiness. 
And again you should develop two qualities, that is comprehen- 
sion (parijhana) and presence of mind (pratibhdna). — The 
Exalted One instructed Nanda by dint of manifold instructions. 
Then after having received the Exalted One's teaching, Venerable 
Nanda rose from his seat, bowed down at the Exalted One's feet 
and left. 

He went to the Andhavana. There he sat down cross-legged 
under a tree, straightened body and mind and conscientiously (lit. 
'being present in front') cultivated mindfulness (smrti). The ven- 
erable one wisely reflected on what the Exalted One had taught 
him. So he did continually, without an instant of interruption, 
while he was staying at a secluded, quiet place. [In due course] he 
attained (bhavita) that unsurpassed [goal] of the holy life for 
whose sake, out of faith and resolution, a son of good family 
goes forth into homelessness in order to follow the way [leading 
to Nirvana]. He knew in accordance with fact: Birth and death 
have come to an end, the holy life has been lived, what had to be 
done has been done, and there will be no more coming into 
existence. At that time Venerable Nanda became an Arhat and, 
after his realisation of arhatship, he rose from his seat, adjusted 
his robes and went to the Exalted One's whereabouts. [There I he 



25 Cf., though from a different context, Okubo Yusen, 'The Ekottara-agama 
Fragments of the Gilgil Manuscript', in Bukkyo Gaku Semina No35, Kyoto 1982, 
pp,98, 99, 101: dvau dharmmau. . .samalhas ca vipaiyanh ca. Cf. also A I, 61, 95, 
100. 



65 



Buddhist Studies Review 13, 1 (1996) 

bowed down. . . took his seat at one side and said to the Exalted 
One: Sometime ago the Exalted One promised his disciple five 
hundred apsaras. Now there is no need of them anymore - For 
you, replied the Exalted One, birth and death have come to an 
end now, and the holy life has been lived. So I am quit of this 
[promise} — Then he uttered these verses: 

Now I see that Nanda has attained the ascetic's goal 

[(dharma), 
Has put an end to all evil, is pure and without blemish. - 

Thereafter the Exalted One announced to the bhiksus: Now it is 
Bhiksu Nanda who has realised arhatship, and it is he who is rid 
of [desiring] sexual intercourse, of aversion and delusion - 
Having heard the Buddha's words, the bhiksus were pleased and 
applied themselves to practice.' 



Foguang 
Dhp 

Ud 



Additional Abbreviations 

= Foguang dacidian, The Fo Kuang Shan 
Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, Kaohsiung 1989. 
= Dhammapada, ed. S. Sumahgala, London 1914 
(PTS). 

= Udana, ed. P. Steinthal, London 1885 (PTS). 






66 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 

Sir, 

I have read with interest Laurence C.R. Mills' 'A Con- 
temporary Buddhist Debate' (BSR 12, 2, 1995). As a former 
bhikkhu of thirty years standing, the author is well qualified to 
join in such a debate, and I welcome his contribution. 1 should 
like, however, to make the following points: 

(1) In writing Forty-Three Years Ago it was not my in- 
tention to start a debate, least of all with Brahma vamso, of whom 
I had not even heard. I was simply reflecting on my past 
experience and drawing a few conclusions. Consequently, I do not 
regard myself as an 'opponent' of Brahma vamso, even after the 
hard things he has said about me in his review. 

(2) While my emphasis is indeed on the spirit of the Dharma, 
that emphasis is 'in keeping with the Triyana (three vehicles) 
approach' only in the sense that I respect, and draw inspiration 
from, all forms of Buddhism. I do not regard the Mahay ana as 
superior to the so-called Hinayana (at least as represented by what 
appear to be the oldest portions of the Pali Canon), or the 
Vajrayana as superior to the Mahayana. 

(3) The fact that at least one of the teachers present at 
Laurence Mills' bhikkhu ordination was known to have the 
knowledge of others* minds (paracittahana) and would not have 
sat in an impure Sangha is not sufficient to prove that the 
ordination was technically valid. At most it proves that the 
members of the ordaining Sangha were observers of the 
sikkhapadas. 

Sangharakshita 



67 






Buddhist Studies Review 13, 2 (1996) 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 






Aggavamsa, Saddaniti, ed. H. Smith, Lund 1928-30, with Index 

volumes. 1949 in progress. 
Geiger, Wilhelm, Pali Literature and Language, Calcutta 1943, 

Delhi 1978. 
Lin Li-kouang, L Aide-memoire de la Vraie Loi, Paris 1949. 
Mookerji, Radhakumud, Asoka (3rd rev, ed.) Delhi 1962. 
Pande, Govind Chandra, Studies in the Origins of Buddhism, (3rd 

rev. ed.), Delhi 1983. 
Rhys Davids, T.W., and W. Stede, Pali-English Dictionary, Pali 

Text Society, 1921-25, repr. 1992. 
Sd = Saddhaniti, see under Aggavamsa. 
Thomas, E.J., The Life of Buddha as Legend and History, 

London 1927, Delhi 1993. 
Warder, A.K., Indian Buddhism, Delhi 1970, rev. ed., 1991. 

Introduction to Pali, Pali Text Society, 1953, rev. 

ed. 1991 
Pali Metre, Pali Text Society, 1967. 
Winternitz, Maurice, A History of Indian Literature, Calcutta 

1933, Delhi 1993. 












EKOTTARAGAMA (XXI) 

Translated from the Chinese Version by 

Thich Huyen-Vi and Bhikkhu Pasadika 

in collaboration with Sara Boin-Webb 

Ninth Fascicle 

Part 18 

(Sharre and Remorse) 

8. 'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying, 
together with a large [number of] bhiksus, viz. five hundred 
persons altogether, among the Sakyans at Kapilavastu, in the 
jNyagrodha Park. Then MahaprajapatI GautamI went to the 
Exalted One. She bowed down her head at his feet and said to 
him: [I] hope for a long time the Exalted One will bring the 
ignorant and deluded to their senses, and may [his] life never be 
endangered! — GautamI, responded the Exalted One, such words 
in regard to the Tathagata are not appropriate. The Tathagata 
[can] prolong his life-span which will not be short, and his life 
will never be [reallyj in danger 1 . — Now MahaprajapatI GautamI 
improvised the following verses: 

How [can one] revere him who is foremost, who is unparal- 
leled 

In the world? [He] is capable of removing all doubts; that is 
why 

These words [of veneration] are uttered. — 



1 Cf. BSR 12, 2 (1995), p. 163 f.: 'Since the Tathagala's body is not reckoned an 
ordinary body, it is not subject to other people's violence . . .'. As for the 
Tathagata's power to prolong his life-span, see D [I, 103 f.; E. Waldschmidl (ed.), 
Das Mahaparinirvanaxulra I! (Berlin 1951), 15.10, 15.13 (pp.204, 206): 
akahksamanas tathagalah kalpam va listket kalpavasesam va. 



148 



149 



Buddhist Studies Review 13, 2 (1996) 

The Exalted One in turn responded to GautamI with these 
verses: 

Reverence for the Tathagata implies this: effort and steadfast- 
ness, 
A mind that is ever more courageous and which looks upon 
Disciples as equals (tulya). — 

In reply to the Exalted One MahaprajapatI declared: Hence- 
forth the Exalted One should be revered [for his,] the Tathagata's, 
insisting on regarding 2 all living beings with a mind free from 
[the discriminatory concepts of] upper and lower (adhika-nyuna) 
[classes]. Among the heavenly beings, men . . . and Asuras, the 
Tathagata is supreme. — The Exalted One acknowledged what 
MahaprajapatI had said, and [she] rose from her seat, bowed down 
. . . and left. The Exalted One said to the bhiksus: Among my 
disciples it is MahaprajapatI who is foremost 3 in respect of broad- 
mindedness and extensive awareness. — Having heard the 
Buddha's words, the bhiksus were pleased and respectfully applied 
themselves to practice'. 

9. 'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 
SravastI, at the Jeta Grove, in Anathapindada's (T2, 593a) Park. 
Then the Exalted One said to the bhiksus: There are these two 
persons who indulge in slandering the Tathagata. Which two? He 
who claims as [the Tathagata's] teaching what is not [his] teaching, 
and he who claims as unauthentic] teaching what is [authentic] 
teaching. Furthermore, there are [these] two persons who do not 
slander the Tathagata. Which are the two? He who declares 
unauthentic] teaching as unauthentic] teaching, and he who 



For !f| (592c23) read ^1 (after 592c, n.29 and Hayashi, p.159). 
Cf BSR 4, 1 (1987), pp.47, 57 (n.l). 



150 












Ekottaragama XXI 

declares authentic teaching as authentic teaching. Therefore, 
bhiksus, what is unauthentic 1 teaching has to be declared as such, 
and what is authentic teaching [also] has to be declared as such. 
Thus bhiksus, you should train. — Having heard the Buddha's 
words, the bhiksus were pleased . . .' 4 . 

10. Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 
SravastI. . . Then the Exalted One said to the bhiksus: There are 
these two persons who acquire inestimable merit. Which two? He 
who admires and praises what is praise v/orthy, and he who by no 
means admires what does not deserve [praise]. Furthermore, there 
are [these] two persons who acquire inestimable demerit. Which 
are the two? He who strongly opposes and denigrates what 
admittedly deserves admiration, and he who enthusiastically 
admires what is by no means admirable. O bhiksus, do not 
imitate such behaviour. — Having heard the Buddha's words, the 
bhiksus were pleased and respectfully applied themselves to 
practice' 5 . 



4 Cf. Okubo, op. cit., p.1041: adharmmam dharmmaio dlpayali dharmmam 
cadharmmatah. . . (abhasitarn bhdsitato bhasitam abhasi) tatah. ..{... 
adharmma)m adharmmato dipayati dharmmam ca dharmmatah. . abhasitarn 
abhasilatah bhasitam ca bhdsitatah. As Pali parallel Hayashi (p.160) and Lancaster 
(p.222) refer to A II, 3, 5, & 6 (p.60); the parallel actually is at A II, 3, 3 & 4 
(abhasitarn . . . bhasitam. . .). Cf. F.L. Woodward, The Book of she Gradual 
Sayings I (PTS, London 1932), p.54. 

5 Cf. Okubo, ibid:, gurvvim laghutah [dlpayati] laghvim gurulah. . . gurvvim 
gurutah (laghvim laghutah. . .); A II, 12, 6 (p.89 f.) [appasadaniye thane pasadam. 
. .). Cf. Woodward, op. cit., p.80 (§6). 



EKOTTARAGAMA (XXII) 

Translated from the Chinese Version by 

Thich Huyen-Vi and Bhikkhu Pasadika 

in collaboration with Sara Boin-Webb 

Tenth Fascicle 

Part 19 
(Supplication) 1 

2. 2 'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 
the Varanasi District, at the Rsis' Deer Park 3 , Then the Exalted 
One said to the bhiksus 4 : There are these two modes of behaviour 
(vrtti) which a person in quest of the [highest] truth 5 should avoid. 
Which are the two? Desiring, craving for objects of sensual 
pleasure which by its very nature (dharma) is low, vulgar and 
unprofitable. On the other hand, all [sorts of] mortification 



1 The first sutra of Pan 19, to which this subtitle refers, was translated into 
French by A. Bareau in his article 'Les debuts de la predication du Buddha 
selon VEkotiara-agama; see Bulletin de I'Ecole francaise d'Extreme- 
Orienl LXXVfl (Paris 1988), p.78f.; Bareau also refers to this sutra in his paper 
'Le Buddha et Uruvilva' in Indianisme et Bouddhisme, Melanges offerls a Mgr. 
Etienne Lamotte, Louvain-la-Neuve 1980, p,5ff, 

2 See T2, 593b24 ff.; Hayashi, p.l62ff. Cf. S V, p,420ff. (Dhamma- 
cakkapavaUana-Vagga); Hayashi, ibid, additionally mentions as parallel M I, 160ff. 
(Ariyapariyesanasutta) the relevant portion of which, however, cannot be 
regarded as either a textual or thematic parallel to the present EA passage. 

3 The Chinese has what corresponds with Rsi-mrgadava, not with Rsipatana 
Mrgadava, 

4 Cf. S V, p,421: pancavaggiye bhikkhu. 

5 Lit. 'a student of the Way' ( ^J§^ ) for pabbajita; for anta ('extremes' 
the Chinese, has ij| ('action', also = vrtti). 



4S 



Ekottaragama XXII 

(pldandfy many acts of harming (vihimsana) and endless [tor- 
menting] thoughts. These are the two modes of behaviour which 
a person in quest of the [highest] truth should avoid. Having 
given up these two modes of behaviour, on my own I gained the 
highest truth and became fully enlightened. Vision arose, super- 
knowledge (abhijha) arose, my mind became [truly] calm. I 
obtained all supernormal powers (rddhi) and realised the fruition 
of recluseship — Nirvana. 

Now what is the supreme path leading to Full Enlightenment, 
making for vision, for superknowledge, for one's mind to become 
[truly] calm, for obtaining all supernormal powers and for 
realising the fruition of recluseship — Nirvana? It is this very 
noble eightfold path, viz. extraordinary {adhika) views, extra- 
ordinary prevention (pratikara), extraordinary speech, extra- 
ordinary bodily action, extraordinary livelihood, extraordinary 
skill in means (upaya-kausalya), extraordinary mindfulness, 
extraordinary concentration 7 . This is what is called the supreme 
path. 

At this time I have become fully enlightened, vision has 
arisen, superknowledge has arisen, my mind has become [truly] 
calm, I have obtained all supernormal powers and realised the 
fruition of recluseship — Nirvana. Therefore, O bhiksus, one 
should train to give up the above[-mentioned] two modes of 
behaviour and practise in accordance with the supreme path. — 



6 It is noteworthy that EA here does not have anything corresponding to self- 
mortification (atmaklamatha = ^^ff. )■ 

7 Cf. BSR 11, 2, p.15, n.15, where four versions of the aryastahgikamarga, all 
differing slightly from each other, are referred to. A remarkable innovation with 
the wording in this fifth version is the change from 'right' (samyanc = IE ) to 
'extraordinary' (adhika - |§0. 



49 






Buddhist Studies Review 14, 1 (1997) 

After listening to the Buddha's words, the bhiksus were pleased 
and respectfully applied themselves to practice.' 

4. 8 Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 
SravastI, at Jetr's Grove 9 , in Anathapindada's Park. Then the 
Exalted One said to the bhiksus: In the world there are these two 
living beings (dehin) who are not frightened when becoming 
aware of lightning and thunder. Which are the two? These two 
living beings, O monks, who are found in the world and who do 
not experience fright on becoming aware of lightning and 
thunder, are the lion, king of beasts, and the arhat with whom the 
malign influences have come to an end (ksinasrava). 

Therefore, O monks, one should train to become an arhat 
with whom the malign influences have come to an end. Thus, O 
bhiksus, one should actually train. — After listening to the 
Buddha's words, . . . applied themselves to practice.' 

5. 'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 

SravastI, Then the Exalted One said to the bhiksus: There are 

these two modes of behaviour (dharma) which do not allow of a 
person's being wise. Which are the two? (1) To have an aversion 
to consulting experienced and capable persons and (2) to be much 
given to slothfulness (middha) and lethargy (avirya-citta). These 
are, monks, the two modes of behaviour that do not allow of a 



8 [No, 3 will follow in the next issue.] — See T2, 594cB f,; Hayashi, pl6f- 
Lancaster, p.222. Cf. the abridged version of this sutra in A I, 77 (quoted here 
in full), dve 'me bhikkhave asaniya phalantiya na sanlasanti / katame dve j 
hhikkhu ca khtnasavo slho ca migaraja / ime kho bhikkhave dve asaniya 
vhaiantiya na santasanii ti / 

Regrettably, hitherto in this EA translation invariably 'Jeta Grove" was given 
because of Jeta-vana, jeta as part of the compound being irregular for jetr. The 
correct form of the N. pr, is of course 'Jetr". 



50 



Ekctlaragama XXII 

person's being wise. There are, therefore, two modes of be- 
haviour which allow of a person's obtaining perfect wisdom. 
Which two? (1) To be eager in asking others to clarify something 
and (2) to be full of vivacity rather than sloth, It is, O bhiksus, 
these two modes of behaviour which allow of a person's being 
wise. 

One should train to overcome [the above-mentioned] modes 
of karmically unwholesome behaviour. Thus, O monks, one 
should actually train. — After listening to the Buddha's words, . . . 
applied themselves to practice.' 

6. 'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 
SravastI, at Jetr's Grove, in Anathapindada's (T2, 595a) Park. Then 
the Exalted One said to the bhiksus: There are two modes of 
behaviour which render a person poor and destitute. Which are 
the two modes? (1) When seeing others practising generosity 
(dana), preventing this and, moreover, (2) being oneself unwilling 
to be generous. These are, O monks, the two modes of behaviour 
rendering a person poor and destitute. Then, monks, there are two 
modes of behaviour rendering a person estimable. Which two? 
(1) When seeing a person distributing things to others, gladly 
supporting him Lor her in this charitable act] and (2) oneself 
taking delight in being generous. These are, bhiksus, the two 
modes of behaviour rendering a person estimable. 

Thus, O monks, one should train in practising generosity and 
in overcoming of acquisitiveness. — After listening to the 
Buddha's words, . . . applied themselves to practice.' 



Thanks are due to Peter Skiiling, Nonthaburi, Thailand, who has 
kindly provided the following pieces of information (his letter of 
15 April 97): There are a few interesting correspondences between 



51 



Buddhist Studies Review 14, 1 (1997) 



the Ta pao tsang ching, The Storehouse of Sundry Valuables, 
translated by Charles Willemen (BDK English Tripitaka 10 I 
[Berkeley 1994]) and EA: 

BSR 11, 2 (1994), pp.162-3: 18 transformations: Storehouse, p.50, etc 
see index (nowhere explained). 

BSR 12, 2 (1995), p.167: the verses of the Dhanapala story are close 
to those of Sanghabhedavastu II, pp. 188-9 (for which see 
Storehouse, p.205). 

BSR 13, 1 (1996), pp.60-64: story of Nanda: Storehouse, pp.190-94.' 



52 



NEWS & NOTES 

UK ABS Meeting 

The first Annual General Meeting of the UK Association for 
Buddhist Studies will be held at SOAS (London University) on 30 
June. The two guest speakers, Profs Richard Salomon (University 
of Washington, Seattle) and Tim Barrett (SOAS), will speak. 
respectively on 'The British Library KharosthI Manuscripts and 
their Implications for the Hypothesis of a Gandhari Canon' and 
'Did I-ching go to India? Problems in using I-ching as a source for 
South Asian Buddhism'. 

Further details from Dr Peter Harvey, Reader in Buddhist 
Studies, School of Social and International Studies, University of 
Sunderland, Chester Road, Sunderland, Tyne & Wear SRI 3SD (tel. 
0191-515 2174; e-mail: peter.harvey@sunderland.ac.uk). 

Conference on Buddhism, Science and Psychotherapy 

A conference entitled The Psychology of Awakening was held at 
Darlington Hall, Devon, November 7-10 1996, and brought to- 
gether thinkers and practitioners in a three way dialogue between 
Buddhism, Cognitive Science and Psychotherapy. This presented 
an opportunity to enquire into such topics as the relationship 
between Buddhist and Western theories of mind, the Buddhist 
quest for enlightenment and psychology's understanding of 
'endarkenment', and the use of awareness practices in psycho- 
therapy. Interest in such topics was apparent as conference places 
swiftly filled long before the day, finally attracting a waiting list 
over twice as long as the number of participants, leaving many 
people disappointed. 

In the event an impressive international list of speakers 
presented their current ideas. On the scientific side Francisco 
Varela introduced the possibility of a science of interbeing in- 
volving a broad view of mind fully in tune with Buddhism. Sue 
Blackmore explored the idea of self as a persisent meme, a unit 
of information like a gene stored in the brain. On a practical 
level Jon Kabat Zinn spoke of the integration of Buddhist 
mindfulness practice in his work in mainstream medical fields, 



53 



Buddhist Studies Review 15, 1 (1998) 



In contrast, Nanavira's insistence on assigning an exclusively 
active sense to sankhara compels him to apply the old Procrus- 
tean bed of exegesis to several passages that do not easily submit 
to his interpretation. For example, in his separate note on San- 
khara 24 he attempts to explain how the reference to sankhara in 
the Mahasudassana Sutta (D 17/11 169ff.) can be interpreted in line 
with his view of sankhara as active determinations. In this sutta 
the Buddha, after describing all the rich endowments and posses- 
sions of King Mahasudassana, a king of the distant past, concludes 
with a homily on impermanence: 'See, Ananda, how all those 
sankhara have passed, ceased, altered. So impermanent, Ananda, 
are sankhara ... this is enough for weariness with all sankhara, 
enough for dispassion, enough for release'. Nanavlra discerns a 
cryptic message concealed in this passage thus: Those things [the 
possessions, etc.] were sankhara; they were things on which King 
Mahasudassana depended for his very identity; they determined 
his person as "King Mahasudassana", and with their cessation the 
thought "I am King Mahasudassana" came to an end*. There is 
nothing in the sutta itself to support this interpretation, and the 
text (as well as others of similar character) reads so much more 
naturally if we take sankhara simply to mean conditioned things 
of the world. Moreover, other suttas can be found which include 
the same final exhortation on dispassion, yet which provide ab- 
solutely no ground for seeing the term sankhara there as deter- 
minants of anyone's personal identity (see e.g., the Anamatagga 
Samyutta, S 15/11 178ff.). 



TO BE CONCLUDED 



© 1995 Bbikkhu Bodhi 



ordinate to and dependent upon the body, not that they are determinations 
for the body. Consider, in contrast, the explanation of why 'thinking-and- 
pondering' are called speech-s ankhdra: 'First having thought and pondered, 
afterwards one breaks into speech; that is why thinking-and-pondering are 
speech-. sankhara" (pubbe kho vilakketva vicaretva paccha vacant bhindati, tasma 
vitakkavicara vacisahkharo ft). Here ihe aciive sense is clearly in evidence. 
24 Clearing the Path. pp. 107-8. 



64 



EKOTTARAGAMA (XXIH) 

Translated from the Chinese Version by 

Thich Huyen-Vi and Bhikkhu Pasadika 

in collaboration with Sara Boin-Webb 

Tenth Fascicle 

Part 19 
(Supplication) 

3 I'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 
Sravasti, at Jetf s Grove, in Anathapindada's Park.2 Then Sakra, the 
chief of gods,approached the Exalted One, and having approached, 
he bowed down his head [at the Exalted One's] feet. Standing at one 
side he spoke thus to the Exalted One: How does a bhiksu 
overcome sensuous greed, realise his heart's release and, revered by 
gods and men, finally reach the 'place of [ultimate] peace {ksema) 
where there is no distress? - In this respect, Kausika,3 the Exalted 
One said to Sakra, the chief of gods, if a bhiksu hears of the existen- 
tial constituents (dharma) as being empty (Sunya) and realises that 
there is nothing [in terms of T and 'mine'] ,4 he perfectly understands 



1 See T2, 593cl3 ff.; Hayashi, p. 162 ff. Cf. M I, p. 251 ft (Culatarjhi- 

sankhayasutta), . 

2 The Buddha's whereabouts in the Pali parallel differs: near Savatthi in 
the Eastern Monastery in the palace of Migara's mother- (see I.B. Horner, The 
Middle Length Sayings I (PTS), London 1987, p. 306). 

3 Cf. BSR 8, 1 - 2 (1991), p. 144, n. 13. WM rendering Kausika seems 

DficuH^ir to E2 \ 

4 Here EA substantially differs from the Pali sabbe dhamma nalani abhini- 
vesayati, which I.B. Horner translates by 'It is not fitting that there should be in- 
clination towards any (psycho - physical) condition.' Perhaps it would be prefer- 
able lo interpret the present sentence of EA as '...and realises that there is nothing 
[in terms of an own-being or self-nature (svabhava )].' Considering the likeli- 
hood of the Mahasanghika affiliation of EA, the latter interpretation may be more 
suitable. As for associating EA with the Mahasanghikas, see BSR 11,2 (1994), 
p. 157 f n 2 To the given references should be added Andre Bareau, Les sectes 
bouddhiques du petit vthicule, Paris 1955, pp. 55 ff., 100 ff. See also Paul 
Harrison, 'Sanskrit Fragments of a Lokottaravadin Tradition', in: L.A. Hercus et 
al, (eds ), lndological and Buddhist Studies, Vol. in Honour of Professor J.W. 
de Jong on his 60th Birthday, Canberra 1982, p. 225 ff., on 'a Prakrit proto- 



65 



I 



Buddhist Studies Review IS, 1 (1998) 

and knows in accordance with fact what all existential constituents 
[are like]. Whatever feeling {dharma) he feels concerning his body, 
painful or pleasant or neither painful nor pleasant, in respect of this 
very body [of his] he contemplates them thoroughly as being imper- 
manent and as ultimately being empty. When he has contemplated 
the transitoriness of these [feelings being ... ] neither painful nor 
pleasant, no notions (samjna) occur to him and, therefore, he is not 
afraid of anything. On account of his fearlessness he realises com- 
plete Nirvana. He knows in accordance with fact: Birth and death 
have come to an end, and the holy life {brahmacarya) has been 
lived, what [had to be] done has been done, and there will be no 
more coming into existence. So it is, Sakra, chief of gods, that a bhi- 
ksu overcomes sensuous greed, realises his heart's release and, re- 
vered by gods and men, Finally reaches the 'place of [ultimate] peace' 
where there is no destruction and distress. - Then Sakra, the chief of 
gods, bowed down [his head] at the Exalted One's feet, circumambu- 
lated him thrice and withdrew. 

Now at that time Venerable Maha-Maudgalyayana had gone 
[to a place] not far from the Exalted One's and was sitting there 
cross-legged, straightening body and mind and cultivating recollec- 
tion (smrti) in front of him. Then it occurred to Venerable Maha- 
Maudgalyayana: As for (T2, 594a) Sakra, [I wonder] whether he 
has penetrateds what has been imparted to him or not. Now I should 
find that out. - Then, with the help of his 'bases of supernormal 
power', Venerable Maha-Maudgalyayana, as one might bend and 
[again] stretch out one's arm, instantly went to the Trayastrimsa 
gods. On seeing Venerable Maha-Maudgalyayana coming from afar, 
Sakra, the chief of gods, rose and went to welcome him respectfully, 
saying: Welcome, Venerable Maha-Maudgalyayana! The Venerable 
has not come here for a very long time indeed. [We] hope the Vener- 
able will favour us with an exposition making clear the meaning of 



Mahayana tradition current among various subsects of the Mahasarnghikas'. 

5 Lit.: 'is able to follow up the teaching' ( ^W$£ ); abhi-sam-i is usually 
rendered lEIR ' IEM- 



66 



Ekottaragama XXIII 
^Teachine and will take his seat here.- Now Maudgalyayana 

££ J£ a battle wtth the demons (asura). 0*^*^** 
fighting broke out, the gods were victorious and the demons e 
Seated I personally went to fight at that time. Soon after [the vie 
^11 returned as leader of the gods and took my seat m the up- 
SirteSSly palace [named] Vaijayanta* Palace^ The palace 
w^s dven mis name on account of our victory in the battle. High* 
of tSave been achieved, and there is a series of roads worth- 
wh e ooking at. At the upper end of each [of all the uppermost] 
Ttata^elonging with Vaijayanta ^ ^™ ££ *£ 
dred gaoled houses (kutagara)^ and up there in each of rhem there 
are seven nymphs* each of whom have seven attendants. Hopefully, 
Venerable Maudgalyayana will take a look at them. - 

Then Sakra, the chief of gods, and the heavenly ruler Vaisra- 
vana, [having stepped] behind Venerable Maudgalyayam, accon, 
oanied Ihiml to Vaijayanta Palace. On [their arrival] Sakra... and tne 
Tave'nly mlir VaiUvana said to ^-to^™^ 
Vaijayanta Palace; please fully enjoy its sight - This is a very fine 
place Maudgalyayana said to the heavenly ruler, and it is all due to 
rneritorious lil persistently p erformed in previous existences that, 

6 Soothill, p. 376a: ftBI = vijw but without «^ » ^£ ! 
op. cit, p. 60b, mentions the palace without giving the Chines «*""«*»*; 
MonS^illiams has VaVayamaQto Vejayanta ), a) the banner of Indra , b) the 

palace of^ ^ ^ or lecwre hal v Cf. Foguang p. 

4554c: «»£, described as Indra's palace after his, Sakra',. defeating the Asu- 

8 For Chinese Tripitaka references see Foguang, p. 6095c. 

9 S~ instead of apsaras, lit, 'woman-treasures' (pertarning to universal 
monarchs) - cf. BSR U, 1 (1994), p. 55. 

67 



Buddhist Studies Review 15, 1 (1998) 



Ekottaragama XXIII 



as natural consequence, this gem of a palace was obtained. It is just 
like people who, for a little while, are happy and congratulate them- 
selves [by saying]: It is like the heavenly palace - all is obtained due 
to meritorious acts performed in previous existences. - 

Now the nymphs to the left and right of Sakra, the chief of 
gods, ran away helter-skelter. Just like persons who are timid and 
shy, similarly the nymphs, a moment ago close to Sakra..., on seeing 
Maha-Maudgalyayana coming from afar, ran away panic-stricken. 
At the [same] time the following occurred to Maha-Maudgalyayana: 
This Sakra, the chief of gods, is too much given to indolence. Now'O 
I should cause some feeling of terror. - Immediately, with the toe of 
his right foot Venerable Maha-Maudgalyayana touched the ground 
[so that] the palace began to tremble and quake in six ways. 1 1 While 
both Sakra... and the heavenly ruler Vaisravana were frightened out 
of their wits and their hairi2 stood on end, they thought: This Maha- 
Maudgalyayana has indeed great psychic power" in that he is cap- 
able of letting this palace start trembling and shaking. Absolutely 
extraordinary! Absolutely unparalleled! There has never been any- 
thing like this. - Then the following came into Maha-Maudgai- 
yayana's mind: Now this Sakra is frightened out of his wits, and this 
is the occasion for my asking about the deep meaning [of what the 
Exalted One told him]. - How, Kausika, [he asked Sakra,] does one, 
subject to sensuous greed, overcome it according to what the Tatha- 
gata told [you]? This is the opportunity [for you] to speak to persons 
like me who are anxious [to listen]. - Maudgalyayana, replied Sakra, 
the chief of gods, a while ago I approached the Exalted One, bowed 
down my head [at his] feet and stood at one side. Then I asked the 
Exalted One how a bhiksu overcomes sensuous greed and realises 
his heart's release; how he, revered by gods and men, finally reaches 
the 'place of the unconditioned (asamskfta)* where there is neither 



"> After Hayashi, p. 164, 4" for 4" (T2, 594a28). 

11 Cf. Soothili, p. I37a: 'shaking, rising, waving, reverberating, roaring, 
arousing.,.' 

12 Lit.: 'clothes-hair", nowhere explained in dictionaries. 

13 Lit.: 'great bases of supernormal power". 



68 



distress nor suffering. And these were the words of the Exalted One 
addressed to me: In this respect, Kausika, when a bhiksui* has 
listened to the teaching that there is nothing whatsoever to cling to, 
[he] does not cling to forms and fully realises that in respect of exis- 
tential constituents there is nothing [in terms of T and 'mine'] A Thus, 
after having understood what all existential constituents [really are 
like], he thoroughly contemplates whatever painful, pleasant or nei- 
ther painful nor pleasant [feelings he feels] as being impermanent, 
non-existent (abhdva), without any remainder (aparisesa) whatso- 
ever and as not being annihilated (anucchinna)P On account of his 
contemplating in this manner there is nothing for him to cling to, no 
worldly notions occur to him and he is not afraid of anything. Be- 
cause of his fearlessness he realises complete Nirvana. He knows in 
accordance with fact: Birth and death have come to an end... and 
there will be no more coming into existence. So it is, §akra... that a 
bhiksu overcomes sensuous greed... and finally reaches the 'place of 
the unconditioned' where there is neither distress nor suffering. - 
After listening to these words, I bowed down [my head] at the Ex- 
alted One's feet, circumambulated him thrice, withdrew and returned 
to the heavenly regions. - 

On receiving these words of profound teaching, Venerable 
Maha-Maudgalyayana said goodbye to Sakra, the chief of gods, and 
to Vaisravana. When the complete teaching had been communicated 
[to] Maudgalyayana, he disappeared among the Trayastrirnsa gods 
and went to Sravasti, to Jell's Grove in Anathapindada's Park as 
quickly as a person might bend and [again] stretch out his arm. He 
approached the Exalted One, bowed down his head [at the Exalted 
One's] feet and sat down at one side. Having taken his seat, Maud- 
galyayana said to the Exalted One: The Tathagata has imparted to 
Sakra, the chief of gods, the teaching as to how one overcomes 



14 Against the singular in all other places, here EA and Hayashi incon- 
sistently have the plural form. 

15 Contemplating empty dharmas as being both 'non-existent* and 'not 
annihilated' is strongly reminiscent of MahasSnghika and Mahayana thought. Cf. 
above n. 4. 



Buddhist Studies Review 15, 1 (1998) 

greed. If only the Exalted One would impart it to me also, - You 
shall know it, the Exalted One replied to MaudgalySyana, Sakra... 
approached me... and standing at one side, he asked me to explain 
the problem to him as to how a bhiksu overcomes sensuous greed 
and realises his heart's release. I said to Sakra,.. : If a bhiksu, Kau- 
sika, fully understands that all existential constituents are empty and 
that there is nothing [in terms of T and 'mine'], then there is nothing 
[for him anymore] to cling to. [He] fully realises that in respect of 
existential constituents there is nothing [in terms of T and 'mine'] 
and, therefore, he knows all existential constituents to be imper- 
manent, non-existent, without the least remainder and as not being 
annihilated. On account of his contemplating in this manner there is 
nothing for him to cling to... he realises complete Nirvana. He 
knows in accordance with fact... no more coming into existence. So 
it is... that a bhiksu overcomes sensuous greed and realises his 
heart's release. -Then Sakra... rose from his seat, 1 ^ bowed down his 
head at my feet, withdrew and returned to the heavenly regions. - 
After listening to the Buddha's words, Maha-Maudgalyayana was 
pleased and respectfully applied himself to practice.' 



16 This is the most obvious instance of a number of factual inconsisten- 
cies occurring in this EA discourse. Moreover, Hayashi amends ^ to Jig . 



70 






OBITUARIES 



lean Boisselier (26 August 1912 — March 1996) 

That we can marvel at the architectural glory of Angkor, the 
potent symbol of Indian civilisation in South-East Asia at its 
highest level, can be attributed to the single-minded achievements 
of the outstanding scholar, Jean Henri Joseph Albin Boisselier. 

Born in Paris, he studied at l'Ecole du Louvre (1946-49) and 
the Sorbonne (1956-60), joined the staff of l'Ecole francaise 
d'Extreme-Orient in 1949 and occupied the post of Curator at 
their museum in Phnom Penh (1950-55), for which he produced 
the brochure, he Musee Albert-Sarraut de Phnom Penh in 1954. 
Concurrently he was their official delegate in Cambodia in charge 
of the the conservation of Angkor. 

Returning to France for health reasons, he became a member 
of the Centre nationale de recherche scientifique and was 
supervisor of 'Oriental Languages and Civilisations' (1962-65). 
From 1957 he directed the course on 'Indian and South-East Asian 
Archaeology' at the University of Paris' Institut d'Art et d'Arche- 
ologie, began teaching the subject at the Sorbonne in 1965 and 
was apppointed Professor of the History and Archaeology of 
South and South-East Asia ten years later (retiring in 1980). 
During this period he also lectured in other departments of the 
University and directed the umbrella body — Unite d'equipe de 
recherche (UER) - for the 'Languages and Civilisations of India, 
the Orient and North Africa', the establishment of 'Studies of 
South-East Asia' and of the 'Archaeology and Civilisations of 
South and South-East Asia', all in liaison with the CNRS and 
EFEO He was a conscientious and inspiring teacher, sacrificing 
his personal interests for the benefit of the students he trained. 
Thus, he did not submit a doctoral dissertation but was neverthe- 
less awarded an honorary doctorate in 1970 on the basis of the 
invaluable material he prepared on South-East Asian culture. (He 
also served on the Editorial Committee of Arts Asiatiqws from 
1985.) 



71 



Buddhist Studies Review 15, 2 (1998) 



EKOTTARAGAMA (XXIV) 



several places (e.g. S I, p.233; Dhp v.229, etc.) the ariyasavaka is 
said to be endowed with wisdom (panha, i.e. right view) and pure 
conduct (si la), but no mention is made of samadhi. The sug- 
gestion is that he must put forth effort to achieve samadhi, thus 
completing the Path and enabling him to realise fruition (phaia) 
which is its outcome. Beginning from the initial vision or right 
view, the entire Path is a sequence of steps that, as the Buddha 
says, 'plunges into the Deathless' (S V, p.58). Any insight gained 
was gained prior to entering the Path and was concluded upon 
the acquisition of right view or panha. 

It is the pure mindfulness and equanimity of the fourth 
jhana that provides the basis for the four formless iarupa-) 
/hanas, the various deliverances (vimokkha), the direct know- 
ledges (abhihna) and the threefold knowledge (tevijjd): knowledge 
of former births, seeing the arising and passing away of other 
beings and the knowledge of the ending of the flow of defile- 
ments (asava) of the arahant. For the Buddha and his disciples the 
fourth jhana especially is a state they could enter whenever they 
wished to enjoy the fruition of arahantship iarahattaphala) and is 
then called the imperturbable or unmoving (anehja-) samadhi. It 
was also from the fourth jhana that the Buddha, and other 
arahants too, attained Parinibbana or final passing away when life 
has ended. 



Translated from the Chinese Version by 

Thich Huyen-Vi and Bhikkhu Pasadika 

in collaboration with Sara Boin-Webb 

Tenth Fascicle 

Part 19 
(Supplication) 

7. l Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 
Sravastl, at Jetr's Grove, in Anathapindada's Park. Then the Exalted 
One said to the bhiksus: There are these two modes of behaviour 
{dharnuift that cause a man to be born in a low and poor family. 



i See T2, 595a9 ff.; Hayasbi, p. 167 ff. 

2 Thematically, it could perhaps be maintained that this quite sinicised 
section has a parallel to be found in the EA fragments of the Gilgit MS; cf. 
Okubo (for bibliographical information sec BSR 13, 1 (1996), p. 65, n. 25), p. 
95 andC Tripathl, Ekottaragama-Fragmente der Gilgit-Handschrift, Studien zur 
Indologie und Iranistik, Monographic 2; Reinbek 1995, pp. 109, 210 f. TnpathI 
ed. § 32.8 (p. 210 f.): dvau dharmau na matrjHatayai samvartete adharma-carya 
visama-carya ca /...yatha na m&tjftatayal.. (evam na pitrjhdtayai na srama )nyaya 
na brahmanyaya na kule jyestha-pacayitayai.../ Because of two modes of be- 
haviour, according to the Gilgit text, remissness (adharmacarya ) and rudeness 
{visamacarya ), one neither honours one's mother nor one's father and, moreover, 
such behaviour is not conducive to asceticism, to brahmanhood and, as far as 
one's family is concerned in a future existence, to the 'culmination of what is 
pre-eminent' (jyetfha.pacayita , lit 'that which has been caused to mature in 
regard to what is most excellent" ). . 

Normally, the past passive participle of the causative of V/?ac is paeita. 
At Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar 34.8 (p. 167), examples are 
given that correspond to pacayita. Even for the noun pacayita' of the digit MS 
Edgerton provides a corresponding example (albeit not as a feminine): lalayita, 
perhaps 'desire' (BHSD, p. 462). As for pacayita cf. G. Roth, Bhiksunl-Vinaya. 
Including Bhiksunl-Praklrnaka and a Summary of the Bhiksu-Prakimaka of the 
Arya-Mahasamghika-Lokottaravadin, Patna 1970, § 192 (p. 215, 1. 5): pacitum 
va pacayitum, 'faire cuire ou de donner a fake cuke* (see E. Nolot, Regies de dis- 
cipline des nonnes bouddhistes, Le Bhiksunivinaya de V ecole Mahasamghika- 
Lokottaravadin. Traduction annotee, commentaire, collation du manuscnt, Pans 
1991, p. 228). 



205 



Buddhist Studies Review 15, 2 (1998) 



Which are the two? Being without filial piety towards one's father 
and mother and without obedience towards one's honourable 
teachers; and also personally being unable to perform duties, These 
are, bhiksus, the two modes of behaviour that cause a man to be 
born in a low and poor family. Furthermore, bhiksus, there are two 
modes of behaviour,3 [leading to one's] being bom in an outstanding 
and powerful family. Which are the two? Honouring one's father and 
mother, one's brothers and relatives; being ready to show one's 
family as much generosity (ddna) as possible. These are, bhiksus, 
the two modes of behaviour [leading to one's] being born in an out- 
standing and powerful family. Thus, O bhiksus, one should actually 
train. After listening to the Buddha's words, the bhiksus were 
pleased and respectfully applied themselves to practice.' 

8. Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in Srava- 
sti... Then a brahmin lady by the name of Susas^ approached 
Venerable Maha-Kausthila. On her arrival, she bowed down her 
head at [the venerable one's] feet and sat down at one side. Then 
Susas, that brahmin lady, said to Kausthila: Both Udraka Ra- 
maputra and Arada Kalama died without their finally having been 
converted to the profundity of this Teaching [of the Buddha]. The 
Exalted One describes these two persons as having realised respect- 
ively the spheres of "nothingness" (akimcanyayatana) and of "nei- 
ther - perception - nor - nonperception' (naiva -samjna- nasamjMyata- 



3 See Tripathl, ibid. : (...dvau dharmau mStrjnatayai samvartete dha )rma- 
carya, sama-carya ca/ ...yathamatrjila {tayai evam pitfjnatayai... J kulejyesfha- 
pacayitdyai.J Righteousness (dharmacarya ) and agreeable behaviour (samacar- 
yd ), as the Gilgit version says, are conducive to honouring one's mother and 
father and, as far as one's family is concerned in a future existence, to the 'cul- 
mination of what is pre-eminent'. 

This EA section may serve as a good instance to demonstrate the textual 
difference between the Gilgit EA fragments, which most probably have to be re- 
lated to the Mulasarvastivada tradition (cf. Tripathl, op. cit, pp. 28-35), and the 
Chinese EA version, which is mainly associated with the Mahasamghika school 
{cf. BSR 15, 1 (1998), p. 65 f„ n. 4). 

4 0$= Xiishen - tentatively "Susas'; as for W , cf. the transliteration of 
imasana, Soothill, p. 356b. 



206 



Ekottaragama XXIV 



na) 5 When the lifetime of both had come to an end, after their death, 
one of them was destined for kingship on the periphery [of the civili- 
sed world, and his rule] proved a great distress to countless human 
beings The other person's lot was to be a rapacious winged fox that 
was trapped [in its existence] as a flying and running beast When 
[these two kinds of] existence had come to an end, both of them 
went to the avici hell.* Nevertheless the Exalted One did not say 
when their share of agony (duhkhakanda) would be used up. Why 
did he not do so? - The Exalted One kept silent, Venerable Kausthi- 
la replied to Lady Susas, because nobody asked such a question. So 
the Exalted One did not say anything as to when their amount of ex- 
treme suffering would be finished. - As for the Tathagata, Lady Su- 
sas continued, he has entered [Pari]nirvana so that it is no longer 
possible to ask [him] that [question]. Having to stay on in this 
world [I am] in pursuit of an answer to this question. Now will 
Venerable Kausthila [please] talk with me about this matter? When 
will the amount' of extreme suffering of those persons be over? - 
Then Venerable Kausthila uttered these verses: 

The harvest of whatever is sown will not be the same, and 
The same holds true of sentient beings' course of existence. 
With words I [can]not do justice to one who realises 
Independendy (svayambhu) the [ultimate] awakening. 
To attest [ultimate] release by means of insight-knowledge 
Through contemplation [one should have] actually 
Realised (sam-anu-smr) the superknowledge of the 
Divine Eye (divyacaksurabhijna). 1 [In regard to someone 



5 According to Hayashi, p. 167, n. 17, and DPPN 1. pp. 296, 382, the 
states of meditation mentioned should be reversed. 

6 According to DPPN, toe. cit., and EncBuddh I, 3, p. 378. m the Pali 
sources (cf also CPD II. 202, 408 f.) nothing is found about the fate of Gauta- 
ma's former teachers as mentioned here in EA. What is known about the two 
teachers from Pali texts is also given at CPS 9.2-4, 6-8; MPS 28.6-21; SOT IV, 
p 316 (37 d V 3); in the Mvu, Lalitavistara, Divy and to the 12th canto of the 
Buddhacarita (for references see BHSD, pp. 103, 132). However, the teachers' 
fate as pointed out in EA is not indicated in the Sanskrit texts either. 

7 Cf. Nyanatiloka, p. 3: 'With the Divine Eye... he sees beings vanishing 
and reappearing... how beings are reappearing according to their deeds...' 

207 



Buddhist Studies Review IS, 2 (1998) 

Who] achieves the end of suffering once and for all, 
My words fail to do him justice. - 

Thereupon Lady Susas uttered the following verses: 
It is the Blessed One (sugata) who has this 
Insight-knowledge and is genuinely without weakness and 
Blemish; [those who] have heroic effort (abhyutsaha) as 
Their support (viskambha), look forward to practising 
In accordance with the Great Vehicle.8 

Now once more Venerable Kausthila uttered verses as fol- 

Such a disposition (adhydsaya) is extremely rare (suduHa- 
bha) 9 , enabling [one] to realise the wonderful essence of the 
Teaching. 10 With words it is difficult to do justice to it - 
To this extraordinary subject-matter (vastu). - 

Venerable Kausthila then dilated on the essence of the Teach- 
ing for the sake of Lady Susas which made her happy. In good time 
the lady rose from her seat, bowed down her head at [the venerable 



lows: 



8 As regards EA and its association with the Mahayana, see BSR 11, 2 
(1994), p. 157 f., n. 2. Here we certainly have an 'express and laudatory allusion' 
to the Mahayana; cf. E. Lamotte's article, with reference to the original title and 
place of publication, in BSR 12, 1 (1995), p. 29. Cf. also M. Hahn, 'Das Sapta- 
maithunasamyuktasutra, ein Sutra des Ekoltarikagama', in Beitrdge zur fndien- 
forschung, Veroffentlichungen des Museums fur Indische Kunst Berlin, Vol. 4, 
1977, p. 210, concerning 'zahlreiche mabayanistische Zusatze' in EA. On 'des 
elements net cement mahayanistes qui furent in seres assez Card dans le texte an- 
cien de ce recueii' and 'une etape intermediate entre le bouddhisme antique... et 
le Mahayana proprement dit* pertaining to EA, cf. also A. Bareau, 'La fin de la 
vie du Buddha selon I' Ekortara-Agama' in H. Falk (ed.), Hinduismiis und Bud- 
dhismus, Festschrift fur Ulrich Schneider, Freiburg 1987, p. 34. 

9Cf, BSR II, 1 (1994), p. 50, n. 3, 

1° Soothill, p. 273: fifeU, 'the essentials of the Truth'; cf. also Seishi Ka- 
rashima, A Glossary of Dharmaraksds Translation of the Lotus Sutra, Biblio- 
theca Philologica et Philosophica Buddhica I, Tokyo 1998, p. 128: f&yao, 'the 
essence of the Dharma \ 



208 






Ekottaragama XXIV 

nne'sl feet and went away. After listening to Venerable Kausthila's 
words, XadTsusas was pleased and respectfully apphed herself to 
practice.' 

9. 11 Thus have I heard. At one time the Venerable Mah^Katyayana, 
accompanied by a great many bhUcpis, ?<^J l ££g$ 
visited Varana (lit. the Vana country ) on the ^ ^ JeeP J™ 
At that time Venerable Katyayana was renowned for [his perfectly 
WtisSte four [kinds of right] effort ..3 An elderly, greatly re- 
spfc teTlntaan, the brahmin Jisnchi." heard that Venerable Ka- 
£a had reached the bank of the said pool, being the leader of 
five hundred bhiksus and being a venerable elder fuly endowed 
wim virtue (guna). [Thinking to himself,] Now should go and in- 
terview this person, this brahmin of highest standing, himself also] 
K* eader of five hundred disciples, approached Venerable Ka- 
Sna. After exchanging courtesies with [him] and having taken 
his seat at one side, the brahmin said to Venerable Katyayana 



U Cf. A I, p. 67 f. (11.4.7). 

12 The opening of the Pali recension runs: Ekm ****** ayasma Moto- 
toccano MadhuVayw ***** Gunddvane. Even though more o ten .than not EA 
nrooer names are to be considered all too vague transliterations of the origtna 

Madhura and the Gundavana (contrary to what Hayasht p 168 n. ^ggfil 
The opening of the preceding Pali discourse nonetheless (A I, ^65 V .«) 
seems to be connected with the present EA locality: '... Kaccana the Great was 
sta'ng at Varana on the bank of Muddy Pool' (F.L, Woodward, Gradual Say 

iHSS MSiFk I* 1 *, fo- tkinds ofl keeping away from' - cording 
tn nrohdna - cf Foguang, p. 4885c f. under W&M samvara. At MahSvyut. 
95lt"L caJriTr^L are enumerated, the Chinese translate of which 
a clal^answT r r t o the description of the four pradkdnas Cf NyanaUloka p. 
U2 f 'The Four Right Efforts' (avoiding, overcoming, developing, mamtain- 
ing). See BHSD, pp. 380, 389: pradhana = prahana = Pali padhana- 

u i e ^| which might perhaps represent 'Kanja' (cf. Hackmann pp. 98, 
27); could 'this have been an unsuccessful attempt at transliteraUng Kandaraya- 
na'.'the brahmin's name in the Pali parallel of EA? 

709 



Buddhist Studies Review IS, 2 (1998) 

Katyayana's style of behaviour neither conforms to the normal 
social conventions (dharma) nor to discipline (vinaya). A *young' 
bhiksu is impolite to personalities like me, being high-minded brah- 
mins. - O brahmin, replied Katyayana, you should know that the Ta- 
thagata, the Fully and Completely Enlightened One, has spoken of 
two kinds of standing. Which are the two? The standing of old age 
(vrddhabhumi) and that of youth (bdlabhumi)P - What is this 
standing of old age, asked the brahmin, and what is that of youth? - 
Now, seniormosti6 brahmin, answered Katyayana, someone who is 
eighty or ninety years old, who is still in the grip of carnal desire 
(maithunaraga) and does not refrain from misconduct is of the 
standing of youth, although he is in fact to be called an elderly man. 
- And what does it mean, the brahmin continued, to be young and 
yet to be of the standing of old age? - O brahmin, Katyayana said, 
even though a bhiksu be just twenty, thirty, forty or fifty years old, 
he is of the standing of old age [in spite of) his youth if he is not 
given to carnal desire and if he refrains from misconduct. - 1 wonder 
whether within this large crowd, the brahmin remarked, there be just 
a single bhiksu who does not indulge in carnal desire and does re- 
frain from misconduct. - Katyayana assured him that in the large 
crowd there was not a single bhiksu who was either given to lust 
(rdga) or to misconduct. 

Immediately thereafter the brahmin rose from his seat, bowed 
down before all the bhiksus, and in doing so, said: Now you are 
young, and yet you are of the standing of old age! I myself am 
already old but am of the standing of youth! - Then the brahmin 
again turned towards Katyayana at whose feet he bowed down his 
head and announced: Today I go for refuge {saranam gam) to Ka- 
tyayana and to the order of bhiksus so long as my life will last (ydvaj 



15 Cf. the Pali daharabhumi, 'the standing... of youth' (Woodward, op. 
cit., p. 63). EA lit. 'standing of strength'. In all likelihood when the EA trans- 
lation was being prepared, bala (strength) was confused with bala (young in 
years). 

16 jEiig, lit. 'senior envoy, chief delegate'. 



210 



Ekottaragama XXIV 

ilvam) « - Katyayana told him not to go for refuge to him; he 
should instead go [for refuge] to the same person as he himself has 
done The brahmin wanted to know from Venerable Katyayana to 
whom he had gone for refuge. Thereupon Venerable Katyayana 
prostrated himself in the direction of that place where the Tathagata 
had entered Parinirvana, [saying: Following the example of] the son 
of the Sakya clan who went forth into homelessness in search of 
truth I have gone for refuge to him for good; and this is the person 
who is my master. - The brahmin inquired: Where does the Sramana 
Gautama stay? I would like to see him. - The Tathagata has already 
entered [Pari]nirvana, replied Katyayana. - If the Tathagata still re- 
mained in the world, the brahmin declared, I would certainly walk 
one hundred thousand yojanas in order to seek his advice. Though 
the Tathagata has already entered [Pari]nirvana, now I definitely go 
for refuge to the Buddha, to his Teaching and his multitude [of 
worthy disciples] and make obeisance to them so long as my life will 
last - After listening to Venerable Katyayana's words, the brahmin 
of highest standing was pleased and respectfully applied himself to 
practice.' 

10 Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in Sra- 
vasti at Jetr's Grove, in Anathapindada's (T2, 596a) Park. Then the 
Exalted One said to the bhiksus: There are two persons whose ap- 
pearance in the world is extremely rare. 1 8 Which are the two? Ex- 
ceedingly rare is the appearance in the world of a person that is able 
to set forth the Teaching, and equally rare is [the appearance] of 
someone who is able to listen to the Teaching, to remember it and 
put it respectfully into practice. These are, bhiksus, the two persons 
whose appearance in the world is extremely rare. On this account, 
bhiksus you should train to be expounders of the Teaching and also 
to be [true] listeners [taking heed] of the Teaching. Thus,0 bhiksus, 



17 W&M^- # rendering ydvaj ftvam seems peculiar to EA; cf. Maha- 

vyut. 8703. 

18 Cf. above n. 9. This sOira has no parallel in Pali but for this one sen- 
tence (A 1, p, 87 (II.1 1.10)): dve 'me bhikkhave puggala dullabha lokasmiw- 



2U 



Buddhist Studies Review 15, 2 (1998) 



you should train. - After listening to the Buddha's words, the bhi- 
ksus were pleased and respectfully applied themselves to practice,' 



Additional Abbreviations 

MPS = E. Waldschmidt, Das Mahaparinirvdnasutra, 

Vols. 1-3, Berlin 1950-1. 

Mvu(B) = Mahavastu-Avaddna, Vol. 1, ed. S. Bagchi, 

Darbhanga 1970. 

Mvu(RB) = Mahdvastu-Avtuldna, ed. R. Basak, 3 vols., Cal- 

cutta 1963-8. 






212 



. 



Are There Two Levels of Truth and Reality? 

A Review article by 
KarH Werner 

The title and contents of a recent learned German publication on 
Tson-kha-pa and his works raise an important point about 
Buddhism and its nature which deserves to be reflected on each 
time it surfaces in literature and which will no doubt be a bone 
of contention for the indefinite future 1 . 

The problem is better known under the name of the doctrine 
of 'two levels of truth' rather than 'two realities', although the 
term 'two levels of reality' does occur as well and, in fact, it is in 
that sense an accepted part of Theravada teachings, although it 
was never explicitly formulated in the early Buddhist sources. The 
Theravada version of this doctrine was expressed in a radical 
formulation by Nyanatiloka Thera. According to him, there is 
'Truth in the Highest Sense' (paramatthasacca) which contrasts 
with mere 'Conventional Truth' (vohdra-sacca or sammuti-sacca). 
The Buddha, it is maintained, used conventional language {vohdra- 
vacana) whenever 'mention is made of a person, a self, or rebirth 
of a being etc.' and at other times 'he used the philosophical 
mode of expression corresponding to reality in the highest sense'. 
Then follow truly ontological statements: *ln the ultimate sense, 
existence is a mere process of continually changing physical and 
psychical phenomena, within which, or beyond which, no real 
Ego-entity or personality can ever be found. . . The only actual 
realities are those physical and psychical phenomena, though only 
of momentary duration, arising and passing away every moment'. 
Nyanatiloka admits, however, that the terms paramattha-, vohara 
and sammuti-sacca belong as such to the commentarial literature, 
but their significance is clearly shown in the old Sutta texts, e.g. 



1 Die Lehre von den zwei Wirklichkeitm in Tsoh kha pas MadhyamakaWerken 
[The Doctrine of the Two Realities], by Helmut Tauscher (Wiener Stndien zur 
Tibeiotogie und Buddhismuskunde 36) Vienna 1995. x, 478 pp. Pb. $16.96. 



213 



Buddhist Studies Review 16, 1 (1999) 



tion' from various Indian sources 24 . In any case we must admit 
that the author(s) had a good knowledge of both the doctrinal and 
the narrative material of Indian Buddhism, and made independent 
ise of it, often presupposing that certain tales were known, and 
merely alluding to them. 

Hans-Joachim Klimkeit 
Bonn 

Translated by Maurice Walshe from 'Zum Inhalt der alttiirkischen 
M aitrisimii ', in Suhrllekhah. Festgabe jiir Helmut Eimer, ed. 
Michael Hahn et al (Indica et Tibetica 28), Swisttal-Odendorf 
1996, pp.111-19, and published with the permission of the original 
publishers. 



24 Cf, J. P. Laut, 'Die Grundung des buddhistischen Nonnenordens in der 
alttiirkischen Uberlieferung', in I. Baldauf, K. Kreiser & S. Tezcan (eds), Tiir- 
kische Sprachen und Literaturen. . . Wiesbaden 1991, pp.257-74; here pp.263 and 
269. 



***** 















70 



EKOTTARAGAMA (XXV) 

Translated from the Chinese Version by 

Thlch Huyen-Vi and Bhikkhu Pasadika 

in collaboration with Sara Boin-Webb 

Tenth Fascicle 

Part 19 
(Supplication) 

11. 'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was wandering 
through the border area of Magadha and in due course arrived at the 
City of Vaisall. With a great number of bhiksus, altogether five hun- 
dred persons, [he] put up at Amrapali's Park north of Vaisall. Hav- 
ing heard that the Exalted One had come and was staying in her park 
together with five hundred bhiksus, a woman, Amrapali [by name], 
had a carriage made ready [which was decorated with] precious 
wings, and mounted it. She drove from Vaisall City to the access to 
a hidden track2 and then made her way to the Exalted One's where- 
abouts. She alighted from the carriage and went on foot to where the 
Exalted One was. When he saw that woman at a distance come, he 
said to the bhiksus: E' 1 , 



jrybody should absolutely be 



" i! mo guiuu 



lest wrong thoughts should arise in him.3 - On her arrival at the 



1 See T2, 596a8 ff.; Hayashi, p. 170 ff. Cf. D II (Mahaparinibbanasutta), 
p. 94, 1. 25 ff. and MPS 10.3 ff.; cf. also Vin I (Mahavagga), p. 231-3. 

2 According to the variant reading ^M instead of ffiM. ('chivalrous 
track') followed by Hayashi. 

3 In the following, at MPS 10.8 - 10.14 the bhiksus are admonished at 
some length as to how to be strenuous (kathan ca bhiksur atapl bhavati ), fully 
aware (...saniprajano bhavati ) and mindful {...pratismrto bhavati ), whilst this 
admonition is given in the Pali at Ambapali's Park before Ambapali's knowing 
of the Buddha's and his sangha's arrival there. The occasion for the admonition 
in' MPS and EA, consisting in the latter, though, of only one sentence, seems 
more plausible than in the Pali passage: 'a courtesan, having adorned herself with 
all that which embellishes her, and a body of women surrounding [her]' ap- 
proaching the sarigha. Cf. MPS 10.5: ..,sarval[ankdrairalankrtastnganamanva- 
hindayitva ](anvd ° here not in the sense of 'having roamed through' (BHSD, p. 
42b), but after the Tibetan transl. bud med kyi tshogs kyis bskor nas and Maha- 
v yut. 6942; cf. also SWTF I, p. 92: [anvahindayitva, lit.:] 'sich von jemdm. 

71 



Buddhist Studies Review 16, 1 (1999) 



place where the Exalted One was, the woman bowed down her head 
at [the Buddha's] feet and sat down at one side. Now the Exalted 
One expounded [to her] the most excellent (atipranita) Teaching. 
Thereafter the woman said to the Buddha: May the Exalted One, to- 
gether with the order of bhiksus, kindly accept my invitation [to 
tomorrow's meal]. - The Exalted One consented by silence, and the 
woman, understanding that by his silence he had accepted her invi- 
tation, rose from her seat, bowed down her head at [his] feet and left. 

By that time [all] male and female [inhabitants of] Vaisall, 
great and small, had heard that the Exalted One was staying at Amra- 
paJi's Park with a great number of bhiksus, altogether five hundred 
persons. In the city there were five hundred youths (kumdra);^ they 
mounted various kinds of carriages [decorated with] precious wings. 
Some of them mounted white carriages [drawn by] white horses; 
their clothes, parasols, banners and streamers, retinue - all were in 
white. Others mounted red... blue... yellow carriages [drawn by] yel- 
low horses; their clothes, parasols, banners and streamers, retinue - 
all were in yellow. They looked majestic and extraordinarily smart, 
behaving like kings. They left Vaisall City and drove towards the 
place where the Exalted One was. While they had not yet reached the 
[main] road, they met that woman, moving [with speed] and whip- 
ping her draught-animals galloping towards the centre of the city. - 
You are a woman that should be ashamed of herself, the youths 
[shouted] and wanted to know from her why she was whipping her 






(ace.) begleiten lassen' (i.e. '[Amrapali] having caused a body of women to 
accompany [her]')). CI, however, DPPN I, p. 155, n. 1, referring to D- 
Atthakafha II, 545. saying 'that just before Ambapalfs visit to him, the Buddha 
admonished the monks to be steadfast and mindful, lest they should lose their 
heads about her.' 

4 Somewhat reminiscent of the following description of the youths of 
VaisalT and their carriages is the account, albeit in a different context, of the 
Buddha's visit to Vaisall, including a brief reference to Amrapali's gift of her 
park to the Buddha and the sartgha, found at Mvu(B), pp. 206 ff., 246. 

72 ■ 






Ekottaragama XXV 



draught-animals,5 steering her carriage with great speed towards the 
centre of the city. - My dear friends (bhadra), the woman informed 
[them after having brought her carriage to a halt], I would have you 
know that I have invited the Buddha and his order of bhiksus to 
tomorrow's meal]. It is just for this reason that [I] am driving my 
carriage [at speed]. - To this the youths replied: We would also like 
to [treat] the Buddha and his order of bhiksus to a meal. Now [we] 
offer you one thousand ounces of pure gold for giving us the exclu- 
sive right to [treat them] to a meal tomorrow. - Stop talking, sons of 
a great clan,6 the woman said, I do not comply. - The youths went 
on offering her two, three, four, five - up to one hundred thousand 
ounces of gold, [asking her whether she would] agree or not to give 
them the right [to treat] the Buddha and his order of bhiksus to the 
next day's meal. The woman [, however,] insisted: I do not comply 
because the Exalted One has repeatedly spoken of two kinds of 
longing (chanda) which man cannot give up. Which are the two? 
The longing for benefit (hita) and the longing for long life (ay us). 
Who could guarantee my still being [alive] tomorrow? So I have in- 
vited the Tathagata first, and now I have got to make all the prepara- 
tions. - All the youths shook their fists, 7 [saying]: Very much so is 
our standing that of men, and [we] are not like a woman. 8 - Having 



5 4 1 . lit. 'cow, ox, buffalo', here preferably in the sense of pasu, 'an 
animal in general', so that Ifl^ can be rendered as 'draught-animal'. It is rather 
strange that only in EA Amrapali's draught-animals, i.e. cows or oxen, are men- 
tioned. Was it unthinkable for Chinese readers that a woman's carriage could be 
pulled by horses like that of a man? A clue is possibly provided in W. Eberhard, 
Dictionnaire des symboles chinois, Seghers, Paris 1984, p. 77 (under 'cheval'): 
According to mythological conceptions subsequent to the era of the Yi-jing, the 
male principle (yang ) is symbolised by the horse and the female principle (yin ) 
by the cow. 

6 Mii~F, lit. kulagotraputra; cf. Karashima, p. 619: 'a son of a great clan 
(a translation skt. kula-putra )'. 

7 Lit. 'hands'; cf. DII, p.96: angulT pothesum, 'they snapped their fingers'. 

8 In this connection it may be annotated that it also seems strange (cf. 
above n. 5) that nearly throughout this EA sutra Amrapali is not referred to by 
her name, as in all the parallels to this story, but by 'the woman'. Cf. Eberhard, 
°P- cit., p. 124 (under 'enfants'), on sexist discrimination in a 'celebrated' 



73 



Buddhist Studies Review 16, 1 (1999) 

had their say, all of them turned round and drove away. 

The youths proceeded to where the Exalted One was. They 
bowed down their heads... and stood at one side. When the Exalted 
One had seen the youths come, he said to the bhiksus: O bhiksus, 
look at the majestic appearance and the gorgeous dress of [these] 
youths; they look exactly like Sakra9 being on tour. - Then the Ex- 
alted One said to the youths: There are two kinds of essential dispo- 
sition (vastu) which are virtually non-existent (anupalabdha) in the 
world. Which are the two? (1) The habit of a person never to neglect 
rendering [others] a small service (upakara), (2) let alone a great 
one. These are the two kinds of essential disposition, young men, 
which are practically non-existent. You should know, repeatedly 
bring back into your minds, recognise and [finally] overcome being 
careless about rendering [others] a small service, let alone a great 
one. - After [this exhortation] the Exalted One uttered the following 
verses 10; 

He who knows how to render [others] a service 
And realises [that this should be done] repeatedly, 
Being always mindful and communicating [this 
Knowledge] to people, [will be] endowed with 
Insight-knowledge, himself being revered and followed, 
[whose] name will be known to gods and men. 
Thus, young men, [the Buddha went on,] one should know and 
train. - Then the Exalted One expounded to all the youths the subtle 
(silksma) Teaching. After listening, they rose from their seats, 
bowed down... and left. 

Meanwhile during the night, the woman had many sorts of 
choice food and delicacies prepared and all the seats arranged. Very 






Ekottaragama XXV 



passage from The Book of Odes (Shi-jing ). 

9 All the parallels to this EA story more consistently have deva Tavatim- 
sd, Trayastrimsa gods'. 

10 Nothing that corresponds to these verses and the preceding ovada of 
the Buddha occurs in the EA parallels; cf., for example, D II, p. 97, where it 
simply says: te LicchavT Bhagavd dhammiya kathaya sandassesi samddapesi sa- 
muttejesi sampahamsesi. 

74 



early in the morning almost at dawn, [Amrapali thought to herself]: 
Now it is going on for the proper time; if only the Exalted One 
would care to call in at my humble home. - In time, the Exalted One 
put on his [outer] robes and took up his alms-bowl. Heading the bhi- 
ksus accompanying [him] in order of seniority,! I he entered the city 
of Vaisali and went to the woman's house. Having seen that the Ex- 
alted One had taken his seat, the woman served the meal to the Bud- 
dha and then to his order of bhiksus with her own hand (svahas- 
tam). When the Buddha and the order of bhiksus had eaten and fresh 
water had been passed round, a small seat, inlaid with gold, was 
brought and placed in front of the Buddha. Then the woman said to 
the Exalted One: Herewith [I] should like to offer this park of Amra- 
pali to the Tathagata and his order of bhiksus. May, as in the past 
and at present, also in future many [members of] the order be lodged 
(prati-vas) in it. May the Exalted One kindly accept this park. - At 
the instance of that woman the Exalted One accepted it and then 
uttered these verses of laudatory blessing 12 : 
The effect of [this donation of ] a park is 
That [prerequisites for] the refreshing coolness [of nirvana] 
Are given; [the park is like] a bridge [helping] people 
To cross over [to ultimate freedom]. [If they appreciate 
This bridge] as a short cut, making [use of the analogy 
Between the malign influences and] a privy,i3 then 
Take a rest [from them and finally], day and night, 
Realise [ultimate] peace {ksema) - such happiness is 



1 1 Lit. mWi, 'in front and behind, earlier and later'. 

12 For this unusual expression (5EH, lit. mantra-pranidhi ) see the com- 
mon term abhyanumodana (after SWTF I, p. 130: 'consenting happily, ap- 
proval, words of blessing (in verses)') at MPS 12.6. 

13 Cf. Foguang, p. 4938c f. (under JUfL) where, in commenting on the 
word 'cesspit, latrine', for instance, the Linji lu (cf. P. Demieville, Entretiens de 
Lin-tsi, Paris 1972, p. 63) and the present EA verses are referred to. As for the 
latter, it says that the 'privy' can be regarded as skill in means (2r(J?) helping 
man to get rid of all impure things (Jf}l&), to purify body and mind and finally 
realise g?8| , ksema; that in this way the 'privy' eventually be conducive to ul- 
timate peace and immeasurable happiness if one makes good use of the analogy 
°f the latrine and its clean-up. 

75 ■ 



Buddhist Studies Review 16, 1 (1999) 

Beyond imagination. [He who] lives in accordance with 
The Teachings and rules of moral training (sila) will 
After death certainly be reborn in a heavenly world. M - 

When the Exalted One had uttered these words, he rose and left. 

After listening to the Buddha's words, the woman was pleased and 

respectfully applied herself to practice.'^ 

Eleventh Fascicle 

Part 20 
(A Spiritual Friend) 

1. Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in Srava- 
stl, at Jeff's Grove, in Anathapindada's Park. Then the Exalted One 
said to the bhiksus: One should keep close company with a spiritual 
friend (kalyanamitra) lest one should fall into the habit of doing evil 
and be convinced of [the harmlessness of] evil action. Thus, O bhik- 
.gus, by keeping close contact with a spiritual friend one is finally 
convinced of one's progress (bhuyobhdva) and growth (vrddhi)^ [in 
regard to the following]: considerable growth in learning (sruta), ge- 
nerosity (dana), insight-knowledge (Jnana) and wisdom (jprajna). If 
a bmksu keeps close company witii a spiritual friend, he will not fall 
into the habit of doing evil. But if he keeps company with a bad 






Ekotturagama XXV 






W These verses of blessing substantially differ from those at MPS 12.7- 
12.9, although one common element is found in both versions: generosity {da- 
na ) results in sugati, divyam. While there are no Pali parallels to MPS (ibid. ) 
at D II. p. 98 and Vin I, p. 233, Waldschmidt quotes one found at A III, p.40 
(Slhasutta): Dadam piyo hoti, bhajanti nam bahil... devanam sahavyagata 
ramanti te... tadino ramanti sagge sugatassa savaka ti. 

15 The versified summaries (uddanagatha ) at the end of this 19th and 
other fascicles are not translated because corresponding summaries are given in 
Lancaster. 

16 There is some resemblance of this EA sutra - not a parallel - to a) A I, 
7.10 u~>. 13), 8.1. (p. 14); b) Tripathi, pp. 78 (Nip. I, 17.42), 155 (adapted): (na- 
hatn ekadhantiam api samanupasyami yena anutpannas ca papaka akusala dharmd 
notpa )(d )y (a )nte utpanndi caprahiyante; anutpannah kusala dharmd utpadyan- 
te.utpannas ca bhuyobhavavrddhivipulatatn gacchanti yathd kal (yanami )tr(ata )- 
yd... yathd (papamitratayd... evam) ... 

76 



friend (pdpamitra), he will lose trust (sraddha), be wanting in moral 
training, in learning, insight-knowledge and wisdom. 17 For this 
reason, O bhiksus, you should keep close company with a spiritual 
friend and not with a bad friend. Thus,0 bhiksus, you should train. - 
After listening to the Buddha's words, the bhiksus (T2, 597a) were 
pleased and respectfully applied themselves to practice.' 

2. 'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in Rajagr- 
ha, at Karanda's Bamboo Grove, '8 together with a great number of 
bhiksus, five hundred persons in all. In order of seniority,! i by turns 
[they] were expounding the Teaching. At the same time, Devadatta 
was heading five hundred bhiksus, passing by in the proximity of 
the Tathagata. On seeing Devadatta at some distance heading his ap- 
prentices,^ the Exalted One uttered these verses: 

One should not keep close company with a bad friend; 
One should not be so stupid {bald} as to deal with [such 
A person]. One should keep company with a spiritual 
Friend who is pre-eminent (visista) among men who are 
Without blemish to the core. Cultivating the friendship of 
A bad friend will necessarily [bring about] the roots [mula] 
Of [all] sorts of what is karmically unwholesome (akusala), 
[Plunging one] into darkness (tamas) for an eternity. - 
When Devadatta's five hundred disciples had heard the Exalted One 
utter these verses, they went to where the Exalted One was, bowed 
down... and sat down at one side. They [felt] under compulsion to 
get up [again] and confess to the Exalted One their offences (apara- 
dha): We have been confused and foolish enough not to [rely on a 
spiritual] friend. If only the Exalted One would acknowledge our re- 
morse (kaukrtya) and forgive us (ksam). - Then the Exalted One ac- 
cepted the confession of those five hundred bhiksus and forgave 
them. Furthermore, [he] expouded [to them] the Teaching so that 
they regained their fundamental trust (sraddhamula). 



L 



17 For a similar passage cf. EA XVI, BSR 11,1 (1994), p. 63. 

18 Cf. BSR 11,2(1994), p. 167, n.18, 19. 

19 I.e. Pffil!; here notably, not the characters for 'pupil, disciple' (iHrip, 
?ya, sravaka ) are given as below. 



77 



Buddhist Studies Review 16, 1 (1999) 

Afterwards the five hundred bhiksus stayed at a secluded, 
quiet place, wisely reflecting (manasi-kr) on the profundities of the 
Teaching. Consequently, the five hundred bhiksus attained [what is 
striven after by] sons of good family 6 who go forth into homeless- 
ness in order to follow the way [leading to Nirvana] and who lead 
the unsurpassed holy life out of faith and resolution, namely arhat- 
ship. Now they knew in accordance with fact: Birth and death have 
come to an end, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has 
been done, and there will be no more entering a womb (garbha). - 
After the five hundred persons' realisation of arhatship and after lis- 
tening to the Buddha's words, the bhiksus were pleased and respect- 
fully applied themselves to practice.' 20 



Additional Abbreviations 

Karashima = Seishi Karashima, A Glossary of Dharmarak- 

sa's Translation of the Lotus Sutra, Tokyo 1998. 

Traite - E. Lamotte, Le traite de la grande vertu Je sa- 

gesse de Ndgdrjuna (Mahdprajndpdramitdsdstra) 



20 As for this story in which the Buddha, on seeing Devadatta being fol- 
lowed by 500 monks, just alludes to him as papamitra and himself- instead of 
Sariputra and Mautigalyayana according to other sources - wins back the 500 
monks as his disciples and later arhats, cf. BSR 14, 1 (1997), pp. 3-18 (E. 
Lamotte, 'Did the Buddha Insult Devadatta?') and pp. 19-37 (A. Bareau, 'Deva- 
datta and the First Buddhist Schism'). For further EA material on Devadatta cf. 
also BSR 11, 2 (1994), pp. 167-71; BSR 12, 2 (1995), pp. 162-8. In the light of 
this latter EA material, Bareau's observations regarding the Mahasamghikas on 
Devadatta (cf. in particular ibid., pp. 27, 31) would need revision if the school 
affiLaton of EA as belonging to the Mahasamghika canon - as often suggested - 
could be demonstrated. 

Concerning the material in BSR 12, 2, pp. 162-8, mention has yet to be 
made of Lamotte's summary at Traite, pp. 1771-2. Cf. also Monika Zin, 'Der 
Elefant mil dem Sehwerf in F. Wilhelm (ed.), Festschrift Dieter Schlingloff, 
Reinbek 1996, pp. 331-44 (the elephant Dhanapala / Nalagiri with a sword as a 
subject of Buddhist art of EA provenance). 



78 



Ekottaragama XXV 



Tripathi 






1-5, Louvain 1944-80. 

= Chandrabhal Tripathi, Ekottardgama-Fragmente 

der Gilgit-Handschrift, Reinbek 1995. 



Again thanks are due to Peter Skilling, Nonthaburi, Thailand, for 
kindly providing further pieces of information (his letter of 3 1 Nov. 
'98) bearing on the 'eighteen transformations' in BSR 11, 2 (1994), 
pp. 162-3; BSR 12, 1 (1995), p. 58: Cf. Li Rongxi, The Biblio- 
graphical Scripture of King Asoka, Berkeley 1993, pp. 107-8, 121- 
2, 125 - The Asokarajasutra passages make it clear that the 'eighteen 
transformations' include the yamaka-prdtihdrya. Cf. also P, Skilling, 
Mahdsutras: Great Discourses of the Buddha, Vol. II, Parts i & 2, 
PTS, Oxford 1997, p. 313, n. 179, providing further bibliographical 
information on the subject. 






79 



Buddhist Studies Review 16, 2 (1999) 



also the expression of the remembrance of a society with 
pluralistic tendencies, which found their peak in literature as well 
as in the development of Chan Buddhism. But this peak at the 
same time marked the end of this freedom, since the funda- 
mentalism and rigorism which was inherent in Chan, and indeed 
in general culture, on account of the search for truth, was — 
again? — to become a decisive principle of all Chinese culture. 



Prof. Dr Helwig Schmidt-Glintzer 

(University of Gottingen, 

Herzog August Bibliothek, 

W olfenbiittel) 



206 



EKOTTARAGAMA (XXVI) 

Translated from the Chinese Version by 

Thich Huyen-Vi and Bhikkhu Pasadika 

in collaboration with Sara Boin-Webb 

Eleventh Fascicle 

Part 20 
(A Spiritual Friend) 

3. I'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 
SravastI, at Jetr's Grove, in Anathapindada's Park. Then the Exalted 
One was expounding the Teaching, surrounded by an audience (par- 
sad) [consisting of quasi-] innumerable (asamkhyeya) [persons]. Sim- 
ultaneously Dharmaruci 2 was alone in his quiet room, reflecting 



1 See T2, 597a22 ff.; Hayashi, p. 174 ff. Cf. Divy(V), pp. 152-7; 
Mvu(B), 194-6. 

2 For information on Dhammaruci based on the Apadana, cf. DPPN I, p. 
1148 f. In the remotest past Dhammaruci, then Megha by name, had become a 
monk under the Buddha Dipankara, but left the Order again and even committed 
matricide. Consequently he went to Avici and thereafter was born as a fish. 
Once, even as an animal, he heard merchants in distress at sea recite the Buddha 
Gotama's name for protection. The fish remembered DIpankara's having pro- 
phesied the future Buddha, then died and was reborn in Savatthl. There once 
more he entered the Order of Gotama Buddha and, in due course, became an 
arahant. 

The account in Mvu resembles that of the Apadana, but interprets the ex- 
pression cirasya (cf. below, n. 6) in a way differing from its meaning in Divy, 
viz. 'for a long time [to come]': The gigantic fish, on hearing the merchants in 
distress recite the Buddha's name, becomes so joyful and elated (hrsto udagra- 
citto ) that this karmically wholesome emotion results in the animal's rebirth as 
a human being; remembering / being mindful of the Buddha is beneficial to the 
world for a very long time to come (sucirasya lokahita, ibid. p. 196). 

The Divy account opens with the story of the trade expedition of 500 
merchants. On their way back a tempest puts their lives in great danger, and a 
giant timitimimgila is about to devour them. After invoking Siva's, Varuna's 
and other deities' help in vain, they recite 'namo Buddhaya '. Hearing this, the 
giant fish is struck with dismay and decides to refrain from devouring the 
merchants. The latter reach the coast of their homeland and proceed to SravastI 
to pay homage to the Buddha. Having distributed all their riches, they are 

207 



Buddhist Studies Review 16, 2 (1999) 

wisely (manasi-kr). Fully concentrated he entered the absorptions 
and then] contemplated the body [which he had to put up with in his] 
previous [life]: In the middle of the Great Ocean it appeared in the 
shape of a fish that measured seven hundred yojanas^. Just as a 
strong man instantly bends and [again] stretches his arm, he imme- 
diately left his quiet room, proceeded to the middle of the Great 
Ocean and passed by a floating rotten [fish] carcass. On this occa- 
sion Dharmaruci uttered the following verses: 

[There are] birth and death for countless aeons and 
[The duration of one's] wandering on in samsara is 
Incalculable. Everybody is in search of happiness, and 
What is obtained is endless misery. Having seen again 
[One's former] body, how much less (kimpunar) is there 
The need to create a [new] frame (grha)\ 
[Once] all attachment (samdhi) has ceased, no further 
Physical frame will be found (upa-labh). [Once] the heart 
Is not involved at all in any action [pertaining to 
Samsara], no more clinging (abhisvanga) will be left 



ordained bhiksus and eventually realise arhatship. 

In that part of the Dharmarucyavadana whichthe eds. of T, Hayashi and 
Uacasfca :efer to as being a parallel to the present EA section, events in the time 
of Dipamkara Buddha are narrated. Two brahmin youths, Sumati - i.e. Sumedha 
of the Pali tradition - and Mati - i.e. Megha as mentioned in the Apadana, meet 
Dipamkara. Sumati has strong faith in Dipamkara and humbly spreads out his 
! >,.g hair so as to prevent the Buddha's feet from touching the muddy ground. 
Simultaneously he resolves to become a Buddha in the distant future, and 
Dipamkara actually prophesies Sumati's realisation of Buddhahood. Seeing Di- 
pamkara stepping on Sumati's twisted hair, Mati gets angry and exhorts the 
Buddha to take care. Thereafter he realises his fatal mistake and confesses it to 
Sumati The latter suggests that both of them go forth into homelessness, and 
accordingly both are ordained as members of Dlpamkara's Order. After the deaths 
of Sumati and Mati the former is reborn among a class of gods whilst the latter, 
in spite of his having been a bhiksu, is reborn in hell. In conclusion, in the 
Jetavanavihara, Gautama discloses that he was Sumati and Dharmaruci the angry 
brahmin youth Mati. 

3 Cf. Apadana II (Nalanda ed.), p. 67: maccho asim timingalo. 



208 



Ekottaragama XXVI 

Behind - to say nothing of this kind of frame 4 ; [for] 
In Nirvana there is surpassing (adhika) happiness. 
Scarcely had Venerable Dharmaruci uttered these verses when he 
disappeared [at the site of encountering the carcass], shifted to 
Sravasti, to the JetavanaviharaS, and went to where the Exalted One 
was. On seeing Dharmaruci coming near, the Exalted One said: Ex- 
cellent (sddhu) - Dharmaruci! Here after a long time 6 . - Indeed, 
Exalted One, replied Dharmaruci, here after a long time. - Now the 
venerable elders? and all the [other] bhiksus thought to themselves: 
This Dharmaruci [must] have permanently been staying near the 
Exalted One because just now the Exalted One has said, "excellent - 
Dharmaruci! Here for a long time". - Since the Exalted One knew 
what the bhiksus were thinking to themselves and wishing to dispel 
[any possible] uncertainty (vicikitsa) [en their part], he said to them: 
It is not because of Dharmaruci that I have made the remark "here 
after a long time [and not 'for a long time']". [I have made it] for the 
following reasons: 

In the past, countless aeons ago, the Tathagata Dipamkara 8 had 
appeared in the world, the Fully and Completely Enlightened One, 
the Blessed One, perfect in insight-knowledge and good conduct, 
world-knowing, the supreme Dharma-charioteer9, teacher of gods 






4 Surely the floating rotten fish carcass seen by Dharmaruci is referred to. 

5 Cf. Hackmann, p. 67a. 

6 Cf. Apadana, ibid. : ciram Dhammaruciti; Divy(V), 246, 3-4: cirasya 
Dharmaruce... cirasya bhagavan; Mvu(B), 195: cirasya Dharmaruci sucirasya...; 
see also above, n. 2. According to the context in Divy, cirasya means 'after a 
long time, at last'; it can also mean, as in Mvu, 'for a long time'. 

7 After Hayashi, p. 174, n. 4. 

8 Cf. Divy(V), 152, 5-6: Dipamkaro nama sarnyaksambuddho loka utpan- 
no vidyacaranasamyaksambuddhah sugato lokavid anuttarah purusadamyasdra- 
thih sastd devdndm ca manusydnam ca buddho bliagavdn. As for vidydcaranasam- 
yak° , EA has what agrees with the standard epithet ° caranasampanna. 

9 For the standard epithet purusadamyasdrathi EA has: Htsfe®; as for 
tftlife, 'Dharma', see Karashima, pp. 88, 146. 

209 



Buddhist Studies Review 16, 2 (1999) 

and men, the Buddha, the Bhagavatio. [He] was just on his way (a- 
pad) to the great kingdom [known as] Padma, accompanied by a 
huge number of bhiksus, viz. altogether 148,000 persons. In those 
days the four assemblies (parsad)^ were so numerous that they 
could neither be counted nor estimated. The country's king, his 
ministers, civil servants, people from all social strata (jati) came for- 
ward [with their contributions towards a] sacrifice (yajna)* 2 in 
favour of those who are indispensable^. At that time there was a 
brahmin by the name of Yajnada who lived in the foothills (antika) 
of the Himalayas. As far as secret signs, astronomy and geography 
were concerned, there was nothing he was not an expert in. He was 
also a past master at explaining scriptures and at scripts. Another 
speciality of his was the intonation of a sentence [consisting of] five 
! jndred words and also [the science of describing] the marks of a 
great being (mahapurusalaksana)^ . He taught five hundred dis- 
ciples untiringly, day and night, the scriptures [dealing with] Agni, 
SQrya, Soma and the [deities pertaining to other] heavenly bodies, 
fhe brahmin Yajnada had a disciple whose name was Meghadun- 
dubhp5, whose features betrayed a very respectable descent (Jan- 
man) and the colour of whose hair was light reddish-black. The 
-jrahmin Meghadundubhi was sagacious and far-seeing and [,once 
he had embarked upon something,] there was nothing he would not 
bring to a successful end. Whenever he saw Yajnada, he at once 
showed him his devotion (bhakti) and of all the sacrificial formulae 
(mantra) which a brahmin applied in those days he had perfect com- 
mand. 



10 Here not translated as 'the Exalted One' (WW- ,bhagavat), because in 
i tils enumeration of a Buddha's epithets different Chinese characters for btogavat 
me employed: 5§t$J (cf. Karashima, p. 599). 

n Cf. BSR 13, 1 (1996), p. 57, n. 7. 

12 Cf. Foguang, p. 3067, under \&M%( ■ 

13 From Divy(V), 152, 15 ff. it can be gathered that 'indispensable per- 
sons' are those who are experts in Vedic lore. 

14 Cf. BHSD, p. 458 ff. (s.v. laksana ). 

15 i.e. fjfl ; cf. Karashima, p. 568. 

210 



Ekottaragama XXVI 

Then the brahmin Meghadundubhi thought to himself: Now all 
that is required studying I have fully mastered. - And again it oc- 
curred to him: He who[se knowledge] surpasses all that is included 
in the lists of texts dealing with the sciences (siksa) [relevant to] a 
brahmin's occupation, is [my] teacher [whose] kindness should be 
requited. As for myself, all that I had to study I have at present 
gained mastery of. Now I should requite my teacher's kindness. 
However, being poor and without any means enabling [me] to make 
offerings to my teacher, [I] should go off in all directions in search 
of the necessary means. - After this [musing] the brahmin Megha- 
dundubhi went to the whereabouts of his teacher and said to him: As 
for the teachings (sasana) pertaining to the sciences and expertise of 
a brahmin, [I] have mastered them now. As a matter of fact, he 
who[se knowledge] surpasses all that is included in the lists of texts 
dealing with the [brahminical] sciences and expertise, is [my] teacher 
[whose] kindness should be requited. However, being indigent and 
lacking gold, silver and [other] precious things enabling [me] to 
make offerings, now [I] would like to go off in all directions to ask 
for assets (bhoga) enabling [me] to make offerings to my teacher- 
On [hearing these words] the brahmin Yajnada thought: This brah- 
min Meghadundubhi who is dear to me is always on my mind. 
Thinking that [one day] I shall die, I cannot [bear the very idea of 
our] being separated for ever, let alone [the idea of his] intention to 
abandon me today and go away. Now how should I proceed in order 
to keep [him] and make [him] stay? - Then the brahmin Yajnada 
said to Meghadundubhi: O noble brahmin, for one reason you do 
not yet know what a brahmin should have studied. - In front of his 
teacher Meghadundubhi asserted: The only thing I am intent on is 
the acquisition of knowledge (agama). What is it that I have not yet 
studied? - Instantly Yajnada called to mind a recitation [consisting 
of] five hundred words (pancasatavakpatha) and told Meghadundu- 
bhi: Now there exists a text entitled Pancasatavakpatha. You may 
receive it. - [I] hope, Meghadundubhi replied, the teacher will be [so 
kind] as to instruct me; [I] would like to obtain the recitation. - 






Buddhist Studies Review 16, 2 (1999) 

O bhiksus, [the Exalted One interrupted his narrative,] you 
should know that after [Meghadundubhi's request] Yajnada taught 
this disciple^ [of his] the Pahcasatavakpatha. Within just a few days 
■ tie latter] became proficient at [reciting the text until then unknown 
in him]. Thereafter the brahmin Yajnada said to his five hundred dis- 
ciples: This brahmin Meghadundubhi is not really competent [as far 
as] teaching methods and comprehensive knowledge [are con- 
!.:u-nedl. This being the case, there is [someone, however, who] has 
nude a name for himself; his name is >He who Surpasses in Pru- 
dence^ Nayatikramai7. This brahmin Nayatikrama possesses a most 
remarkable talent for astronomy and geography, and there is nothing 
he is not an expert in. He is a past master at explaining scriptures and 
at scripts. - When several days had elapsed, the brahmin Naya- 
ikrama went to seeis his teacher and said: Now [I] am proficient in 
the methods of teaching the brahminical sciences. He who[se know- 
ledge] surpasses all that is included in the lists of texts treating the 
brahminical] sciences, is [my] teacher [whose] kindness, therefore, 
should be requited. [But I have] to add that [I] am poor, lacking 
gold, silver and [other] precious things enabling [me] to make offer- 
ings'to my teacher. Now I would like to go off in all directions in 
search of assets so as to attain my goal. If only [I could] get per- 
mission [to do so]. - As you think fit (yasya Mam manyasi)^, re- 
plied the brahmin Yajnada. The brahmin Nayatikrama bowed down 
[his head] at his teacher's feet, stepped backwards and (T2, 598a) 
left. 

In those days not far from the [main] town of the great king- 
dom [known as] Padma a huge number of brahmins had gathered to- 
gether at one place, viz. 84,000 brahmins, in order to participate in a 



16 Translated after the reading proposed at T 597, n. 26. 

17 Tentatively for Mffi ■ In the following, from the fairly long EA nar- 
rative it becomes clear that >He who Surpasses in Method / Prudences Nayati- 
krama, corresponds to Sumati in Divy whose becoming Sakyamuni Buddha 
eventually is foretold by the Tathagata DTpamkara. 

18 Lit.: 'again / to return'. 

19 I.e. ifeiftftflt ; cf. BHSD, p. 180a. 

212 



Ekottaragama XXVI 

great sacrifice iyajna) and to discuss doctrinal matters. The chief [of 
all those brahmins assembled] was supposed to be well-versed in the 
outsiders' (tlrthika) chanting and explaining scriptures, knowledge- 
able about astronomy and geography and a past master at [explain- 
ing] extraordinary [phenomena such as] changes in the constella- 
tions. Everybody was eagerly occupied with amassing five hundred 
ounces of gold, one golden staff (danda), one golden jug for ablu- 
tions 20 and one thousand head of cattle [to be] presented to the fore- 
most teacher [to be] ranked as the most [learned among all the brah- 
mins]. [Near the border,] not far from the great kingdom [known as] 
Padma the brahmin Nayatikrama heard that all the brahmins, viz. 
84,000 [persons], had gathered together at one place, that their profi- 
ciency was being tested [to find out who would] rank foremost so as 
to be given the five hundred ounces of gold... and the large [herd of] 
one thousand head of cattle. Then it occurred to the brahmin Nayati- 
krama: Now why do I beg from house to house? [I] had better go to 
that enormous gathering to participate in the proficiency contest. - 
So the brahmin Nayatikrama went to the venue of that giant assem- 
bly. When the large multitude of brahmins saw the brahmin Nayati- 
krama coming from afar, they all shouted at the top of their voices: 
Excellent! The [real] chief (svamin) of the sacrifice [gathering]. Now 
[this function] proves immensely useful - so much so that Brahma is 
descending in person. - All the 84,000 brahmins rose and went to 
receive [him]. With one accord [they] cheered: Welcome (svdgatam), 
Great Brahma! - Being [accorded such tribute,] the brahmin Nayati- 
krama thought: These brahmins take me to be Brahma; but I am not 
Brahma. - So the brahmin Nayatikrama addressed the brahmins with 
the [following] words: Please stop, noble ones! Do not call me 
Brahma! Have you not heard of Yajnada, teacher of so many brah- 
mins [living] in the north, in the Himalayas, [whose] mastery of as- 
trology and geography [is such that] there is nothing [he] does not 
[know]? - The brahmins replied: We have only heard of him, but 21 
we have never seen [him]. - I am, the brahmin N. introduced him- 
self, his disciple Nayatikrama by name. - Then the brahmin N. 



20 Cf. Divy(V), p. 152, 13: dandakamandalu, 

21 Translated after the reading of T 598, n. 2. 



Vater-jar with a handle'. 



213 



Buddhist Studies Review 16, 2 (1999) 

turned towards the chief of that mammoth assembly and said: How 
about an expert's showing me his expertise? - Now the chief of that 
gathering impeccably recited to the brahmin N. the [texts of] the 
ee Collections22 . After that the brahmin N. again asked the chief: 
Are [you] able to recite the Sentence [Consisting of] Five Hundred 
\Vords23 ? - 1 do not know what [you] mean, replied the chief - what 
; s the Sentence [Consisting of] Five Hundred Words like? - O noble 
«KS requested the brahmin N., please listen attentively24 ; [].] will re- 
cite the Sentence [Consisting of] Five Hundred Words [describing] 
the marks of a great being. - 

O bhiksus [, said the Exalted One], you should know that on 
that occasion the brahmin N. [showed his] proficiency in reciting the 
[texts of] the Three Collections and the Sentence [Consisting of] 
Five Hundred Words [describing] the marks of a great being. The 
,4,000 brahmins, overjoyed as never before, were all [agreed] that 
this was the first time for them to listen to the Sentence [Consisting 
of] Five Hundred Words [describing] the marks of a great being and 
that as from that moment "the Venerable" (bhadanta) [N.] should be 
ranked foremost and be [their] chief...' 



22 Lit.: 'Tripitaka'; presumably in this context equivalent to the Three 

Vedas. , 

23 Perhaps identical with the Pancasatavakpatha mentioned above; the EA 

text is not explicit about it, though. 

24 Lit.: 'silently'. 

214 






LANGUAGE AND FREEDOM: MEANING IN ZEN 

REVIEW ARTICLE: 

Dale, S. Wright, Philosophical Meditations on Zen Buddhism. 

(Cambridge Studies in Religious Traditions 13), Cambridge 

University Press, 1998. xv, 227 pp. £35, $54.95. ISBN 521 59010 8. 

John Crook 

What is the place of Zen in contemporary thought, the relation of 
Buddhist metaphysics to philosophy and the value of ancient texts 
to thinking people today? These and related questions form the 
subject-matter of this intelligent, subtle and provoking book. Dale 
S. Wright, Professor of Religious Studies, Occidental College, Los 
Angeles, provides a thought-provoking read, especially for those 
of us concerned with problems of representing Buddhism, and 
Zen in particular, within Western culture today. 

MODERN AND POST-MODERN PERSPECTIVES 

The starting point of Wright's argument asserts that there is a 
profound difference between the worlds of post-modern and 
modern thought. This requires texts written by Western in- 
terpreters on Buddhism prior to the 'post-modern turn' to be 
themselves re-interpreted in the light of current thinking. Without 
such a process the meaning of Buddhism in the contemporary 
context remains unclear and inclined to irrelevance. Wright 
chooses the work of John Blofeld, in particular his translation of 
the 'Transmission of Mind' by the great ninth-century Chinese 
master Huang Po (Huang Po Ch'uan Hsin Fa Yao), as an exem- 
plary within modern scholarship and provides a contemporary 
reinterpretation not only of Blofeld but also of Huang Po himself. 

John Blofeld was a bold, spiritual adventurer who, after 
leaving Cambridge, went out to China in the 1930s and immersed 
himself in Ch'an culture and practice. Although deep insight 
appears to have eluded him, he became richly familiar with the 
Ch'an outlook and its textual documentation. Later in life he 
studied Tibetan Buddhism and lived in Bangkok. His translations 
from the Chinese are outstanding and popular, while his auto- 



215 



Buddhist Studies Review 17, 1 (2000) 



diversification (papanca or prapanca, Sn 874) and perception (sann& 
or samjna, also, e.g., Sn 847), the yogi must abandon all involvement ] 
with the realm of sensory experience {samjna and prapanca), which 
includes all thoughts and verbal conceptualisations. Far from contain- 
ing ultimate truth and being a place to seek purity and the basis of 
spiritual practice (as apparently was assumed by the other systems of 
the Buddha' s time that would form the milieu of these texts), thoughts 
and verbal understanding are just conditioned sensory experience no 
more real than the objects of the other five senses and belong entirely 
to the relative (samvrti) world. Only the non-diversified realm of the 
Absolute, known only by the direct non-verbal prajha of the sage is 
actual truth (paramartha). The Atthaka and these related verses use 
words to point directly or re-orient us to this totally other dimension 
of the Absolute, and this is also the purpose of much of the Prajfia- 
paramita literature, Madhyamika texts, etc. At the same time, the 
Atthaka clearly and integrally sets forth the ascetic, renunciant, yogic 
life and practice which is essential to and inseparable from the process 
of going from the suffering realm of diversified sense data (including 
thoughts!) and perception to the non-diversified, perception-free 
moksa of the Absolute. Such close combination can also sometimes 
be found in Mahay ana texts such as the gathas of Chapter 19 of the 
Samadhirajasutra. 

It appears that the above two passages derive from the same con- 
templative (and, in this case, also 'textual') tradition as the Atthaka- 
and Parayana-vaggas. This tradition, or at least derivatives of it, 
has left more abundant literary remains in later, rather less clean and 
more problematic forms, such as the Prajnaparamita, Samadhiraja, 
Madhyamika, the Satya-{ox Tattva-)siddhisastra of Harivarman, etc., 
but sources for its 'original' form, apparently suppressed by the 
development of 'Hlnayanistic' Buddhism, are presently more sparse. 
These two surviving, isolated passages may suggest that they were 
tn&t Tire/re ^-opwas. T rx amy remains to'De regretted that all such his- 
torical discussion, whether true or false, is just something seen, heard, 
or thought, not the Beyond. 



38 




3.1 



EKOTTARAGAMA (XXVII) 

Translated from the Chinese Version by 

Thich Huyen-Vi and Bhikkhu Pasadika 

in collaboration with Sara Boin-Webb 

Eleventh Fascicle 

Part 20 
(A Spiritual Friend) 

When the brahmin Nayatikrama had risen from his seat and 
am had sat down on the seat reserved for the chief [of the assem- 
bly! he very much disliked his having been ranked foremost in that 
gathering. [He thought to himself with regard to] the vows [for- 
merly] taken by him: These people have made me move to another 
seat so as to fill the vacancy2. Now that I have made known 
scriptural authority3, it will be difficult [for me] to keep up my prac- 
tice (sila). Supposing there is a really virtuous person who whole- 
heartedly keeps his vows; he performs actions [in conformity with] 
places he hopes to be born in. I [would] in fact destroy* for good the 
virtue (guna) [resulting from my brahminical studies and practice 
should I become attached to name and fame]. -Then the person in 
charge of the munificence [function] (danasvamin) provided five 
hundred ounces of gold, one golden staff, one golden jug for ablu- 
tions, one thousand head of cattle and one beautiful girP. [He] 
handed over [these various yajna ingredients] to the [new] chairman 6 



1 See T2, 598b5 ff.; Hayashi, p. 177 ff. 

2 From the context it can be inferred that, after Nayatikrama's reciting a 
text unknown to the large gathering of learned brahmins and after the brahmins' 
proposal that he should assume the position of being their chief, the actual chief 
and chairman of that yajna function had perforce vacated his seat. 

3 Cf. Karashima, p. 227: MM . 'a scriptural text'. 

4 For J^lft Hayashi reads If i£ which does not seem correct. 

5 Cf. Divy(V), p. 152, 14: kanya ca sarvalamkaravibhusita; at BSR 16, 2 
(1999), p. 213, where the ingredients of the yajna are enumerated, the beautiful 
girl is omitted. 

6 ±4* , uttamasana, 'he who [occupies] the highest seaf . 




•« 



Buddhist Studies Review 17, 1 (2000) 

by felicitating him with a sacred formula (mantra). Herewith, said 
the chairman to the person in charge of the munificence [function], I 
accept the five hundred ounces of gold, the golden staff and jug for 
ablutions in order to offer them to my master for his support. As to 
the girl and the one thousand head of cattle, [they may] be returned 
to your people because I do not need them, and I do not have the 
habit of amassing property. - 

After receiving [the five hundred ounces of gold], the golden 
staff and jug, the brahmin Nayatikrama entered the great kingdom 
[known as] Padma. The name of its king was Dlpa 7 . As the ruler of 
that country he had invited the Tathagata Dipamkara and a [large] 
multitude (gana)% of his bhiksus to an offering or robes and [alms]- 
food. In the [main] city of that kingdom the king issued the order 
that no fragrant flowers should be sold by any of its inhabitants. 
Anyone selling them would incur severe punishment. Even if hej 
himself took the liberty of buying [flowers] it should not be compul- 
sory to bypass [the order] and sell them. Again he had the people 
clean up [all places], sweep arid sprinkle them [with water]. Fouled 
earth and sand had to be removed. Silken banners and canopies were 
fluttering [in the wind], perfumed water was showered on the 
ground; [all these] preparations created [an atmosphere of tidiness 
and serenity] to which sensual pleasures9 do not bear comparison. 
Witnessing [these ongoing preparations], the brahmin [Nayatikrama] 
asked [some] passers-by: [All places] are being swept and sprinkled 
[with water], roads are being cleared of refuse, silken banners and 
canopies are fluttering [in the wind]; [this atmoshpere of tidiness and 
serenity] is incomparable! What special event is it? It is [certainly] 
not the crown prince, the heir to the throne, io who is going to marry 
his graceful [bride]. - Does the brahmin not know it? the passers-by 
were wondering and [went on] to say: For today the king of the 






7 Cf. Divy(V), p. 152, 9; ibid., 1. 8: for DvTpo read Dipo. 

8 Cf. Karashima, p. 597, under W-iS ■ 

9 Lit.: ganikasukha, 'pleasure [provided] by a courtesan'. 

10 Lit.: 'the crown prince of the realm's lord'. 

40 



Ekottaragama XXVII 

great Padma kingdom has invited the Tathagata Dipamkara, the Fully 
and Completely Enlightened One, to an offering of robes and [alms]- 
food. For this very reason the roads are being cleared, silken banners 
and canopies are fluttering [in the wind]. - [On hearing] this [news] 
the brahmin [N.] uttered these words, pregnant with meaning,!! 
which he had memorised: It is extremely rare for a Tathagata to 
appear in the world, and [since] he appears only occasionally (kada 
cit karhi city 2 [after immense intervals of time], it is practically im- 
possible to see him. It is exceedingly rare for a Tathagata to appear in 
the world - as rare as the udumbara flower blossoming only occa- 
sionally [after immense intervals of time].! 3 Moreover, in the brah- 
minical scriptures there is the following saying: It is extremely rare 
for two persons to appear in the world. For which two persons? It is 
extremely rare for a Tathagata and for a noble universal monarch to 
appear in the world. 14 - Then the following occurred to him: Now I 
could requite the Buddha's favour (upakara) at once by respectfully 
offering Him, the Tathagata Dipamkara, the five hundred ounces of 
gold. - And again it came into his mind: According to what the 
scriptures say, a Tathagata neither accepts gold and silver nor [other] 
precious things. I could instead use the five hundred ounces of gold 
to buy fragrant flowers in order to shower the Tathagata with them. 
- Thereafter the brahmin entered the city with a view to buying fra- 
grant flowers. - Does the brahmin not know it? also the passers-by 
in the city were wondering and [went on] to say: Our king has 
issued the order that anyone selling fragrant flowers should be pun- 



11 Lit.: 'mysterious, secret'. 

12 See Karashima, p. 404, under B#B#; see also SWTF, fasc. 9, p. 34 
s.v. karha, karhi (with references to CPS, MPS, SHT etc.). 

13 The udumbara-puspa is already mentioned at EA 578a 15-18; cf. 
BSR 9, 2 (1992), p. 180, n. 12 with references. As for the rareness of a Tathaga- 
ta's appearing without the ifdumbara-puspa simile, see A I, 22: Ekapuggalassa 
bhikkhave patubhdvo dullabho lokasmim. Katamassa ekapuggalassa? Tathaga- 
tassa... ; C f. also A I, 266; A III, 168; thematically related to the latter two 
Passages is Dhp 182. 

14 Cf. BSR 11,1 (1994), p. 50, n. 2, 3. 

41 



Buddhist Studies Review 17, 1 (2000) 

ished severely. The brahmin N. was at a loss and thought: [I] just do 
not know how to get flowers. - 

Having [decided to] return and having left the city, he stayed 
outside the gates [of the city]. There was a brahmin girl named Su- 
svadais, carrying a water jug so as to fetch water. In one hand she 
was holding five flowers. On seeing that girl the brahmin said to her: 
Distinguished (mahai) younger sister^, I need the flowers and hope 
the younger sister will be kind enough to sell them to me. - [Since] 
when, replied the brahmin girl, am I your younger sister? You do 
not [even] know who are my parents. - That girl is really good- 
hearted, the brahmin N. thought to himself, she just wants to make 
fun [of me]. - Again he said [to her]: Good (bhadra) girl, will you 
kindly [sell me] these flowers at any price. - Do you not know, re- 
plied the brahmin girl, that His Majesty has prohibited the sale of 
flowers? - Good girl, said the brahmin, as for that matter, do not be 
concerned. What has the king to do with you? I urgently need these 
five flowers, and you will have got a good bargain. - What are you 
going to do with the flowers so urgently needed by you? asked the 
brahmin girl. The brahmin: I [can] see there is fertile ground that 
needs to be cultivated [by means of] these flowers [for growing 
roots of merit]. - The brahmin girl: These flowers have been cut off 
from their roots; so they can by no means strike [root] again. How 
can [you] say you want to grow them? - The brahmin: Today, for 
instance, I see a fertile field to be cultivated; though bleak and bare 
[things] grow in it again and again. All the more [fertile is the field in 
which roots of merit can be cultivated by dint of] these flowers. - 
The brahmin girl: What is this fertile field like in which, though 
bleak and bare, [after] cultivation [things] grow? - The brahmin: 
Good girl, the Buddha, the Tathagata Dlpamkara, the Fully and 
Completely Enlightened One, has appeared in the world. - The girl: 
What is the Tathagata Dlpamkara like? - The brahmin: The Tathagata 
Dlpamkara whose merit is perfect, is endowed with such[-and-such] 

15 Tentatively for #% The Divy narrative, differing from the EA story 
in many details, does not give a proper name. 

16 Hayashi wrongly has ft for ft . 

42 






Ekottaragama XXVII 

(idrsa) virtues and such[-and-such] (T2, 599a) conduct. - The girl: 
•What kind of merit does a virtuous person strive for? - The brahmin: 
I am filled with the aspiration to become - like the Tathagata Dlpam- 
kara - fully and completely enlightened in a future existence, being 
[endowed with] virtues and conduct like him. - The girl: If you pro- 
mise to accept me as your wife existence after existence 1 7 I shall give 
you the flowers. - The brahmin: As for my behaviour (samudacd- 
ra), now my mind is free from clinging. - The girl: Let me be your 
wife in future existences just as now I do not desire to be your wife 
physically. - The brahmin N.: A bodhisattva's manner of conduct 
excludes one's sparing oneself. If you want to be my wife [you] 
should overcome selfish attachment (mamakara). - The girl: I will 
by no means betray your aspiring after generosity (ddnddhydsaya). 
Let me with the right motivation make use of my body, donating it to 
others. [Thus] I will certainly not betray [our] aspiring after genero- 
sity. - Then [the brahmin N.j took the five hundred gold coins 1 ^ and 
bought with them the five flowers. After both [he himself] and that 
girl had vowed [to embark on a bodhisattva's practice] they parted 
company. 

Meanwhile, the Tathagata Dlpamkara, the Fully and Complete- 
ly Enlightened One, had put on his [outer] robes and taken up his 
alms-bowl. Heading the bhiksus accompanying [him] in order of se- 
niority^, he entered the great Padma kingdom. Seeing him some dis- 
tance away, an [inspiring] appearance20 of genuine modesty 21 , the 
brahmin N. was not disappointed: The Tathagata Dlpamkara' s 



L 



17 Cf. Karashima, p. 407, under i£1£ ; cf. also Divy(V), p. 154, 10: 
yadi ... niamapi jqtyam jatyatfl patnlm icchasi...; according to the Divy story, 
me girl whose flowers the brahmin wants to buy and the beautiful girl offered to 
and refused by him at the yajna function mentioned above are the same. 

18 Whilst above 'five hundred ounces of gold' are mentioned, in this 
Place EA tallies with Divy(V) 152ff.: panca karsapanasatani. 

19 Cf. BSR 16, 1 (1999), p. 75, n. 11. 

20 Lit.: 'facial expression'. 

21 After Hayashi read SSIE for iffij3&. 

43 



Buddhist Studies Review 17, 1 (2000) 



Ekottaragama XXVII 



bearing22 was calm and dignified. He was possessed of the thirty- 
two [primary] and the eighty secondary marks of an extraordinary 
being (dvdtrimsan mahdpurusalaksanani, asity anuvyanjandni)^ . 
[On seeing him one was] reminded of pellucid water free of all tur- 
bidity, allowing the light to penetrate it without hindrance. Again, 
[he] resembled a jewel mountain (ratnaparvata) surpassing all 
[other] mountains. Having [this] experience, the brahmin N. became 
elated (sumanas). Holding the five flowers meant for the TathagataJ 
he went to where Dlpamkara was and stood at one side; then he said 
to the Buddha Dlpamkara: It is to be hoped that something will be 
obtained. Supposing now the Exalted One decides not to impart any- 
thing, then it would be preferable to put an end to one's life on the 
spot. It would not be worthwhile living on. - Brahmin, said the Ex-| 
alted One, it is not possible thanks to these five flowers to impart the 
Complete and Highest Enlightenment. - I [only] hope, replied the 
brahmin, the Exalted One will be so kind as to teach me how to em-] 
bark on a bodhisattva's practice. - A bodhisattva's practice, explained 
the Buddha Dlpamkara, excludes one's sparing oneself. - On thisJ 
occasion the brahmin uttered the following verses: 

No [body] dares take hold of his parents and give them 
Away to other people. The Buddhas, too, surpassing 
[Other] wise (vyakta) persons, dare not give away 
[Their parents]. Sun (!) and moon circling the earth - 
These two cannot be given away either. Everything else 
Can be given away; it will not be difficult 
To make up one's mind [to do so]. - 
Then also the Buddha Dlpamkara addressed the brahmin with thesa 
verses: 

The way you talk about giving away is not the Tathagata' s 
[Way] to talk about. [A bodhisattva] should be [prepared to] 
Put up with a hundred million aeons of great 
Hardship [involving the giving away of one's] 
Head, trunk, ears, eyes, one's wife, children, one's 






22 Lit.: 'organs of sense (indriya ) and behaviour". 

23 See Mahavyut. 235-267, 268-349. 

44 



Realm, treasures, carriages, horses, servants and 
Retinue. If [you] can bear all this, then you 
May make [your] resolution. - 
Furthermore, the young brahmin (manava) uttered these verses: 
The high mountain [of great hardship] burning like 
Fire - for a hundred million aeons [I] will put up 
With carrying it on [my] head. [My] aspiring for 
[Supreme] enlightenment {bodhicitta)^ shall not be 
Impaired. All [I] wish now is to make [my] resolution. - 
Now the Tathagata Dlpamkara kept silent, and the brahmin, holding 
in his hand the five flowers, knelt down with his right knee on the 
ground and scattered [the flowers] over the Tathagata. In doing this, 
he said: [May] this [action] be conducive to having merit also in a 
future existence. Not unlike the Tathagata Dlpamkara, I shall realise 
Full and Complete Enlightenment. - On the spot he let down [his 
long] hair, spread it on a muddy [section of the road and said]: If the 
Tathagata approves of my resolution [He] may kindly cross [the 
muddy section] by stepping on my hair. - 

O bhiksus, [said the Exalted One,] you should know that the 
Tathagata Dlpamkara looked into the brahmin's mind and scrutinised 
what he was thinking. Then he said to the brahmin: In a future exis- 
tence you will realise Full and Complete Enlightenment and become 
the Tathagata Sakyamuni Buddha. - At [that] time a fellow-student 
of the brahmin N., Dharmaruci by name, stood next to the Tathagata. 
Witnessing the Buddha Dlpamkara' s approval of the brahmin N.'s 
resolution by stepping on [the latter's] hair, he remonstrated: How 
can this shaveling of a sramana be so impudent as to trample on this 
pure brahmin's hair? This is not a [civilised] man's behaviour! - As 
for the brahmin Yajnada of those days, asked the Buddha the bhi- 
ksus, do you [think] he was an altogether unique person? Do not re- 
gard him as such because the person of that time [known as] Yajna- 
da is none other than Suddhodana. As for the [former] chief of the 



24 Cf. Karashima, p. 92, under Ml 

45 



Buddhist Studies Review 17, 1 (2000) 

[assembly of] 84,000 25 brahmins, he is none other than DevadattaJ 
and I was at that time that very brahmin Nayatikrama. As far as the J 
brahmin girl of those days is concerned who sold the flowers, she is 
now GopI 2 ^, and the person in charge of the yajna [function]27 i§l 
none other than the brahmin Dandapani28. Dharmaruci who hurled J 
abusive language [at the Tathagata] in those days is in fact the Dhar-j 
maruci of today. For innumerable aeons this Dharmaruci was again 
and again born as a domestic animal, and in his [second but] last life 
he took on the body of a fish that measured seven hundred yojanasA 
living in the Great Ocean. That existence having come to an end, hel 
was born here [again as a human being]. By always being close to a 
spiritual friend (kalydnamitra), by relying on a spiritual friend on6j 
habituates oneself to karmically wholesome actions conducing to thq 
[spiritual] faculties, to the gates (dvara) [of deliverance] and to su-l 
pernormal knowledge (abhijnaps. It is for this very reason that Ij 
have said: Here after a long time. - And Dharmaruci, too, expressed! 
himself: Indeed, Exalted One, here after a long time. - Thus, O bhi-1 
ksus, you should constantly cultivate [mindfulness] with regard to! 
physical, vocal and mental actions. Thus, O bhiksus, you should] 
train. - After listening to the Buddha's words, the bhiksus wera 






25 After Hayashi read ^f for ^p. 

26 See DPPN I, p. 818f. (under 'GopI, Gopika' and '3. Gopaka'): 'The 
Sakiyan maiden of Kapilavatthu, who was born later on as Gopaka-devaputta.' 
See also BHSD, p. 216, s.v. 'Gopa, GopI, Gopika': according to two Buddhistl 
Skt. texts, the Sakya girl becomes the wife of the Bodhisattva. 

27 I. e. the above-mentioned 'person in charge of the munificence [func- 
tion] (danasvamin )'. 

28 See DPPN I, p. 1053 (under 'Dandapanr): '... He was the Buddha's 
maternal uncle... According to northern sources Prince Siddhattha's wife was 
Dandapanfs daughter.' Cf. also BHSD, p. 261 ( s.v. 'Dandapani'). 

29 See Nyanatiloka, pp. 61 (s.v. indriya ), 173 (s.v. vimokkha, vimut- 
ti ), 2f. (s.v. abhinnd ). 

46 



Ekottaragama XXVII 

nleased and respectfully applied themselves to practice.^ 



30 The story of the would-be Sakyamuni Buddha's meeting Dipamkara 
and of his bodhicittotpdda is narrated in Mvu. Apart from the English transl. of 
Mvu in 3 vols, by JJ. Jones (London, 1949-56), an abridged transl. of the epi- 
sode of 'Shakyamuni's Meeting with Dipankara' is easily available in E. Conze, 
Buddhist Scriptures (Penguin Classics, 1959), pp. 20-24, corresponding to 
Mvu(B), pp. 182, 8 - 189, 9. As for BSR 16, 2 (1999), p. 207f., n. 2, the fol- 
lowing clarification is needed in order to avoid confusion: In the EA story the 
would-be Sakyamuni Buddha is Nayatikrama and his fellow-student insulting 
Dipamkara is Dharmaruci, bearing the same name when meeting Sakyamuni 
again 'after a long time'. In the Apadana the would-be Sakyamuni is Sumedha 
and the insulting fellow-student is Megha, whereas in Mvu the future Buddha is 
called Megha, and Meghadatta is his former class-mate who subsequently has to 
undergo extreme suffering because of his insult and later on becomes known as 
Dharmaruci. In Divy, finally, Sakyamuni formerly was Sumati and Dharmaruci 
the haughty brahmin youth Mati. Moreover, only from Divy (Divy(V), 253, 16- 
1°: tena ca Dipena rdjM ... Dipatnkarasya samyaksambuddhasya sdbhisamskdre- 
W nagarapraves'atfl karisydmlti ... sarvapuspdtidip. samgrahaifi kartum drabdhah. ) 
11 can he gleaned as to why, as mentioned in the EA text, 'the king issued the 
or der that no fragrant flowers should be sold' by any of his subjects: The king 
Reeded all available flowers for a state reception of the Tathagata Dipamkara. 

47 



Buddhist Studies Review 18, 2 (2001) 



vanquished Death, and who, possessed of the foremost, has 
reached the end of birth, wise, knowing the world, does not 
experience all things . 

Are these verses a small piece of, in the words of Samyutta- 
Nikaya II, 266, the original drumhead that failed to be replaced by 
the later pees so successfully inserted by the cenobitical monastic 
creators of HInayana' Buddhisnr? Perhaps, one can really only 
find out by one's Self. 3 * 



sabbesu dhammesu atammayo, literally, 'not absorbed in or identical with it 
among all things'. 

The suggestion of Reginald Ray {Buddhist Saints in India, New York 1994, 
p. 401) that the systematic development of the anatman doctrine by Buddhist 
cenobitical monasticism may have been an attempt to compensate for its having 
patterned itself after the social, institutional, economic and ecclesiastical as- 
pects of Brahmanical tradition may have to be extended even further. Actually, 
it seems that, in many respects at least, developed, institutionalised, cenobitical 
monastic Buddhism took over the very aspects of Brahmanism that the Buddha 
and original ascetic/sramanic Buddhism rejected and, if not rejected, at least 
de -emphasised (at least in some schools) the very aspects of Brahmanism that 
the Buddha and the early tradition accepted. Even the doctrines that at least 
some schools of the cenobium developed to replace the original yogic Monism 
or Absolutism of the Buddha may, however, also have been taken over from 
extra-Buddhist sources, i.e., the Samkhya/Yoga traditions. 

218 



EKOTTARAGAMA (XXVIII) 

Translated from the Chinese Version by 

Thich Huyen-Vi and Bhikkhu Pasadika 

in collaboration with Sara Boin-Webb 

Eleventh Fascicle 

Part 20 
(A Spiritual Friend) 

4. 1 Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 
Sravastl, at Jetfs Grove, in Anathapindada's Park, Then the Exalted 
One said to the bhiksus: Now it is apposite for me to say [the 
following] - there are persons who are like lions and those who are 
like sheep. Listen attentively and take heed (srnuta ca susthu ca 
tnanasi-kuruta?) of what [I am going to say]. - We shall, Exalted 
One3, replied the bhiksus. [In order to] instruct them, the Exalted 
One went on 4 : How does a person resemble a lion? There is [, for 
example,] a bhiksu, someone who receives what is respectfully 
offered (satkdra): robes^, alms-food (pindapata), lodging {say ana- 
sand) and medicine for treating the sick6 . Having received and then 
enjoying (pari- 4bhuj) them, attachment does not arise in his mind; 
neither thoughts of desire arise in him nor any [wrong] perception. 
Not [entertaining] any [wrong] ideas whatsoever, he is absolutely 
certain about the Teaching (dharma) conducive to emancipation 



1 See T2, 599c5 ff.; Hayashi, p. 181 ff. 

2 Regrettably, at BSR 11, 2 (1994), p. 157 f., the Sanskrit verb forms 
are given in the singular instead of the plural, as in the stock phrase quoted 
above. 

3 For 1£# read t£ 




4 Lit.: 'At that time the bhiksus received instruction from the Buddha; 
the Exalted One said...' 

5 ^^ rendering civara seems peculiar to EA. Cf. BSR 11, 2 (1994), p. 
160, n. 7, where the above two characters are translated separately rather than as 
a compound. 

6 |p|g||§:|p£ rendering glanapratyayabhaisajya seems peculiar to EA. As 
for the transl. of the term, cf. SWTF, 12th fascicle, p. 259 s.v. civara °. 

219 



Buddhist Studies Review 18, 2 (2001) 

(nairyanika). Even if he has to go without gains and favours (labha- 
satkdra), he is neither distracted (viksipta) nor does he experience 
elation and dejection. [He is] like the royal lion [whenever the latter 
has] to make do with a small domestic animal [as prey]. At that time 
the king of beasts, too, does not think like this: This is good, that is 
bad. - Attachment does not arise in his mind; neither thoughts of 
desire arise in him nor [wrong] perception. Similar is [the behaviour 
of] this person: Whenever? he receives respectful offerings... attach- 
ment does not arise in his mind. Even if he does not receive any- 
thing, he does not entertain any [wrong] ideas. 

Take for example someone who receives what people respect- 
fully offer him: robes, alms-food, lodging, help and medicine for the 
sick. Having received and then enjoying them, attachment arises in 
his mind; thoughts of sensuous desire (kdmardga) arise in him and 
he is absolutely oblivious of the path leading to emancipation. 
Should he receive nothing, he does not stop fretting^. Having 
received respectful offerings, however, he boasts of himself and 
insults the other bhiksus [by saying]: It is me who is fit (samartha) 
to receive robes... medicine for the sick, whereas these bhiksus are 
not. - [Let us take] the simile of that single sheep in the midst of a 
large flock of sheep. Having separated itself from the flock, that 
sheep went to a large heap of dung. Having feasted on the faeces at a 
distance from the flock, it returned to it and, boasting of itself, [it 
insulted the other sheep by saying]: I am fit to receive excellent food, 
these sheep are not. - Similarly, whenever the [second type of] 
person receives gains and favours, robes... medicine for the sick, he 
loses his composure and attachment arises in his mind; then he 
boasts of himself [while insulting] the [other] bhiksus [by saying] : I 
am fit to receive (T2, 600a) respectful offerings, these bhiksus are 
not. - Therefore, bhiksus, you should train [to be] like the royal lion 
and not like the sheep. Thus, O bhiksus, you should train. - After 
listening to the Buddha's words, the bhiksus were pleased and re- 



7 Lit.: 'if. 

8 Lit.: 'always these thoughts arise'. 

220 



Ekottaragama XXVIII 



spectfully applied themselves to practice. '9 



9 The second half of the EA discourse has a parallel at S II, p. 228 f: Sa- 
vatthL. Daruno bhikkhave labhasakkamsiloko... pe... adhigamaya. . . Seyyathapi 
bhikkhave pilhaka guthadi guthapum punna guthassa... Noteworthy is the v.l. 
milhaka of the Nalanda ed. (S II-III, p. 191) fox pilhaka, and equally remarkable 
is a Sinhalese v.l. for the same word given by the Nalanda ed. in n. 3: elaka, 
'ewe, female sheep', instead of 'beetle'. For the English transl. of S see F.H. 
Woodward, Kindred Sayings II, PTS, London 1922 ff., p. 155: 'At Savatfhl: - 
Dire, brethren, are gains, favours, and flattery... Just as if a beetle, dung-eating, 
dung-filled, stuffed with dung... ' The scarab beetle is, of course, readily asso- 
ciated with dung, and it seems altogether unlikely that a sheep, notwithstanding 
a certain amount of whimsy, should feed on dung. So the simile of the dung- 
beetle may perhaps be more plausible than that of the dung-consuming sheep. ^ 

The editors of T and Akanuma point out as a parallel to the above Pali 
sutta a place in the Chinese SA: T2, 346al8-25. In this text, however, thema- 
tically a parallel cannot be seen. In the given SA passage the Buddha compares 
existence in Samsara to nauseating ordure, and the only element shared with the 
S discourse is the word 'ordure/dung'. 

Interestingly, there is another SA version quoted in Bh. Pasadika, Nagar- 
junds Sulrasamuccaya, A Critical Edition of the mDo torn las btus pa, Copen- 
hagen 1989, p. 99 f. which, although deviating in some points, is a parallel 
both to S II, p. 228 f. and the second half of the present EA text. Since the 
translation of the Yan dag par Idan pd i lun passage in the Sutrasamuccaya , 
also prepared by the editor of the Tibetan text, is not easily accessible, it may be 
quoted here (slightly amended) as it appeared in Link-Sort - publication d ' 
etudes bouddhologiques 12 (1980), p. 31: 'Under a Nyagrodha tree there stayed 
a large flock of sheep. Among that flock there was a sheep that fed on dung. It 
went to a dung-pit to have a good meal and, having eaten to its heart's content, 
it put in front of itself a heap of dung and sat down. Having turned its head, it 
just looked down on the other sheep. Similar [is the behaviour of] a monk who 
is overcome and obsessed by [hankering after] gains, honours, and renown. He 
enters a village, a town, or a city to collect alms. There he eats to his heart's 
content clean and tasty food and is also [invited] to lunch the following day. 
Carrying extra [portions of] the alms [to which he had been invited], he goes his 
way. Then he says to his [fellow] monks: Venerable sirs, we have partaken of 
this clean and delicious food to our heart's content. These [extra] portions I do 
not require. It will be all right to throw the remains away; but if you like, have 
them. - Thus that [monk] just looks down on other well-behaved and deserving 
monks. In this way, monks, gains, honours, and renown are harmful (daruna ).' 

221 



Buddhist Studies Review 18, 2 (2001) 

5. 'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 
SravastT,... the Exalted One said to the bhiksus: If there is a person 
who knows [how] to appreciate^, [he or she], never being oblivious 
of small favours, to say nothing of great acts of kindness (upakara), 
deserves honour (satkarya). Should [that person] be a thousand or 
one hundred thousand yojanas away from here, [he or she] would 
not after all be far away; [that person] would, as it were, be close to 
and not estranged from me. For this reason a bhiksu should know 
that I always admire and praise someone who knows how to ap- 
preciate. Those who do not know how to appreciate great acts of 
kindness, let alone small favours, are neither close to me nor am I to 
them. Even if [an ungrateful person] formally wears [his or her] 
samghatl^ in my presence, [he or she] is after all far away. 
Therefore, I never say one [should] not appreciate. For this reason, 
O bhiksus, you should be mindful of appreciating [and you should] 
not imitate [others who do] not appreciate. 12 Thus, O bhiksus, you 
should train. - After listening to the Buddha's words, the bhiksus 
were pleased... to practice.' 13 



wp^Mia^v^K^^Bi^^nBita 



10 As plausibly indicated at T, loc.cit., but not in Hayashi, ixtl should 
be read %§M. , lit.: 'back/return - again/restore'. The term £UJ8ltJW (pratikara- 
vedin ) could be freely rendered as 'grateful' {krtajna ); the slightly different 
translation is given in this discourse because below, at T2, 601al2 ff., the stand- 
ard rendering of krtajna is found: ^H (cf. Foguang, p. 4107a: %\MM )■ 

1 1 I.e. the formal outer 'double robe (diguna ) in contrast to the inner 
(antaravasaka ) and upper (uttardsaftga ) garments which are single (ekacciya : 
Vin I, p. 289)' - see EncBuddh IV, 2, p. 183 f., s.v. civara. The meaning of 
'waist-cloth' for samghati at BHSD, p. 549, is not correct. 

12 These words of the Buddha may seem overly emphatic, the common 
human weakness of ingratitude notwithstanding; it should be kept in mind, 
however, that early Buddhists were confronted with the teachings of influential 
materialistic philosophers. 

13 Cf. A I, p. 61 (II. 4.1): Asappurisabhumin ca vo bhikkhave desissami 
sappurisabhumin ca / tarn sunatha... Asappuriso bhikkhave akatanfiu hoti akata- 
vedi... Cf. the English transl. at F.L. Woodward, Gradual Sayings I, PTS, 
1932 ff., p. 56: 'Monks, I will teach you the condition of the unworthy and that 
of the worthy. Do ye listen to it... Monks, the unworthy man is ungrateful, 

222 



Ekottaragama XXVIII 

6. 'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 
Sravasti,... the Exalted One said to the bhiksus: There are person(s) 
who are lazy (kusida), who do not embark onH virtuous actions (su- 
carita) and who in their deeds (kriya) meet with misfortune (vya- 
sana)\ on the other hand, there are those who are capable of not 
[succumbing to] laziness, who put effort (virya) into [what is to be 
done] and who are most accomplished (pranita) in respect of all that 
is karmically wholesome so that there is an increase in what is [truly] 
advantageous. Thus [with reference to the latter persons] it will take 
the bodhisattva Maitreya thirty aeons until he becomes a Buddha by 
realising full and complete enlightenment. All on his own (atmana) 
he will make use of the force of effort (viryabala) and utmost deter- 
mination^ .so that in future [he], Maitreya, will be [my successor]. 
Also in the past, innumerable beings, like the sands of the [River] 
Ganga, [became] foremost arhats 1 ^ Fully and Completely En- 
lightened Ones. All of them succeeded in realising Buddhahood on 
account of their utmost determination. With the help of this "skill in 
means" (upayakausalya) one should know that laziness is conducive 
to suffering, leads to miserable destinies (durgati) and in one's deeds 
one will meet with misfortune. If [on the other hand] one is capable 
of utmost determination and of putting forth effort, all that is 
karmically wholesome, all virtues [will be accomplished] so that 
there will be an increase in what is [truly] advantageous. Therefore, 
O bhiksus, you should be mindful of putting forth effort and do not 



forgetful of benefits...' 

14 Lit.: 'sow/beget' - ^vap . 

15 J§3j£ means 'intrepid, undeterred 1 ; Hirakawa s.v. (p. 474b) gives 
abhvutsaha, 'utmost determination'. 

16 Tentatively: WH^THM -agrdrhat (cf. agrasrdvaka). 

223 



Buddhist Studies Review 18, 2 (2001) 

be negligent. Thus, bhiksus, you should train. - After listening to the 
Buddha's words, the bhiksus were pleased... to practice.' 17 

7. Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 
Sravast!,... the Exalted One said to the bhiksus: A bhiksu who lives 
in the forest (aranyaka) should cultivate two things. Which two? 
Tranquillity (samatha) and penetrating insight (vipasyana)^ . If a 
bhiksu, living in the forest in serenity, realises tranquillity, he per- 
fects the discipline (vinaya) with [all] its rules of moral training ( si- 
ksapada), without deviating from the [proper] way of deportment 
(iryapatha), without breaking the vows and by developing all virtues 



17 As for this sutra, Akanuma, Hayashi and Lancaster refer to Divy. p. 
481 (= Divy(V). p. 313). The Divy story is the Rupavatyavadana, summarised 
in M. Winternitz, A History of Indian Literature II, Delhi 1983 (revised ed.). p. 
278 f. (in Winternitz the bodhisattva heroine is RupavatI instead of RupavatI). 
The only common feature, however, found in the present EA sutra and in Divy 
is the mention of the bodhisattva Maitreya. Whilst in the latter text Maitreya ad- 
vances towards Buddhahood for forty kalpas, in EA it takes him thirty aeons to 
do so; the moral in EA is that determination and viryabala should be aspired to 
whereas in Divy danaparamitd, the perfection of liberality, is extolled. The Divy 
passage has - apart from the EA Gilgit fragments (Tripathi, p., 81, § 18.21 (not 
in Okubo)) - close parallels, as pointed out and quoted in Tripathi, p. 159 ff.: 
It, p. 18 f.; EA Turfan fragments, § 18.2; Avadanasataka (Vaidya ed.), p. 80f. 
However, unlike Divy, in none of the latter places is Maitreya mentioned. 

Another interesting feature in EA is the Mahay ana simile of the sands of 
the Ganges (Gangdnadivahikasama ) which is employed, for instance, in the Kds- 
yapaparivarta (A. von Stael-Holstein ed., sections 158, 159) or in the Lankava- 
tara Sutra (B. Nanjio ed., pp, 229-34), Cf. also D.T. Suzuki, Studies in the 
Lankavatara Sutra, London 1930, 57, pp. 148-53, on 'The Parable of the Sands 
of the Gang a'. When comparing the EA and the Kdsyapaparivarta Gahga sand 
similes and the Lankavatara 'parable' with each other, the EA simile appears to 
be the most rudimentary, in a unique manner substituting 'innumerable beings, 
like the sands,..' who became Buddhas for the rather limited traditional number 
of prehistoric Buddhas. A very elaborate treatment of the same simile which 
Suzuki considers a parable is the above-mentioned Lankavatara passage, setting 
forth in this place mainstream Mahay ana soteriology-cum-philosophy. 

18 Cf. BSR 13, 1 (1996), p. 65. 

224 



Ekottaragama XXVIII 

(guna). If, furthermore, a bhiksu who is fond of solitude has realised 
penetrating insight, he exactly knows in accordance with fact^: This 
is unsatisfactoriness (duhkha), the origin (samudaydp of unsatis- 
factoriness, its final cessation (duhkhanirodha) and what has neces- 
sarily to be done {avasyakarya) in order to overcome unsatisfac- 
toriness^l . - By dint of such penetrating insight, his mind is freed 
from the malign influences of desire (kamasrava), of becoming 
(bhavao) and of ignorance (avidya°); consequently he gains the [in- 
sight-] knowledge of [this] freedom, knowing in accordance with 
fact: Birth and death have come to an end, the holy life has been 
lived, what had to be done has been done, and there will be no more 
coming into existence. Also in the past, so many beings [became] 
foremost arhatsie t Fully and Completely Enlightened Ones precisely 
on account of these two things [enabling them] to achieve perfection 
(nispatti); and thus also the Bodhisattva when sitting under the King 
of Trees (the Bodhi Tree), he first concentrated on these [two] 
things, viz. tranquillity and penetrating insight. After realising tran- 
quillity, the Bodhisattva, the Great Being (mahasattva) , succeeded in 
subjugating Mara, the Fiend (satru)\ and furthermore, after realising 
penetrating insight, the Bodhisattva duly gained the state of possess- 
ing the three knowledges (traividyatajP and obtained the Highest, 
Complete and Full Enlightenment. Therefore, O bhiksus, a monk, 
living in the forest, should be intent on skill in means in order to 
practise these two things. Thus, bhiksus, you should train. - After 
listening to the Buddha's words, the bhiksus were pleased... to 
practice/ 23 



19 Cf. Hirakawa, p. 371: flPflTJLfcn = yathabhutaparijnana. 

20 Cf. BSR 10, 2 (1993), p. 220, n. 16, 

21 Cf. ibid, n. 17 ( to be corrected to: duhkhanirodhagamini ). 

22 See BHSD, p. 260a; Soothill, pp. 79a, 66b; Nyanatiloka, s.v. 



te- 



viija. 

23 Cf. A I, p. 61 (at Hayashi, p. 183, n. 14, A, II.3.15' should be 
corrected to A, 11.3. Iff): Dve 'me bhikkhave dhamma vijjdbhagiya. Katame dve? 
Samatho ca vipassana ca... Cf. the English transl. at Woodward, Gradual Say- 
ings I, p. 55 f.: 'Monks, these two conditions have part in knowledge..' 

225 



Buddhist Studies Review 18, 2 (2001) 

8. 'Thus have I heard. At one time... in Sravasti,... the Exalted One 
said to the bhiksus: If a bhiksu who lives in the forest at a secluded, 
quiet place remote from the crowds, he should always reverentially 
(gawavajata) cultivate a mind that is content (tusta). If, on the other 
hand, a bhiksu, living in the forest at a secluded and quiet place, does 
not reverentially cultivate contentment (tusti), he will mainly occupy 
himself (yi-ni-v yuj) in staying with big crowds for the sake of what 
people talk about [because] he does not know what a forest-dweller's 
practice (dharma) should be like. How then has a bhiksu, [although] 
fond of solitude, no reverential attitude and does not cultivate con- 
tentment? The answer is [this], O bhiksus: First the aranyaka bhi- 
ksu, staying at a secluded, quiet place and avoiding the crowds, con- 
tinually puts effort into [what is to be done] and does not [succumb 
to] laziness and arrogance (mdna) 2 ^ . First he is well aware of the ne- 
cessity of what [he should] practise. If, in the course of his forest- 
dwelling and abiding at a secluded, quiet place, he becomes lazy and 
arrogant, he will involve himself in all [sorts of] misconduct (dusca- 
rita), staying with big crowds for the sake of what people talk about 
- Such an aranyaka bhiksu is lazy and lacking in effort. For this 
reason, bhiksus, a bhiksu who is fond of solitude, living at a se- 
cluded, quiet place and avoiding the crowds, should always be gen- 
tle 2 ^ and cultivate contentment. Being rid of laziness and arrogance, 
reverentially26 and mindfully putting effort into [what is to be done] , 
with unwavering determination and wholeheartedly taking upon one- 
self (upa-sam- ypad ) all that is karmically wholesome - thus, O 



24 'Being without arrogance' (mana ) clarifies as to why above stress is 
placed on gaurava ('respect, reverence') in the expression 'reverentially': forest- 
dwelling as a hermit is one of the special ascetic practices {dhu(u)tangas ) a prac- 
titioner of which naturally has to guard against having a tendency towards 
arrogance vis-a-vis Sangha members who do not practise any of the dhutangas. 
As for preceding notes on the dhutangas, see BSR 13, 1 (1996), p. 57, n. 6. 

25 Cf. Hirakawa, p. 107: T'L? = mrduna cittena. 

26 Translated after Hayashi; T2, 600b29 has: M^^f£, 'without re- 
spect'. 226 



Ekottaragama XXVIII 

bhiksus, you should train. - After listening to the Buddha's words, 
the bhiksus were pleased... to practice.' 

9. Thus have I heard. At one time... in Sravasti,... the Exalted One 
said to the bhiksus: There are two persons who are not fit (asamar- 
tha) for enunciating Dharma words. Who are the two persons? a) 
The person who gives teachings on trust (sraddha) without himself 
having trust - a most problematic situation; b) the person who gives 
teachings on generosity {dana\ himself being in the grip of avarice 
(matsarya) and lust (raga) - also a most problematic [situation]. 
Moreover, bhiksus, if a person gives teachings on trust without him- 
self having trust, in his mind there will arise aversion ( dvesa), ag- 
gressiveness (pratigha) and [a proneness to] hurting (upaghata). O 
bhiksus, a person giving teachings on trust without himself having 
trust! with aversion, aggressiveness... arising in his mind, is com- 
parable to a [fierce] dog whose fierceness increases and which be- 
comes more and more angry and aggressive after injuring its muzzle. 
Moreover, bhiksus, if a person who gives teachings on generosity, 
himself being in the grip of avarice and lust, in his mind there will 
arise aversion, aggressiveness and [a proneness to] hurting. A per- 
son's giving teachings on generosity, his being in the grip of avarice 
and lust and his mind being increasingly filled with aversion, ag- 
gressiveness... are comparable to an abscess which, not yet being 
fully developed27 , is becoming unbearably painful [because of] its 
being cut open with a lancet. These, O bhiksus, are the two persons 
whose setting forth the Dharma is [most] problematic. 

Then, bhiksus, there are two persons whose setting forth the 
Dharma is not at all problematic. Who are the two [persons]? a) The 
person who gives teachings on trust, himself having trust, and b) 
[the person] who gives teachings on generosity without himself 
[being in the grip of] avarice and lust. If, bhiksus, a person gives 
teachings on trust, himself having trust, in his mind there will arise 
joy {priti ), and he will be free from perturbation (vikara) and re- 
morse (kaukrtya). A person's giving teachings on trust, having trust 



27 Lit.: 'hot'. 



227 



Buddhist Studies Review 18, 2 (2001) 



himself and a mind full of joy, free from confusion (vyabhicara) and 
perturbation, are comparable to prescribing a sick person a medicine 
which cures his illness and makes him healthy again. Moreover, if a 
person who gives teachings on generosity, without himself being in 
the grip of [avarice and] lust, in his mind there will arise joy, and he 
will be free from remorse. A person's giving teachings on gene- 
rosity, his being free from avarice and lust, full of joy and without 
remorse, are comparable to a decent, well-groomed 2 ^ man or woman 
of a cheerful disposition [whom] someone approaches with a beauti- 
ful flower which is offered [to him or her] and which makes [them] 
look much more colourful. Furthermore, [that virtuous person's 
teaching generosity is comparable to someone's] offering that [de- 
cent] man [or woman] fine clothes and ornaments whose recipient 
then becomes all the happier. These, bhiksus, are the two persons 
whose setting forth the Dharma is not at all problematic. So, bhi- 
ksus, one should aim at having trust, at being generous and at being 
free from avarice and lust. Thus, O bhiksus, you should train. - 
After listening to the Buddha's words, the bhiksus were pleased... to 
practice.' 

Additional Abbreviations 



Hirakawa = A. Hirakawa etal, Index to the Abhidharmakosabhas- 

ya (Taisho Edition), Part Two: Chinese-Sanskrit, Tokyo 
1977. 

~ Y. Okubo, The Ekottara-agama Fragments of the Gil- 
git Manuscript, in Bukkyo Gaku Semina No. 35, Kyoto 
1982, pp. 91-120. 

S A = S amyuktagama. 



Okubo 



28 Lit.: '[with] bathed hands and faces'. 

228 



REVIEW ARTICLE: 

The Bible and the Buddhists. J. Duncan M. Derrett. 

Sardini Editrice, Bornato in Franciacorta - Italy 2000. 

136 pp. Lire 50,000. ISBN 88-7506474-2 Pb. 

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This is a well produced book on a highly significant topic - the 
many parallels between the New Testament and Buddhist classics. 
The author is unusually qualified for dealing with the difficult 
task. He is a Doctor not only of Law but also of Theology. He 
taught Hindu Law at the University of London from 1949 to 1982, 
and has devoted himself to the New Testament since 1957. From 
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and learned papers on Dharmasastra, Buddhism and the New 
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not where the evidence leads him. This is not a work of apologetic, 

he writes in the Preface. 

By 1935, after decades of controversy, the Indologist M. 
Winternitz wrote that 'the view must be rejected that Buddhist 
literature has exerted a direct influence upon the gospels' (p.21). 
In recent years our knowledge has increased on several fronts, 
D(errett). says, and in 1995 it was asserted (by Gruber & Kersten) 
once again that Jesus was educated by the Buddhists. 

D. divides, conveniently, previous researchers into three 
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most recently, Gruber & Kersten {The Original Jesus, 199o), 
prepared to find parallels everywhere; 2) 'minimalists', such as 
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Neuen Testaments, Giessen 1924, is missing), EJ. Thomas, Har 

229 



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EKOTTARAGAMA (XXIX) 

Translated from the Chinese Version by 

Thich Huyen-Vi and Bhikkhu Pasadika 

in collaboration with Sara Boin-Webb 

Eleventh Fascicle 

Part 20 
(A Spiritual Friend) 

in l'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 
Las™ a Je"r f s Grove, in Anathapindada's (T2, 601a) Park. Then 
fhe Exalted One said to the bhiksus: There are two [kinds of] prac- 
tice marma)ly means of which an ordinary worldling .(prthag- 
SXin ereat merit, reaps outstanding karmic rewards (phala- 
ClT\Sm^^ Deathless {amnarasa) and reahses the 
ate of Unconditioned (asarnskrtasthana)*. Which are the two 
alTreating one's father and mother with great respect (pujaf; it is 
oeSuTo! ?Sonounng] 'these two persons that on^rns grea 
merit and reaos outstanding karmic rewards. And, furthermore, one 
oS^greaKt and... rewards b) by treating a .bod^satwawho 
has to wait for only one more birth [before realising Buddhahood] 
t^atibaddm* with great respect. It is, O bhrksus, because of 
practising generosity {dana) towards these two [groups of] persons 






1 See T2, 600c29 ft.; Hayashi, p. 186 ff. 

2 Cf. BSR 13, 1 (1996), p. 59; ibid., 15, 1 (1998), p. 68. 

3 Cf. BSR 12, 1 (1995), p. 52, n. 6. 

4 Cf. Karashima, p. 531: -£»*.. "(a bodhisat^a who , will) lata , uj mi 
(buddha's) place in his next life" ... eka-jati-r*anbaddha ^ See also A. von ^Sgel 
Holstein (ed.), The Kdsyapaparivarta. A M ^y a h nas ^Z£rfbJSryad 
Class, Shanghai 1926, p. 1: ... bodhisa^asahasraih. ekajatwabaddha^ yaa 

utanutarasydm samyaksambodhau. For further referen ^, se ^£S r P fl 3 %_ 
ekajati*, arid E. Conze, Materials for a Dictionary of the Prajnaparamita Lit 

|y- influence. Cf for instance BSR 1,1 0^^; * ^\ 

as for 'nomSdepass^e's ; netLent 'mahayanistes... ne ""XS^fflK 
tardives', see A. Bareau, 'Les debuts de la predication ^^^^/S! 
tara-Agama', in Bulletin de V Ecole frangaise * Extreme-Orient LXXVII (1988) 
PP. 69775, n. 12. For an English transl. of Bareau (1988) by S. Boin-Webb, see 
BSR 16, 1 (1999), pp. 7, 16, n. 11. 

49 



Buddhist Studies Review 19, 1 (2002) 

(one's parents and bodbisattvas of highest standing) that one obtains 
great merit... and [finally] realises the state of the Unconditioned. 
Therefore, bhiksus, one should be mindful of one's filial duty and 
treat one's father and mother with great respect.5 Thus, O bhiksus, 
you should train. - After listening to the Buddha's words, the bhi- 
ksus were pleased and respectfully applied themselves to practice.' 

11. 'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in Sra- 
vasti,... the Exalted One said to the bhiksus: [I] tell you that the kind- 
ness (sddhu) of two persons can never be repaid 6 . Of which two? 
Of one's father and mother. Even if someone, O bhiksus, should 
carry about his father on his left and his mother on his right shoulder 
and if he should do so for countless years; if he should [take care of 
them by providing them with] 7 clothing, food, shelter and medicine 
to cure illness and emaciation, and should they even [while being 
carried] on his shoulders, pass stool and urine [that he would have to 
put up with], he would still be unable to repay [their kindness]. You 
should know, bhiksus, that because of one's father's and mother's 
acts of kindness one is deeply indebted (bhdra) to them: One has 
been embraced and reared by them, all the time and ever ready to 
protect [their children], and never losing time in perfecting [their 
children's] becoming aware of the wider worlds. It is on account of 
this 'skill in means' that one appreciates how difficult it is to repay 
[one's parents'] kindness. Therefore, O bhiksus, one should treat 
one's father and mother with great respect and never be remiss in 
one's filial duty. Thus, O bhiksus, you should train. - After Ustening 
to the Buddha's words, the bhiksus were pleased and respectfully 
applied themselves to practice.^ 



5 The fact that here only one group of persons, viz. one's parents, are 
mentioned, clearly bears out Bareau's observation (n. 4 above) about Mahayana 
ideas and teachings that later on were inserted in EA which probably formed part 
of the canonical texts of a school deriving from the Mahasamghikas. 

6 Cf. BSR 18, 2 (2001), p. 222, n. 10; fgH renders krtajfia and also means 'to 
repay a kind act' . 

7 As in the corresponding Pali text (see n. 9 below), the Chinese has no verb in 
this place. The editor of A has inserted a verb supplied by the com-mentary. 

8 Lit.: 'becoming aware of sun and moon'. 

9 Cf. A I, p. 61 f. (II.4.2): Dvinndham bhikkhave na suppatikdram vaddmi. 
Katamesam dvinnam? Mdtucca pitucca... (preferably, after v.l. in M. Walleser, 
H. Kopp (eds.), Manorathapiiranl II (PTS, London 1967), p. 121, n. 6, and 

50 



Ekottaragama XXIX 

1 n 'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in Sra- 

S« Then the Venerable [Maha]panthaka said to his younger 

vaStl u ^'rSSnanthaka- If a person is unable to keep [in mind] the 
brother CudapantnaKa n & u d wear ±e 

iTrobTfol SySJ - oSS %* wUs Cadapanthaka 
wruterobe Lot a^aym j } Monastery and stood [aside] 

wen t out of the 8J^ J din outside the ga I e , with his 

Panthaka - Then the Exalted One took C. by the nana, r ei ™" 
taftkta] to me vihara and had him sitting down on the spot and 
to Wing™ b^nboc broom, [saying to him]: What do you jcall his 
fobjecf]? Pronounce the word for it. - Now C managed tc pro- 
nounce 'bamboo', but he could not ^^^^^ L ) f ^ d \ 
and while he managed to pronounce 'broom , he forgot [the word] 

'bamboo'. 

Venerable Cudapanthaka continued enunciating ' bamboo 
broom' for several days. Consequently the defec ts(mala) ^ hrs Pro 
nouncing 'bamboo broom' were gone, ^^^X^&' 
What is this dispelling (prahdna) like, and what are defects like. 






^y^^rsonti £3X S* ^ ^'J&fiTfSl 
exaggeration in EA, viz. carrying on one's shoulders caie s parente h ^ o^a 
thousand ten thousand years', against the one hundred years in the Pali text, the 
EA version is shorter and considerably simpler than the fall. 

10 Cf. Karashima, p. 234 (fifg). 

U Ibid., p. 86 (Jt). 

12 Ibid., p. 332 (ffl). 

51 



Buddhist Studies Review 19, 1 (2002) 

There is a defect when there is grime on a slate [roof, for instance], 
and getting rid [leads to] cleanliness (parisuddhi). And again it 
occurred to him: Why has the Exalted One given me this lesson? 
Now I should think about this matter. - This train of thought 
occasioned further thinking: Now there also is dirt (rajas) on my 
body; I am myself an illustrative example (upama); what is getting 
rid iike, and what are impurities like? - Then he reflected: The 
impurities are the fetters of the mental defilements (klesa), and 
getting rid corresponds to insight-knowledge (jndna). Just now I am 
able to sweep away these mental defilements with the broom of 
insight-knowledge. - After [these thoughts] Venerable C. wisely 
reflected on the five aggregates of grasping (upadanaskandha), on 
their appearance (prddurbhdva) and disappearance (antardhdna)^: 
This is form, [this is] its arising (samudaya)^ and its cessation 
(nirodha); this is feeling..., perception..., these are formative forces... 
and consciousness, its arising and its cessation. - When he had 
wisely reflected on the five aggregates of grasping, his mind was 
freed from the malign influences of desire (kdmdsrava), of be- 
coming (bhava°) and of ignorance (avidyd ). Having realised [ul- 
timate] freedom, he gained the insight-knowledge of this freedom 
and knew in accordance with fact: Birth and death have come to an 
end, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, 
and there will be no more coming into existence. 

Venerable Cudapanthaka became an arhat and, after his reali- 
sation of arhatship, he rose from his seat and went to where the Ex- 
alted One was. [There] he bowed down his head at [the Exalted 
One's] feet, sat down at one side and said to him: Just now insight- 
knowledge and wisdom have been won, and the bamboo broom 
[problem] has been solved. - How, bhiksu, asked the Exalted One, 
have you solved it? - Dispelling, replied C, - that is wisdom; and 
impurities are fetters. - Well said, bhiksu, the Exalted One approved, 
it is as you say: Dispelling is wisdom, impurities are fetters. - At 
that time Venerable C. addressed the following stanza to the Exalted 
One: 



Ekottaragama XXIX 

Hardly has this enunciating, as the Exalted One bade 
fmel do been finished than, through insight-knowledge, 
m could dispel the fetters; no remnants of them that 
/viiM affect fmel are in operation any more. 

pSd and respectfully applied himself to practice, is 

1 a >tw have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in Sra- 
13 \ , the Salted One said to the bhiksus: There are these two 

ASTto^SSSd 4der hatred (dve ? a) which one should not 
All that canoe ^sudmu misfortune and desertion; b) 

ff^^0^$*»J and lack of courtesy (anuna- 



13 Lit. 'destroy, decay' (ife); cf. Mahavyut. 2572: antardhana = nub pa for 
which latter the Zanghan Dacidian (Peking 1985) s.v. inter alia has M?fc 
('decline, fade away'). 

14 Cf. Karashima, p. 483 (g); see also BSR 10, 2 (1993), p. 220, n. 16. 

52 



HCf TI dd 114-20 ie. the paccuppannavatthu/ story -of flu ; present' fo ithe 
15 LI. J 1, pp. n* ^.u, i.e. u y rr p ^ Eng hsh transl. see R. 

Cullakasetthi ataka relating to Cu ^P^£ e f s -[ v ^ ess B 18 95; PTS reprint, 
Chalmers, TheJUakal. ^^^{ffi^ £oS (with' references to 
1957 ft, pp. 14-8. Cf. also BSR 11, 2 (l^, PP- v ft is 

Sanskrit and other sources bearing on ^j£ ™ ad ^ Memorising, the EA 
given as to why CullapanJjkB was >sc ^^^^ftca^lSnthata's 
text corresponding to J I, pp. 1 16 ;K"^fi instruction from the Buddha. The 
becoming an arhat after receding *° ^^^H? wh ich he has to handle 
meditation aid C. is given in J is a P^y^ ^.g^rf also R.D. Vadekar 
while repeating rajoharanar, ( 'removal of mpung ) cf. also^ ^ 

(ed.), Milindapanho, Bombay J940 P- 1 '*• ""3™ upagantvd sukhurnam 
thakassa bhatard nikaddhitassa dukkhitasa d"™™™*™"???™? In E A the 
colakhandam adasi - imind' 3^,*^!^W V tpSiti^ The 
meditation aid is the 'bamboo broom for swee E ™^ ctice is mentioned in 
fact that insight-knowledge as a result of sa ttpa , ana pra *ice * ^on 
this EA passage no less than six times is a rem inder or 
Milindapafiha (loc. cit., p. 362), attributed to Cullapan haka 
yadd kilesd opatanti sdmannagwiadhawsana \ 
latipatthanalakutena hantabbd te P^W™"* '^ 

7* £~^?A1S%tt3&t*>>~ to *. o«e ^ 

Kef K^Lna, p. 232: «#. "-ate upor, respectfully". and Ite v.L of ft 

53 



Buddhist Studies Review 19, 1 (2002) 



Ekottaragama XXIX 



ya) 17 which one should not... [lead to] man's misfortune and deser- 
tion. These are, O bhiksus, the two traits of character which one will 
not be happy with and to which one should not be devoted. 

Furthermore, bhiksus, there are two character traits which do 
not [lead to] man's [misfortune and] desertion. Which are the two? 
a) One's overcoming hatred which [makes for] man's complete 
satisfaction (parito?a) and b) all that can be subsumed under helpful- 
ness and courtesy and which is most appreciable and respectable, 
[making for] man's complete satisfaction. These are, bhiksus, the 
two... [making for]... satisfaction. Now on account of what (ko 
'rthah), why {kasmdt) have I just mentioned all that can be sub- 
sumed under hatred and lack of helpfulness and courtesy on the one 
hand, and one's overcoming hatred and all that can be subsumed 
under helpfulness and courtesy on the other? - The Exalted One, a 
bhiksu affirmed, is the chief master (svdmiri) of all teachings. Would 
the Exalted One be kind enough to give us an explanation. Having 
listened, all bhiksus will be much obliged and respectfully apply 
themselves to practice. - Listen attentively, responded the Exalted 
One, and take heed of what [I am going to say]. It is appropriate that 
I throw light (nir-ydis) on what has been said. The [above first] two 
character traits, O bhiksus, are due to desire (trsnd) because of 
which they come into play, arise, are effective and manifest 
themselves. One should train to dispel this desire without 
letting it arise [anew]. Thus, O bhiksus, you should train. - After 
listening to the Buddha's words, the bhiksus were pleased and re- 
spectfully applied themselves to practice.' 18 



17 In general SS means 'affection, love' (sneha); at Foguang, p. 4107, 
however, it says that affection is an obstacle to obtaining release from Samsara 
and realising ultimate freedom; cf. Soothill, p. 325: M-'SL, 'grace and love; 
human affection, which is one of the causes of rebirth'. Here, tentatively, the 
two characters are taken to mean upakdra, anunaya (after Hirakawa). 

18 In a way the above-mentioned two character traits 'making for man's com- 
plete satisfaction', viz. overcoming hatred and 'all that can be subsumed under 
helpfulness and courtesy', are reminiscent of D III, p. 232: Cattari samgaha- 
vatthuni... and of A II, p. 248 (253): ...Danam, peyyavajjam, atthacariyd, sa- 
manattatd. Imdni kho bhikkhave cattari sahgahavatthuni ti\ F.L. Woodward, 
Gradual Sayings II, p. 253: 'Monks, there are these four bases of sympathy. 
What four? Charity, kind speech, doing a good turn, and treating all alike.. .' 

54 



/ 1 8 contd )For an exhaustive treatment of the four samgrahavastm see Har 
tlllTheBodhisattva Doctrine in Buddhist Sansknt Literature, London 
Dayai, i ne D "" „ ff 2 51-9 To the numerous places in which the 

1932, repnntftlhiW °£' W^J ' by Dayalj may be added Sambhdra- 
5 SSSatSbute5 to VasubanS (Tibetan Tripitaka Otani Catalogue No. 
ffi|f ^40 The latter text has been critically edited and translated in Nicola 
Westerrnaml; "Drei buddhistische Mahnreden von Nagarjuna und Vasubandhu , 
Marburg University M.A. thesis 2002. 



55 






EKOTTARAGAMA (XXX) 

Translated from the Chinese Version by 

Thich Huyen-Vi and Bhikkhu Pasadika 

in collaboration with Sara Boin-Webb 

Twelfth Fascicle 

Part 21 
(The Triple Gem) 

1. 1 'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 
Sravastl, at Jetr's 2 Grove, in Anathapindada's Park. Then the Exalted 
One said to the bhiksus: There are three [kinds of] virtue (guna) per- 
taining to taking refuge (svayam saranam^J gam) of one's own ac- 
cord. Which are the three? The first [kind of] virtue pertains to taking 
refuge in the Buddha, the second to taking refuge in the Dharma 3 
(T2, 602a) and the third to taking refuge in the monastic Community. 

What does virtue pertaining to taking refuge in the Buddha 
mean? Among all sentient beings - bipeds, quadrupeds, those with 
many feet, those with form or without form, those with perception or 
without perception and finally the gods [belonging to the sphere of] 
Neither-Perception-Nor-Nonperception (naivasamjndndsamjndya- 
tana)* - the Tathagata is superior (adhika), he is foremost (agrya) 
and without equal. [Just as] from a cow one gets milk (kslra), from 
milk curds (dadhi), from curds [butter, from butter] ghee (sarpis) 
and from ghee the skimmings of melted butter (sarpirmanda)*, and 
just as the skimmings of melted butter are superior, foremost and 
without equal,6 - even so among all sentient beings - bipeds, qua- 



1 See T2, 601c24 ff.; Hayashi, p. 190 ff. 

2 For j^}f read with Hayashi ffiffl. 

3 Here it seems preferable not to translate dharma because, according to the 
context, rather, than 'Teaching' the meaning of 'existential constituents, facts' is 
Hnplied. This latter meaning in fully borne out in the Pali parallel given below. 

4 Cf. BHSD, p. 313a; Nyanatiloka, p. 98. 

Soothill, p. 115b (SISS9, sarpirmandd): for 'ghee' read 'skimmings of ghee'; 
«• Karashima, p. 442: HWt , "a ghee lamp"... WM- for ' dhrta-' read ' ghr- 

As for this simile occurring, though, in another context, cf. A II, p. 95: 
totu at ^P* bhikkhave gavd khiram, khiramhd dadhi... sappimhd sappimando 
attha aggam akkhdyati...; F.L. Woodward, Gradual Sayings II, PTS, 1933', p. 



1 C-3 



Buddhist Studies Review 19, 2 (2002) 

upeds... and finally the gods [belonging to the sphere of] Neither- 
'. -.rception-Nor-Nonperception - the Tathagata is superior, foremost 
and without equal. [When] there are sentient beings that have faiuV 
m the Buddha, this is called virtue pertaining to faith in what is the 

j st (agra). [Those who] are possessed of virtue pertaining to [faith 
in] what is the best, will have the good fortune to be [born] among 
gods [or] as the most splendid {srestha) among human beings; this 
is what is called virtue pertaining to [faith] in what is the best. 

What does taking refuge of one's own accord in the Dharma 
mean? As for that which signifies the existential constituents, there 
re the dharmas under (he sway of the malign influences (sdsrava), 
the dharmas free from the malign influences (andsrava), the con- 
ditioned (samskrta) and the unconditioned {asamskrta) dharmas, 
that which is free from greed (vigatardga) and undefiled (aklista), 
cessation (nirodha), Nirvana. It is the [unconditioned] dharma Nir- 
vana which, among all existential constituents, is superior, foremost 
and without equal. [Just as] from a cow one gets milk... and just as 
the skimmings of melted butter are superior, foremost and without 
equal, - even so among the so-called existential constituents - the 
dharmas under the sway of the malign influences and those free 
:rom them, the conditioned and unconditioned dharmas, that which 
is free from greed and undefiled, cessation, Nirvana - it is the dhar- 
ma Nirvana which, among all dharmas, is superior, foremost and 
without equal. [When] there are sentient beings that have faith in the 
Dharma, this is called virtue pertaining to faith in what is the best. 
[Those who] are possessed of virtue pertaining to [faith in] what is 
the best, will have the good fortune to be [born] among gods [or] as 
the most splendid among human beings; this is what is called virtue 
pertaining to [faith] in what is the best. 

What does taking refuge of one's own accord in the Samgha 
of the Noble Ones mean? As for that which is referred to as the 
Community of the Noble Ones (aryasamgha), among [all] forms of 
monastic communities and [all] kinds of assemblies in society the 
Tathagata' s Samgha is superior, foremost and without equal. [Just 






104 f.: 'Just as, monks, from a cow comes milk... from ghee the skimmings of 
ghee, and that is reckoned the best...' 

7 ^ here in the sense of 'to confess, acknowledge'; M-W^ rendering prasanna, 
'rejoicing, full of faith', seems peculiar to EA. 

18A 



Ekottaragama XXX 

a s] from a cow one gets milk... and just as the skimmings of melted 
butter are superior... without equal, - even so as for that which is 
referred to as the Community of the Noble Ones, among [all] forms 
of monastic communities and [all] kinds of assemblies in society the 
Tathagata 's Samgha is... without equal. [When there are sentient be- 
ings that have faith in the Community of the Noble Ones,] this is 
called virtue pertaining to faith in what is the best. [Those who] are 
possessed of virtue pertaining to [faith in] what is the best, will have 
the good fortune to be [born] among gods [or] as the most splendid 
among human beings; this is what is called virtue... what is the best. 

Then the Exalted One uttered the following verses: 

The first object of faith is the Buddha, foremost and 
Without equal; the second object of faith is the 
Dharma which is free from greed and attachment; 
Reverence and offerings [are due to] the Samgha of 
Men of truth (satpurusd) who are the most excellent 
Field of merit (punyaksetra). Those who know what is 
The best, will gain outstanding merit: Having been 
[Re]born as gods [or] human beings, it will go well for 
Them wherever they will be; to them, moreover, will be 
Offered the highest seats of honour and, as a matter of 
Course, they will partake of ambrosia (amrta); they will 
Wear garments adorned with the seven kinds of jewelsS, 
Being respected by everyone. [Those who know what is 
the best,] will be most conscientious in their moral 
Training; they will not be wanting in any of the spiritual 
Faculties 9 and will realise an ocean of insight-knowledge 
And wisdom. In due course they will reach the sphere of 
Nirvana 10 . [Whoever] takes this threefold refuge will 
Make good progress on his way without difficulty. - 

After listening to the Buddha's words, the bhiksus were pleased and 

respectfully.applied themselves to practice.' n 




8 Cf. BHSD, p. 450b {ratna, 'seven precious substances'). 

9 Cf. BHSD, p. 115a (s.v. indriya ); Nyanatiloka, p. 61. 

10 BHSD, p. 283b (s.v. nirvdna-dhdtu ). 

11 Cf. A II, p. 34 f.: Caltdro 'me bhikkhave aggappasdda. Katame cattdro? 
Yavatd bhikkhave sattd apadd vd dipadd vd... Tathdgato tesam aggam ak- 
khayatc... Ye... Buddhe pasannd agge te pasanna agge kho pana pasanndna*-* 



Buddhist Studies Review 19, 2 (2002) 

'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in Sra- 
».stl, at Jetr's Grove... Then the Exalted One said to the bhiksus: 
here are three [kinds of] meritorious actions (punyakriyd). Which 
~ the three? a) The meritorious action consisting in generosity (dd- 
,), in b) equilibrium (samatd) and in c) [wise] reflection (manasi- 
ra). 

What does meritorious action consisting in generosity mean?'l 

hen there is someone, happily making donations to ascetics and 

ahmins, to the poorest of the poor, to the bereaved and uprooted; 

ho, when food is needed, provides food, and when encouragement 

; needed, gives encouragement; who [offers] robes^, alms-food, 

edging, medicine for treating the sick^, fragrant substances! 

i.owers (gandhapuspa)™ and temporary accommodation unstint- 

ftgly, contenting himself with what he has on the body - this is what 

is called the meritorious action of generosity. 

What does meritorious action consisting in equilibrium mean? 
When there is someone who does not deprive of life, does not steal 
and is always possessed of modesty and conscientiousness (hrlvya- 
patrdpya); who does not take delight in evil thoughts, is not a thief, 



sggo vipdko hoti... Woodward, op. cit., p. 38 ff.: 'Monks, there are these four 
dest faiths. What four? Monks, as compared with creatures, whether footless, 
bipeds... a Tathagata... is reckoned best of them... They who have faith in the 
Buddha have faith in the best: of those who have faith in the best the result is 

oest...' 

As Woodward notes {ibid., n. 4), this discourse is included in the sutta at 
A III, p. 35 f. and also occurs at It, p. 87 ff. Whilst in the two places of A 'four 
best faiths' (/ best activity) (faith in the triple gem and in the 'Ariyan eightfold 
way' (ariye atthangike magge ) / perfecting oneself in the moral training 
cherished by the Noble Ones (ariyakantesu silesu paripurakdrino )) are ex- 
plained, in It - as in EA - 'three best faiths' are dealt with. 

In Vasubandhu (Abhidharmakos'abhdsya, ed. P. Pradhan, Patna 1975, p. 
93, 1. 5-6) is found a short quotation from SA which is a parallel to the corres- 
ponding passage in EA: ye kecid dharmah samskrtd vd 'samskrtd vd virdgas 
esdm agra dkhydyate. The same quotation also occurs in the Abhidharmakosa- 
vydkhyd (for references - to which should be added: AN II, 34 and EA, T2, 
602a 12- 13 - see Bh. Pasadika, Kanonische Zitate im Abhidharmakos'abhdsya 
des Vasubandhu, Gottingen 1989, p. 44 [125]). 

12 Cf. BSR 18, 2 (2001), p. 219, n. 5. 

13 Cf. ibid., n. 6. 

14 Cf. Karashima, p. 493, s.v. fFlp. 



Ekottaragama XXX 

much given to generosity towards people^ and who is no misery 
whose speech is conciliatory, refined and not offending anybody; 
who, living the holy life (brahmacarya), does not practise sexual in- 
tercourse; who is content with [just keeping] his own 17 frame [go- 
ing]; who does not tell lies, always paying attention to being abso- 
lutely honest, without cheating and lying; who is neither elated nor 
dejected [because of] that which the worldling esteems; who, not tak- 
ing intoxicants, never fails to avoid stupefaction; who, further- 
more 18 , suffuses one quarter [of the cardinal points] with friendli- 
ness (maitri), two quarters, three, four quarters, and also the quarters 
of the intermediate points of the compass 19 , the zenith and nadir, 
who suffuses the whole [world], boundlessly, without limits and ab- 
solutely beyond measure; who causes with a heart [full] of friendli- 
ness everything to be enveloped and [thus] realises peace of mind 
(ksema); who, moreover, suffuses one quarter [of the cardinal 
points] with a heart [full] of compassion (karund), sympathetic joy 
(muditd) and equanimity 20, two quarters...; who suffuses the whole 
[world] with a heart [full] of compassion, sympathetic joy and equa- 
nimity - this is what is called the meritorious action of equihbrium.2i 

What does the existential constituent 'meritorious action con- 
sisting in [wise] reflection' mean? When there is a bhiksu who, 
given to practice, is intent on recollection {smrti) and perfect awaken- 
ing {sambodhi); who does not succumb to attachment and with 
whom deliberation has ceased; who relies on giving up (prahdna) 



Lhav 
mer 



15 Particularly this tautology and this discourse as a whole are striking ex- 
amples of unsystematic text and of free paraphrasing in marked contrast to the 
editions of the parallel Pali Nikaya. 
16I.e.§, after CBETA. 

17 Read, after CBETA, H for E (T, Hayashi). 

18 As for the following, cf. A II, p. 128 (125): ... Idha bhikkhave ekacco pug- 
galo mettdsahagatena cetasd ekarn disatn pharitvd viharati, tathd dutiyam...; 
Woodward, op. cit., p. 132 f.: '... Herein, monks, a certain person lives irra- 
diating one quarter (of the world) with a heart possessed of amity; so also as to 
te second...' 

19 Lit.: 'eight quarters'. 

■' u ns (lit.' protecting '—sc. equilibrium) rendering upeksd, seems peculiar to EA. 
21 Cf. A III, p. 415, where action is defined as intention (cetand); cf. also Ma- 
yut. 148-50: kdya-karman, vak-karman, manah-karman (bodily, verbal and 
m ental actions). 



187 



Buddhist Studies Review 19, 2 (2002) 

md on what necessarily leads to [ultimate] release (nairydnikayA 
who, practising the dharma 'being intent on perfect awakening', is 
Intent on recollection and perfect awakening, on perfect awakening! 
'by means of] an exclamation 22 , on perfect awakening [by means of] 
he absorptions (dhydna) and [by means of] restraint (samvara); 
who does not succumb to attachment... relies on... what necessarily 
leads to [ultimate] release - this is what is called the meritorious 
.iction of [wise] reflection. These are, bhiksus, the three [kinds of] 
'Meritorious action. - Then the Exalted One uttered the following 
■/erses: 

Generosity and equilibrium - friendliness... - and 
Nurturing [wise] reflection - these are the three basics; 
The wise set great store by them; here and now they 
Reap the rewards which, of course, [ensure] heavenly 
Existence. By means of these three basics one will, 
Beyond any doubt, be born among the gods, 
lierefore, bhiksus, one should be intent on skill in means as a 
;uide-] rope to these three basics. Thus, bhiksus, you should train. 
After listening to the Buddha's words, the bhiksus were pleased j 
■nd respectfully applied themselves to practice.' 23 



Additional Abbreviation 

'BETA = revised T edition of the Chinese Buddhist Electronic 
Text Association, Taiwan 2000. 



.2 Tentatively rendering the very interesting JfJt . Could this be related to the 
xfraordinary Mahasamghika teachings described by Bareau? See Andre Bareau, 
us sectes bouddhiques du petit vehicule (EFEO), Paris 1955, p. 65: 'Dire «0 

uleur {duhkha)\» peut conduire & la Voie (mdrga)... Dire <<0 douleur!» peut 
re une aide (upakdra)...' 

j According to T2, 602, n. 13, Hayashi, Akanuma and Lancaster, the verses of. 
is discourse are related to A II, p. 32: Cattar' imdni... sangahavatthuni... ;» 
'oodward, op. cit., p. 36: '... there are these four bases of sympathy..' In spite 
'■ some thematic similarities (in Woodward's words: 'charity, kind speech, 
jing a good turn and treating all alike'), it is difficult to see any real parallel- 

n between the A and EA verses; the simile of the 'linchpin of a moving car', 
n instance, is not found in the EA verses, ending with the 'rewards ensuring 
,;venly existence' which, it seems, is not at all congruent with the preceding, 
^eription of 'wise reflection', viz. the intention to realise 'perfect awakening' 

■j 'ultimate release'. 



BOOK REVIEWS 



Trans. 
197 pp. 



The Casket of Medicine (Bhesajjamanjusa Chapters 1-18) 
Jinadasa Liyanaratne. Pali Text Society, Oxford 2002. xvm, 
£12.10. ISBN 86013 4003 2. 

An edition of Chapters 1-18 of the Bhesajjamanjusa, by _Dr 
Liyanaratne, was noticed in an earlier number of the journal (BSR 
15 1 (1998), pp.106-7). It is a pleasure to record a translation, by 
the same scholar, of that portion of the only known medical work 
written in Pali. 

In his introduction (pp.i-xv) the translator comments on the 
importance of the Bhesajjamanjusa and draws particular attention 
to problems arising from the correct identification and translation 
of many of the plant names included in it. Here and in the List of 
Abbreviations (pp.xvii-xviii) he gives valuable information about 
publications which have helped him in this task. 

The translation (pp.1-173) comprises the introductory chapter 
of the text, followed by chapters giving a general consideration ot 
drugs, etc., good living and the prevention of disease. There are 
sections on food and food preparations, liquid drugs, toxic food 
and • antidotes, different kinds of indigestion, groups of drugs, 
major and minor therapeutics, and various unfavourable things: 
signs of messengers, signs met on the way, dreams and prodromes. 
The final chapter deals with fatal diseases and the general treat- 
ment of diseases. .. _. _ 

In the introduction to. his edition of the Bhesajjamanjusa, 
Liyanaratne has already pointed out the contribution which this 
text makes to the study of Pali lexicography. At the end of this 
translation he emphasises this in the glossary (pp.175-97) of nearly 
850 selected medical and pharmacological terms, many of which 
are not found in existing dictionaries. 

K. R. Norman 



189 



EKOTTARAGAM A (XXXI) 

Translated from the Chinese Version by 

Thich Huyen-Vi and Bhikkhu Pasadika 

in collaboration with Sara Boin-Webb 

Twelfth Fascicle 

Part 21 
(The Triple Gem) 

3. i 'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 
Sravasti at Jetr's Grove, in Anathapindada's Park. Then the Exalted 
One said to the bhiksus: There are three conditions (karana) for con- 
sciousness to receive a womb (garbka). Which are the three'? Now 
there are, O bhiksus, (a) the mother wishing to have sexual inter- 
course (maithuneccha), (b) the father and mother coming together in 
one place and spending the night together. However, (c*it is not the 
ST fOT cons ™ usne * s 'from outside' (bahydt) to [be instrumen- 
tal in] bringing about rebirth (gati), and consequently an embryo 
cannot develop. n J ' u 

Moreover if there is (a) lust (rdga) and if (b) consciousness 
[ from outside ] presents itself, but if (c) there is no union of the 
fa her and mother then an embryo cannot develop. If, furthermore 
(a) toe mother does not wish [to have sexual intercourse] but if (b) 
the father and mother come together in one place and if (c) the 
former is keen on having sexual intercourse whilst the latter is 
listless, then an embryo cannot develop. If, again, (a) the father and 

Tw r , C wT e i° gether '-- and if (b > ** latter ^ burning with lust 
whilst (c) the former is listless, then an embryo cannot develop If 

(a) ttie father and mother come together..., but if (b) the father is 

Z?o m iV?T\ d r e °f * ( t } the m0ther is fri ^< to an em- 
bryo... It (a) the father and mother come together.,., but if (b) the 

latter is wanting in sexual desire and if (c) the former is icy then If 
occasionally (a) the father and mother come together... and if (b)'the 

ormer very much suffers from dropsy while (c) the latter does not! 
&♦? ° f CCasional y (f > fee father and mother come together... , bu 

f (b) the former is looking [forward ] to having offspring while (c) 
the latter is not, then... If occasionally (a) the father and mother (T2 



1 See T2, 602cl6 ff.; Hayashi, p. 192 ff. 

76 



HI 



Buddhist Studies Review 20, 1 (2003) 

603a) come together..., but if (b) the latter is looking [forward] to 
having offspring while (c) the former is not, then... If at times neither 
the father nor modier are not looking [forward] to having offspring, 
then... If at times the consciousness -genius2 is coming into the 
womb, but if the father [then] is not ready to have sex {dgamana) 
then... If at times the father and mother, as required, come together in 
one place, but if the mother [then] draws back from having sex 
then... Further, if at times the father and mother, as required, come 
together at one place, but if the father meets with a serious accident 
[even though] the consciousness-genius is present, then... If again at 
times the father and mother, as required, come together... and [even 
though] the consciousness-genius is present, but if the mother meets 
with a serious accident then... If, moreover, occasionally the father 
and mother... come together... and the consciousness-genius is 
present, but if both the father and mother are taken ill then,.. If, 
however, bhiksus, (a) the father and mother come together in one 
place and (b) both of them are in no [way] afflicted and if (c) in the 
presence of the consciousness-genius the parents are looking 
[forward] to having a child then an embryo can develop. 

These are the three conditions, bhiksus, for [consciousness] to 
receive a womb. On account of that, bhiksus, [all those who wish to 
overcome Samsara] ought to search for skill in means ( updyakausal- 

ya) to make the three conditions end (ud-^ichid). Thus, bhiksus, you 
should train. - After listening to the Buddha's words, the bhiksus 
were pleased and respectfully applied themselves to practice.' 3 



2 Wffi {cf. the above #\~Wi, consciousness 'from outside') denoting gandhar- 
va, seems peculiar to EA, Cf. BSR 12, 2 (1995), p. 165: gandharvas as the re- 
tinue of the world-guardian Dhrtarastra (Soothill, p. 341 f.); here (T2, 590b24) 
gandharva is given in Chinese transliteration. 

3 According to T2, 602, n. 26, Hayashi, Akanuma and Lancaster, this EA sutra 
parallels M I (Mahatanhasankhayasutta), p. 265 f.: tinnam kho pana bhikkhave 
sannipdtd gabbhassdvakkanti hoti: Idha mdtdpitaro ca sannipatitd honti, maid 
ca na utunl hoti, gandhabbo ca na paccupatthito hoti, ri eva tdva gabbhas- 
sdvakkanti hoti... mdtdpitaro ca sannitatitd honti, mdtd ca utunl hoti, gan- 
dhabbo ca paccupatthito hoti, evam tinnam sannipdtd gabbhassdvakkanti hoti. 
The last sentence also occurs at M II (Assalayanasutta), p. 157. LB. Horner, The 
Middle Length Sayings I, PTS, 1954, p. 321 f., translates: 'Monks, it is on the 
conjunction of three things... But if... there is here a coitus of the parents and if 
it is the mother's season and the gandhabba is present, it is on the conjunction 
of these three things that there is conception.' Apart from the place in the 

77 



Ekottaragama XXXI 

4. 'Thus have I heard. At one time... in Sravasti... Then the Exalted 
One said to the bhiksus: If there are persons [towards whom you] 
cultivate friendliness (maitri) in your hearts, [who] think [they can] 
really trust [m you] and who listen [to you] respectfully, [viz j father 
and mother brothers, family members, relatives, friends or intimates 
[you should] establish [them] in three bases (sthana) [on which they 
should take then stand] unwaveringly. Which are the three? They 
should be encouraged (sam-ut-thd, ^sthd) unwaveringly to take de- 
light (priti) in the Tathagata [thus]: He is the Tathagata who has real- 



Assalayanasutta, Homer refers to the Milindapanha and Diw in which 'the 
conjunction of three things' is quoted. She (ibid., n. 6) also draws on The M 
commentary which 'explains gandhabba as the being who is coming into the 
womb, about to come into that situation, being driven on by the mechanism of 
fT » £ f ; al n^ ^^ N ^ amoli > Bh. Bodhi, The Middle Length Dis-courses 
f^habba i995 ' r6V ' 6d 2 ° 01 ' PP - 358 mid 1233 f - « 4H on 

101 ^^^f^^^rmako^abhdsya, ed. P. Pradhan, Patna 1975 p 

—kh )hl^f ^ff? Parall l t0 the M paSsa § es; *"?**** stkdnanam 
sammukhibhavatrrmtuh kuksau garbhasyavakrantir bhavati... gandharvas ca 

pratyupasthito bhavatlti. At Bh. Pasadika, Kanonische Zitate im Abhidharma- 
kosabhatya des Vasubandhu, Gottingen 1989, p. 52 [163], further references are 
given relating to the above Sanskrit parallel: in particular see the passage at Sig 
ImdeDi^Fragmentedes Dharmaskandha . Ein Abhidharma-Text in Sanskrit 
wsGtlgu. Gottingen 1984, p. 34, 3-8, and two passages in MA. Tl, 666al0-2 
(MA version corresponding to the Assalayanasutta) and Tl 769b23-5 (MA ver 
sion corresponding to the Mahatanhasarikhayasutta) parallel T2 603al0-l Hast 
sentence of 2nd para of the above transl.). Whereas the two MA pas ages are 
nearly uniform, the EA version appreciably differs. In The Chinese Sadhyama 
Agama and the Pali Majj}uma Nikaya, Saigon 1964, p. 318, in Ss Spec Lens 

ChauXs" oTl ^Im^tf d ^i Corresponding Sutras, Thfch S 
Unau refers to Tl, 666al0-2: ... that when 3 things came together, mere would 
be conception, the maUng (sic) of father and mother, (the mother's womb) °not 

7 U 69b a 2f.5 C re n ads 1V ^ ^^ ° f SCeDtCd a ^ re * ate <P= gandhabba).' Tl, 




*A. 




am 




u* 






- r*l? 



Si 






If 





ili o 



'But then [through] the union of three things an embryo develops in the 
mother's womb]: (a) the father and mother come together in one place (b) the 
mother is 'full of essence' (- rtumat!)znd 'able to belr' (hcd^iS^LK 

S*£S? SC ^- Cd a8greg l te ^fidhaskandha) has arrived. [Through] L union 
of these three things an embryo develops in the mother's womb] ' 

The text discussed by Minh Chau significantly differs from this latter MA 
passage only m one place: MM '(the mother's womb) not full'. In all ?SccH- 
hood this is just a corruption of the above-cited MWiffi ° 

78 



Buddhist Studies Review 20, 1 (2003) 

ised absolute truth (paramarthdgata)*, the Fully and Completely 
Enlightened One, perfect in knowledge and conduct, the Blessed 
One, Knower of the Universe, the Incomparable One (anuttara- 
purusa), the Teaching Guide [to show sentient beings] the Way 
(mdrgadharmasdrathiy, the Teacher of Gods and Men, the Bud- 
dha, the Exalted One. 

Again, they should be encouraged to direct their attention to 
the Teaching [thus]: The Tathagata 's Dharma is well proclaimed, in- 
viting (aihipasyikaf , in the highest degree (paramatah) making for 
exquisiteness (suksmatd), yielding immediate results {sdmdrstika)7 
and thus to be understood by the wise (vedaniyo vijnaih)*. 

Similarly, they should be encouraged to contemplate and 
honour (^Iman) this Order of Disciples, the Tathagata' s Sravaka- 
samgha, [thus]: [Among them] prevails absolute concord (sdma- 
gn)9, they walk in the right path (nydyapratipanna)™, are endowed 
with all virtues 11 and have achieved perfection in moral training, 
concentration and wisdom, in [ultimate] freedom {vimukti) and in- 
sight-knowledge of this freedom, that is to say the Order of Dis- 
ciples, the four pairs [of noble persons] and the eight [kinds of 
dryasyi. This is the Tathagata' s Sravakasamgha, worthy of respect 
(gauravdrha) and worthy of veneration^; this is the world's 
incomparable field of merit (punyaksetra). Whoever, bhiksus, trains 
in these three bases will achieve great results (phalavipdka). Thus, 
bhiksus, you should train. - After listening to the Buddha's words, 



4 ]g]§L for the common arhat (cf., for example, Mahavy. 4). 

5 ^Jli ° W&M ior anuttarah purusadamyasdratih (Mahavyut. 9-10). 

6 Mahavyut. 1296; EA lit.: ffiM , apratighdta, 'without keeping back'. 

7 Here the EA rendering ( £ ifrbJcH ) exegetically tallies with that of PTSD (and 
Childers) s.v. sanditthika, whilst at Mahavyut. 1292 the Tibetan and Chinese 
translations are literalisms. 

8 Mahavyut. 1297. 

9 This recalls sdmlclpratipanna (Mahavyut. 1123). 

10 Lit.: 'without error and confusion'. 

1 1 As for ijikfe , see Karashima, p. 120. 

12 See PTSD s.v. purisa (purisayugdni, puvisapuggala) and yuga. 

13 nj j| rendering daksiyfya, may be peculiar to EA. 

79 



■> 



Ekottaragama XXXI 

ST ^ PleaS6d «« ^"fully appHed themselves to 

head at Tthe Exalted ^'sffSJ^^* 88 - He bowed d ° w » his 
bhiksu said to the Exalted oS n^T & ° ne ^ de ' ™ en ** 
bhiksus Sariputra and XdealvL™ T " S {samud *™™) of the 
many [instances ofj mis«S& -f ? r ver y Wlcked = there are 
say so, demanded thSte Si™ f fan J heir P art J' ~ Do not 
the Tathagata, m t en £ f™i-<& * ou f whose heart takes delight in 
conduct ^Z^^keShi) f nd Maud g a Wana's 
ous. - Now the hhitou KctoUto « M^f?i fa) ^ nd , not at aI1 "ivirtu- 
and a third time: Whafthe Tath^t, i th e Ex «hed One a second 
to). However, the inLlions of K^ M ^ e ^ not false («&**- 
yayana are very wicked mel h«v. n ?US S J lnputra md Maudgal- 
Vou are a foolS iXfittK™^ ° f meri£ ^^/am«fa). - 
what the Tathagata savsRv h* , ° n S you do not - «>«. *"■* 

^ariputra and SgSyaLteT 8 ^'l ^ ** the bh *^ 

instance of] nriscoSSK^^^J^ ^ is now t™* "" 
the consequence [of it] P * at before lon S y° u will face 

'»*«^£S^S l S^^ b ^^ his b ^ "ecarne 
they turned pea-sized iS f °f sesame seeds, [then] 

*. - «£*, ^ass-says srr 



14 For the Pali parallel see A I, p 22? (TIT 7«v v 

■sutaWia* ma/Wey^^ w /^ va - amaccdva Mk'Z -V'^- '^W^* ye ca 
nesu_ samadapetabbd... Buddhe weceaZalt. 1-°^ It te VO - tXsu &*• 
gam... svdkhydto Bhagavatd dhamm/ , ad \ samada P^ bbd. , . iti pi so Bha- 
Sho F.L. Woodward' a^/S^f^ sLkasal 

...one for whom you have fellow-fed 2£ . LHL I' P l 202 f " ^nslates: 
listened to, whether friends or Tmimatl or k£™ Wh ° thmk * ou ^uld be 

One e , S p hamma ... They w^gSS^^E^^W 

15 I.e. fruit of the emblic myrobalan. 
To I.e. size of cupped hands. 

80 



Buddhist Studies Review 20, 1 (2003) 

scesses, that bhiksu' s] body broke up, his life came to an end and he 
was reborn in the Lotus Hell (padmaniraya). 

When Venerable Maha-Maudgalyayana heard that Kokalika 's 
life had come to an end, he went to where the Exalted One was, 
bowed down his head at [the latter' s] feet and sat down at one side. 
Instantly 17 he rose from his seat [again] and asked the Exalted One: 
Where was the bhiksu Kokalika reborn? - When his life had come to 
an end, he was reborn in the Lotus Hell, replied the Exalted One. - 
Now I would like to go to that hell, said Venerable M., in order to 
instruct that person. - You need not go to him, M., remarked the Ex- 
alted One. ~ I [still] would like to go... to instruct that person, re- 
peated M. Thereafter the Exalted One remained silent and did not re- 
ply. Then, as^fast as a strong man bends his arm, Maha-M. disap- 
peared from SravastI and arrived in the Lotus Hell. Just at that time 
the bhiksu Kokalika's body was all ablaze, and there were a hundred 
head of cattle ploughing into his tongue. Sitting cross-legged (pary- 

ankam dbhujya) in the air and snapping his fingers* 8 , Maha-M. sig- 
nalled [his arrival] to that bhiksu, and at once the latter, while look- 
ing upwards, asked him: Who are you? - Kokalika, M. answered, I 
am a disciple of Sakyamuni Buddha. My personal name is Maudgal- 
yayana, my family name is Kolita 19 . - Having recognised M., the 
bhiksu spat these malicious words [at him]: Now I am sunk in this 
miserable destiny (durgad) but, alas, without being spared from 
your presence. - He had hardly uttered these words when, consequen- 
tially, a thousand head of cattle appeared, ploughing into his tongue. 
When M. had witnessed that, it saddened him all the more, [realis- 
ing] that in [Kokalika] there was no change of heart making him 
repent. 

Maudgalyayana returned to SravastI and went to where the 
Exalted One was. He bowed down... and stood at one side. Then he 
reported the whole matter to the Exalted One who replied: I told you 
before that it was not necessary to go to see that wicked man. - On 
this occasion, the Exalted One uttered the following verses: 



O^^Bl 



17 According to the reading of T2, 603, n. 19, and Hayashi against that of CB 
ETA. 

1 8 See Karashima, p. 440. 

19 See BHSD, p. 194b. 

81 



Ekottaragama XXXI 

The man was bom to have a hatchet in his mouth with 
Which he cuts up himself. Through his malicious words 
He has rendered both his and my breathing (asvasa- 

Obnoxious (aprasadika), [whereas breathing] to mid out 
Is [otherwise] entirely wholesome. Such [a personl is 

ZFl "J a i m ? rable desti ny; his action was extremely 
Wicked. Such a wicked [action] directed against I 
Tathagata either of the past or present20, [entails] the 
Gravest [consequences] : Thirteen thousand and six 
Aeons] and yet] one [more of staying in ] the HeU o f 
[Hot] Ashes (bhasmanirayaXHe who commits [wickedl 
Actions by deed or word [such as] abusing noble 
Persons, will go to that [hell] - 
Thereupon the Exalted One said to the bhiksus: You should train in 
tee things to perfect your conduct. In which tee? In vimious con- 
duct by deed, word and thought. Thus, bhiksus, you should tain - 
After listening to the Buddha's words, the bhiksus were pleased and 
respectfully applied themselves to practice '21 ' ' pcdM:Qana 



20 After Hayashi's Japanese transl. (p. 195); cf. also Hackmann, p. 115, under 

21 For a parallel to this EA sutra, which includes some colourful details of th, 

gallant papikanam icchanai va^^n^^,^T U M^Tl'"f^'- 

S^^t ,anda ed!: W^^flSift; 

tord m iter de SlreS arc Sariputta and 4ggallana! Zy ^ ^ed bywick d del 
sires. ... i n s00th t0 every man ^^ ^^ y wickcu ae 

A hatchet grows within his mouth, 
Wherewith the fool, whene'er he speaks 
Onn iSRf wj a ^aksamiss, doth cut himself.,.' 

Koklitostor^slold. ' ^ DaVidS giVeS fUrthCT P )aces where *e popular 



82 



Buddhist Studies Review 20, 2 (2003) 



Tibetan Texts: 

Kah-thog Tshe-dbang Nor-bu: The Collected Works (gSuri 'bum) 
of Kah-thog Rig-'dzin Chen-po Tshe dBari-nor-bu, 6 vols, 
Dalhoiisie 1977. 

rGya nag hwa shang gi byung tshul grub mtha 'i phyogs 
snga bcas sa bon tsarn srnospa (vol.V,pp.419-50) 

Selected Writings of Kah-thog Rig-'dzin Tshe-dban-nor- 
bu, Darjeeling 1973. 
Klong-chen Rab-'byams-pa Dri-med 'Od-zer: mDzod bdun, 7 vols, 
ed. by the Yeshe De Project, India 1992. 

sDegsum snyingpo don 'grel gnas lugs rin po che'i mdzod 
(vol.VII, pp.51-347). 
'Jigs-med Gling-pa: Klong chen snying tig, 3 vols, ed. Ngavvang 
Sopa. New Delhi 1973. 

rDo rie'i tshig rkang gi don 'grel kun mkhyen zhal lung 
(vol.111 (hum), pp.520-46). 

rDo rje theg pa smin grol lam gyi rim pa las 'phros pa 'i 
man ngag gi rgyab brten padma dkar po (vol. Ill (hum), 
pp.463-516). 

rDzogs pa chen po kong chen snying tig gi gdod ma i 
mgon po'i Jam gyi rim pa'ikhrid yig ye shes bla ma (vol. Ill 
(hum), pp.293-463). 
gNubs Sangs-rgyas Ye-shes: rNal 'byor mig gi bsam or bSam gtan 
migsgron, ed. 'Khor-gdon gTer-sprul Chi-med-rig-'dzin, Leh 
1974. 
Nyang-ral Nyi-raa 'Od-zer: Chos 'byung me tog snying pa, facsmile 
in Meizezahl 1985. 

Author Unknown: 

Rnying ma 'irgyud bcu bdun, A 'dzom chos sgar redaction, 
3 vols, ed. Sanje Dorje, New Delhi 1973-7. 

sBa bzhed, ed. mGon po rgyal mtsham, Beijing 1982. 
[trans.: see above under Wangdu] 



204 






EKOTTARAGAMA (XXXII) 

Translated from the Chinese Version by 

Thich Huyen-Vi and Bhikkhu Pasadika 

in collaboration with Sara Boin-Webb 

Twelfth Fascicle 

Part 21 
(The Triple Gem) 

6. * 'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 
Sravasti, at Jetr's Grove, in Anathapindada's Park. Then the Exalted 
One said to the bhiksus: If a bhiksu is possessed of three qualities 
(dharma), he will well experience happiness in this life (drste dhar- 
me) and realise, through great perseverance and energy, the end of 
the existential constituents under the sway of the malign influences 
(sdsravadharma) 2 . Which are the three? There is a bhiksu who a) is 
composed (samdhita) with respect to the sense faculties (indriya)!, 
b) moderate in eating 4 and c) who does not neglect his walking- 
exercises (cankrama) 5 . 

How is a bhiksu composed with respect to the sense faculties? 
In this regard, when seeing a form with the eye, he neither starts in- 
dulging in notions (samjnd) [concerning that form] nor does he re- 
call [any notions]6. [Thus, by seeing with perfect mindfulness,] he 



1 See T2, 603cl8 ff.; Hayashi, p. 196 ff. 

2 Cf. BSR 19, 2 (2002), p. 184, where this technical term also occurs against 
the usual non-technical dsravaksaya at T2, 582b28 / BSR 10, 2 (1993), p. 220 
and passim. 

3 Rendering indriyesu guptadvaratd peculiar to EA (cf. SWTF fasc. 5, p. 330b; 
fasc. 11, p. 182a). 

4 As for bhojane mdtrajnatd with references, see SWTF fasc. 11, ibid.; for 
mdtrajnatd ( s.v. guptadvaratd) read mdtrajnatd (not indicated in the review at 
BSR 19, 1 (2002), p. 64 ff.). 

5 Rather a free rendering of jdgaryam I °ydm(?) anuyukta ('given to wakeful- 
ness'); see BHSD, p. 240a; SWTF fasc. 12, p. 291b. 

6 As for Wti&, anu - ^smr, see Karashima, pp. 405, 595 f. For Pali parallels to 
this rather deviating dgama version or quite free Chinese rendering of EA see 
CPD I, p. 220, s.v. anu-vyanjana-ggdhi(n), e.g. D I, p. 70: bhikkhu cakkhund 
rupam disvd na nimittaggdhl hoti ndnuvyanjanaggdhi. What in EA are notions 
Presenting themselves and not to be indulged in and past notions that should not 
be recalled, is very concretely explained in Buddhaghosa. See Bhadanta Revata- 

205 



Buddhist Studies Review 20, 2 (2003) 

realises purification (visuddhi) regarding the faculty of the eye. By 
means [of this achievement] he aspires to [ultimate] freedom (vimuk- 
ti), always guarding the faculty of the eye. When hearing a sound 
with the ear, smelling a scent with the nose, recognising a flavour 
with the tongue, feeling tangibles? with the body or being aware of 
mental objects with his mind, he neither starts indulging in notions 
nor does he recall [any notions]. [Thus, by... being aware with per- 
fect mindfulness,] he realises purification regarding the faculty of... 
the mind, and by means [of this achievement] he aspires to [ultimate] 
freedom, always guarding the faculty of... the mind. Thus a bhiksu is 
composed with regard to the sense faculties. 

How is a bhiksu moderate in eating? In this regard [he takes 
his food,] thinking where it has come from, and not in order to be- 
come plump {sthula) and beautiful (gaura). [He eats] only 8 with a 
view to supporting (T2, 604a) the body and keeping the four phy- 






dhamma (ed.), Visuddhimaggo, Vol. I, with Paramatthamanjusatikd, Varanasi 
1969, p. 65 f.: itthipurisanimittam vd subhanimittddikam vd kilesavatthubhutam 
nimittam na ganhdti, ditthamatte yeva santhdti\ ndnuvyanjanaggahiti ... hattha- 
pddasitahasitakathita-... bhedam dkdram na ganhdti... Bhikkhu Nanamoli, The 
Path of Purification, Colombo 1956, p. 21: '... he does not apprehend the sign 
of woman or man, or any sign that is a basis for defilement such as the sign of 
beauty, etc.: he stops at what is merely seen. Nor the particulars: he does not 
apprehend any aspect classed as hand, foot, smile, laughter, talk... ' 

In connection with samjna in EA cf. n. 232 on the important passage at 
M I, p. Ill f. (Madhupindikasutta) in Bh. Nanamoli, Bh. Bodhi, The Middle 
Length Discourses of the Buddha, Boston 1995, 2001, p. 1205: "This passage 
shows how papanca, emerging from the process of cognition, gives rise to per- 
ceptions and notions that overwhelm and victimise their hapless creator... What 
is perceived as 'this' is thought about in its differences and is thus diversified 
from 'that' and from 'me'. This diversification - involving craving for form, 
wrong view about permanence of form, etc., and the conceit T am' - leads to 
preoccupation with calculating the desirability of past and present forms with a 
view to obtaining desirable forms in the future." 

As for 'notions and recalled notions' in EA, see Alex Wayman, 'Regard- 
ing the Translation of the Buddhist Terms sannd I samjna, vinndna I vijndna', 
in: O.H. de A. Wijesekera (ed.), Malalasekera Commemoration Volume, 
Colombo 1976, pp. 324-35, for critical appraisal. Interestingly, in the given con- 
text Wayman quotes David Hume: 'All ideas are borrowed from preceding per- 
ceptions. Our ideas are borrowed from preceding perceptions. Our ideas of ob- 
jects, therefore, are derived from that source' (loc. cit., p. 327). 

7 I.e. sprastavya; cf. Karashima, p. 483: jSH'/ff... sparsa. 

8 For this special meaning of M see Karashima, p. 338. 



Ekottaragama XXXII 

sical elements {caturmahdbhutdf in shape (sakala), [reflecting:] 
Now I should check former pangs [of hunger] and prevent new ones 
from arising, letting the body have [enough] strength to practise the 
[Noble] Path and lest the holy life (brahmacarya) be impeded. - 
[Take] for example a bad abscess that has developed on a man's or 
woman's body. Someone applies a salve to that abscess, and this 
[salve] is applied for the [sole] purpose of occasioning a cure. Simi- 
larly, O bhiksus, a bhiksu is moderate in eating, thinking where the 
food [that he is taking] has come from; he does not [take it] in order 
to become stout... and [he eats] only with a view to supporting the 
body... lest the holy life be impeded. - [Take again] for example a 
cart [carrying] heavy loads. Its wheels are greased for the [sole] pur- 
pose of delivering heavy [loads] at their destinations. Similarly, a 
bhiksu is moderate in eating, thinking... he does not [take food] in 
order to become stout... Thus a bhiksu is moderate in eating. 

How does a bhiksu not neglect his walking-exercises? In this 
regard, in the first and last [watches of] the night he diligently and 
mindfully takes his walking-exercises without being mistaken about 
the periods [of day and night]. Continually he directs his attention to 
making use of 10 the aids to enlightenment {bodhipaksa) n . During 
daytime, whether he is walking or sitting, he wisely reflects on the 
eminent Teaching (pranltadharma) [and thus] rids himself of the 
hindrances {nivarana) diminishing [all his efforts]^. Again, in the 
first [watch of] the night, whether he is walking or sitting, he wisely 
reflects... and rids himself...; in the middle [watch of] the night, lying 
on his right sidei3, he directs his attention to waking upi4 [again]; in 
the last [watch of] the night he rises [and starts] walking; he wisely 
reflects on the profound Teaching, ridding himself of the hindrances 



9 See Nyanatiloka, pp. 44 (s.v. dhdtu), 87 (s.v. mahd-bhuta). 

10 Lit.: 'mindfully he keeps his mind staying in'. 

1 1 See BHSD, p. 402b; Nyanatiloka, p. 31 (s.v. bodhipakkhiya-dhamma). 

12 Lit.: 'overshadowing hindrances'; cf. Karashima, p. 546: IHH , 'covering; 
covering for the sake of concealment'? As for nivarana, nivarana, see BHSD, p. 
311a. 

1 3 % = 'rib'; here the character renders pdrsva, 'region of the ribs, side'; cf. 
Mahavyut. 4006 (77). 

14 Lit.: 'bright, clear; to understand'. 

207 



Buddhist Studies Review 20, 2 (2003) 

diminishing [his efforts]. Thus a bhiksu does not neglect his 
walking-exercises. 

If a bhiksu is composed with respect to the sense faculties, 
moderate in eating and if he does not neglect his walking-exercises, 
always mindful and directing his attention to making use of the aids 
to enlightenment, he will surely reap two results: in this life he will 
realise the [state of] a non-returner {andgdmin)^. Just as a skilled 
charioteer drives his chariot [pulled] by four horses, keeping to the 
smooth surface of the middle of the road, and [thus] definitely [pro- 
ceeds] without delay wherever he wishes to go, - even so this bhi- 
ksu will definitely [reap excellent results]. If he is composed... 
making use of the aids to enlightenment, he will surely reap two 
results: in this life he will be rid of the malign influences {kslndsra- 
va) and become a non-returner. - After listening to the Buddha's 
words, the bhiksus were pleased and respectfully applied themselves 
to practice.' 16 

7. 'Thus have I heard. At one time... in Sravastl... Then the Exalted 
One said to the bhiksus: There are three [kinds of] severe affliction. 
Which are the three? There are the severe afflictions [caused by] a) 
the windy humour of the body (vdta), b) the phlegmatic humour 
(slesman) and c) cold (sita). These are, O bhiksus, the three [kinds 
of] severe affliction. But there also are available three [kinds of] 
effective medicine for the three severe afflictions. Which are the 
three? When somebody is affected with the windy humour of the 
body, an effective medicine will be a) ghee (ghrta); what one does in 
this case is to take ghee. When somebody is afflicted with the phleg- 
matic humour, an effective medicine will be b) honey (madhu); what 
one does... , and when somebody is afflicted with cold, an effective 
medicine will be c) sesame oil (taila); what one does in this case is to 



1 5 Inconsistently here the text does not make it clear which is the second result. 
In the above first para, of this sutra , however, it says that a) happiness will be 
experienced in this life and b) the malign influences be brought to an end. Cf. 
also below the second but last sentence of this EA discourse. 

16 Cf. A I, p. 113 f.: Tlhi bhikkhave dhammehi samanndgato bhikkhu apanna- 
katam patipadam patipanno hoti yoni c' assa araddha hoti dsavdnam khaya- 
ya...\ F.L. Woodward, Gradual Sayings I, PTS, 1932, p. 97 ff.: 'Monks, 
possessed of three qualities a monk is proficient in the practice leading to the 
Sure Course, and he has strong grounds for the destruction of the asavas...' 

208 



Ekottaragama XXXII 

take 17 sesame oil. These are, bhiksus, the three [kinds of] se-vere 
affliction and their respective cure. 

Similarly, bhiksus, there are the following three [kinds of] se- 
vere affliction. Which are the three? a) Covetousness (lobha) / at- 
tachment (anunaya), b) hatred (dvesa) / aversion (pratigha) and c) 
ignorance (avidyd) / delusion {moha) - these, bhiksus, are the three 
[kinds of] severe affliction. But there also are available three [kinds 
of] effective medicine for the three severe afflictions. Which are the 
three? When there are covetousness and attachment, one [should] 
have recourse to a) repulsiveness (asubha) as remedy (pratikdra) by 
way of reflecting on what is repulsive. [When] one is afflicted with 
hatred and aversion, one [should] have recourse to b) friendliness 
(maitriyz as remedy by way of cultivating friendliness in one's 
heart. [When] one is afflicted with ignorance and delusion, one 
[should] have recourse to c) wisdom (prajnd) as remedy by way of 
[insight into] dependent origination (pratltyasamutpdda). These are, 
bhiksus, the three [kinds of] severe affliction and their respective 
cure. Accordingly, bhiksus, you should aspire to skill in means to 
avail yourselves of 19 the three [kinds of] remedy. Thus, bhiksus, 
you should train. - After listening to the Buddha's words, the bhi- 
ksus were pleased... to practice.' 

8. 'Thus have I heard. At one time... in Sravastl... Then the Exalted 
One said to the bhiksus: There are three bad practises. Which are the 
three? Bad practice of body, speech and mind. These, O bhiksus, 
are the three bad practices. One should aspire to skill in means to 
cultivate three good practices. Which are the three? Somebody 
whose practice of body, speech and mind is bad, should cultivate 
good practice of body, speech and mind. - Then the Exalted One 
uttered the following verses: 

One should guard against bad practice of body and 
Cultivate good practice of body; it [should always] be 



17 'To take', according to the Chinese, in the sense of 'to drink'. As regards 
actual practice, however, one would expect that sesame oil is 'applied', for the 
third 'severe affliction' is 'cold' (&), i.e. low temperature' - it is not m, 'the 
common cold' that one catches. 

18 Cf. Karashima, p. 56, s.v. M>L\ 

19 Lit.: 'to link up with'. 

209 



Buddhist Studies Review 20, 2 (2003) 



Kept in mind to give up bad practice of body, and good 
Practice of body should be learnt. One should guard 
Against bad practice of speech... and mind and 
Cultivate good practice of speech... and mind; it 
[Should always] be kept in mind to give up bad practice 
Of speech... and mind, and good practice of speech... 
And mind should be learnt. 2 
[Good] practice of body is excellent, and 
[Good] practice of speech likewise, to be sure. 
[Good] practice of mind is excellent, and the same 
Holds true of [good practice] in every respect. - 
Restraint in speech, purity of mind and no bad practice 
Of body - by realising 21 purity in these three practices 
One will reach the [Great] Sage's 22 state of the 
Unconditioned (asamskrtasthdna). 
Thus, bhiksus, one should give up the three bad practices and cul- 
tivate the three good practices, and thus, O bhiksus, you should 
train. - After listening to the Buddha's words, the bhiksus were 
pleased... to practice.' 






20 As a parallel to this EA sutra T2, 604, n. 11, Akanuma, Hayashi and Lan- 
caster give It 64-5 [?]. Thematically there is some agreement between EA and It 
54-5, i.e. It, chapter 3, suttas 15 and 16: vuttam hetam bhagavatd, vuttam 
arahata ti me sutam - tlnimani, bhikkhave, duccaritdni \ katamani tlni ? kaya- 
duccaritam, vaclduccaritam, manoduccaritam... tlnimani, bhikkhave, sucari- 
tdni... F.L. Woodward, The Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, Part II, 
Uddna: Verses of Uplift and Itivuttaka: As it was Said, PTS, 1935, p. 157: 
"This was said by the Exalted One.., 'Monks, there are these three evil practices. 
What three? Evil practice of body, speech and mind... Monks, there are these 
three good practices... '." 

Of the following four lines of the EA verses (Chinese text) the first two 
have parallels in the Udanavarga (quoted in the Abhidharmakosabhasya, ed. P. 
Pradhan, Patna 1975, p. 208, 21-2), Dhp etc. The first to mention the EA verses 
in question as being a parallel to the Udanavarga and Dhp was Kotatsu Fujita in 
Kusharon shoin no Agongyo ichiran, Sapporo 1984, p. 15. See Bh. Pasadika, 
Kanonische Zitate im Abhidharmakosabhasya des Vasubandhu, Gottingen 
1989, p. 77 [284] (with full references): 

kdyena samvarah sddhu sddhu vdcdtha samvarah \ 
manasd samvarah sddhu sddhu sarvatra samvarah \ \ 

21 See Hackmann, p. 60, s.v. H„. pratipatti. 

22 Ibid., p. 239 f., s.v. f[lj, on Taoist terms and their Buddhist adaptation; 
Soothill, p. 166a. 

210 



BOOK REVIEWS 

The Discipline in Four Parts. Rules for Nuns according to the 
Dharmaguptakavinaya. Ann Heirman. 3 Parts. Motilal Banar- 
sidass, Delhi 2002. XIV, 1211 pp. Rs 1,595. ISBN 81-208-1800-8. 

The purpose of the present publication is 'on the one hand, to give 
an annotated English translation of the Chinese version of the 
Bhiksunlvibhahga (i.e. discipline for nuns) of the Dharmaguptaka- 
vinaya '(Taisho Shinshu Daizokyo, vol.22, no. 1428, pp. 714-778), 
and on the other hand, to study the life and the career of a 
Buddhist nun as described in the Vinaya literature' (p. IX). 

The publication is divided into three parts: part I (pp. XIV, 1- 
239), the 'Introduction', informs us about the Dharmaguptaka 
tradition (pp.1 1-61), discusses the career of a bhiksunl (pp. 63-1 16) 
including her ordination as a novice, the probationary period as a 
student (siksamana) and the ordination as a nun. Then follows a 
survey of the seven groups of offences, which constitute the 
Pratimoksa of the Bhiksunls, the determination and punishment 
of an offence (pp. 117-211) and, finally, three important cere- 
monies for the monastic life, viz. the posadha, pravarana and 
kathina ceremony (pp.21 3-39). Part II comprises a translation of 
the Bhiksunlvibhahga of the Dharmaguptakas (pp. 243-983). Part 
III contains several indices: (1) Index of technical terms: Buddhist 
Sanskrit - Chinese (pp. 987-1048); (2) Glossary of technical terms: 
Chinese - Buddhist Sanskrit (pp. 1049-67); (3) Glossary of tech- 
nical terms: English - Chinese - Buddhist Sanskrit (pp. 1069-83); 
(4) Index of Proper Names: Buddhist Sanskrit - Chinese (pp. 1085- 
91); (5) Glossary of proper names: Chinese - Buddhist Sanskrit 
(pp. 1093-5), and (6) Concordance of the Precepts for Bhiksus and 
Bhiksunls of the Dharmaguptakavinaya (pp. 1097-1 109). The vol- 
ume is concluded by a 'List of Abbreviations and Symbols' (pp. 
1111-16), a Bibliography (pp. 11 17-44), and, finally, the Chinese 
text of the Bhiksunlvibhahga of the Dharmagupatakas (pp. 11 45- 
1211). 

During the last few years, research in the field of Buddhist 
monastic discipline for nuns has increased. After the translation of 
the BhiksunTpratimoksa of the Mahasamghika-Lokottaravadinsby 
Edith Nolo't {Regies de Discipline des Nonnes Bouddhistes, Paris 
1991), a study of the rules for Theravada nuns was produced by 
Ute Hiisken (Die Vorschriften fur die buddhistische Nonnen- 

211 



Buddhist Studies Review 21, 1 (2004) 

focuses on sila, citta and prajna. And in Chapter X the five 
skandhas ? appear and there is an exposition of the Buddha's 
attributes . All these topics figure prominently in the earlier 
Dharma teachings. Here, however, they are all reorientated and 
expanded to conform to the Yogacara system. 

In the light of this, it is possible to see Yogacara as a further 
teaching, going deeper and more explicitly into the original 
doctrines. Just as suggested in the Samdhinirmocanasutra, in fact, 
a pattern of a very ancient practice may also be seen here. The 
Vimalakirtinirdesasutra has an early section in which Vimalaklrti 
questions the arhat Mahakatyayana on his practice of explaining 
in detail some of the Buddha's brief sayings 79 . In a sense, early 
Mahayana and Yogacara follow this same practice in a rather 
more expanded manner, and developed in depth. Thus it can be 
said that Yogacara, by retaining and developing the ancient 
teachings and terminologies, demonstrates its ancestry. In so 
doing it shows how it is firmly linked to and is part of the evolution 
of Indian Buddhism as a whole. 



(To be concluded) 



78 SGV. 

E. Lamotte, tr., The Teaching of Vimalaklrti (Vimalakirtinirdesa), Engl, 
transl. by S. Boin, London 1976, p.63 and n.50, with Pali references. 

58 



EKOTTARAGAMA (XXXIII) 

Translated from the Chinese Version by 

Thich Huyen-Vi and Bhikkhu Pasadika 

in collaboration with Sara Boin-Webb 

Twelfth Fascicle 

Part 21 
(The Triple Gem) 

9. i 'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in 
SravastI, at Jetr's Grove, in Anathapindada's Park. Then, in time, 
many bhiksus put on their [outer] robes and took up their alms- 
bowls [in order to] enter the city to beg for alms-food. Now the fol- 
lowing occurred to that group of bhiksus: At this time it is still [too] 
early for us to enter the city and beg for alms-food. Now all of us 
could go to the whereabouts of the adherents of other teachings (an- 
yatlrthya) and brahmin [ascetics]. - So all of them went to the place 
where [the followers] of other teachings and brahmin [ascetics] 
were. Having arrived, they exchanged friendly greetings 2 [with 
them] and sat down at one side. Then the brahmin [ascetics] asked 
the [Buddhist] Sramanas: The hermits Gautama always deals with 
sense-pleasures, forms, feelings and perception. 4 How does he 
differ from [us when] he deals with these [topics]? What we deal 
with likewise is what the ascetic [Gautama] treats, and what he treats 
likewise is what we deal with. The teaching he sets forth and the 
teaching we set forth are identical; his instructions and our instruc- 
tions are the same. - When that group of bhiksus had heard this 
statement, they rose from their seats and left together without any 
good or bad words, [but] thinking: We should go to the Exalted One 
and ask him about the meaning of this [statement]. 

After their [almsround and] meal, that group of bhiksus went 
to the place where the Exalted One was. On their arrival they bowed 
down their heads at his feet and sat down at one side. They told the 
Exalted One what they had been asked by the brahmin [ascetics 



See T2, 604c7 ff.; Hayashi, p. 198 ff. 
Lit.: 'they enquired after each other'. 
See Soothill, p. 416a (jlti, mdrgapurufd). 

The Pali parallel (for references see below, n. 14 ) has kdmdnam... rii- 
vedandnam pariMam panndpeti. 

59 



1 
2 
3 
4 
Pdnam 



Buddhist Studies Review 21, 1 (2004) 

whose statement] occasioned [their - the bhiksus' - uncertainty] to 
persist. - When you are asked this question by [adherents of] other 
[teachings and] brahmin [ascetics], the Exalted One said to the bhik- 
sus, you should reply to them in this way (prakdra), viz. with a 
[counter-]question: As for sense- pleasures, what is enjoying 
(dsvdda) them like and what is their wretchedness (ddinava) 
[because of which] they should be given up (ytyaf)! As for forms,... 
as for feelings5, what is enjoying them like and what is their wretch- 
edness [because of which desire for them] should be given up? - 
When you reply to the brahmin [ascetics] with a [counter-] question 
thus formulated, they will fall silent and make no reply [on their 
part]. However, should there be anyone who has something to say, 
he will be unable to explain this [matter] in a profound way. [The 
followers of other teachings] will be all the more confused (sam- 
^muh) and at their [wits'] end; for this is not their field (visaya). To 
be sure, O bhiksus, I tell [you that] there is nobody [in the world 
with its] Mara, Mara gods, Sakra and Brahma, the four World- 
Guardians, [with its] sramanas and brahmins, human and non- 
human beings who could explain this [matter] in a profound way 
except (T2, 605a) the Tathagata, the Fully Enlightened One, [anyone 
among] the many noble [disciples] of the Tathagata [or] anybody 
who has received my teaching. 

As for sense -pleasures, what is enjoying them like? There are 
the so-called five sense- pleasures. Which are the five? When the eye 
sees forms eye-consciousness is caused to arise [, followed by] 
excessive fondness (bhakti) [for forms], ever-present in mankind 
[and giving it] complete satisfaction (paritosa). When the ear hears 
sounds, the nose smells scents, the tongue recognises flavours and 
when tangibles 6 are felt with the body [the respective kinds of 
consciousness are] caused to arise [, followed by] excessive fond- 
ness [for the respective sense-objects], ever-present in mankind [and 
giving it] complete satisfaction. Now when on account of these five 






5 Whilst above in the EA text four topics are mentioned, viz. three tallying 
with those of the Pali parallel and additionally 'perception', in this place samjnd 
is omitted. 

6 Cf. BSR 20, 2 (2003), p. 206, n. 7. 

60 






Ekottaragama XXXIII 

sense-pleasures [one's] mind experiences pleasure and pain?, this is 
called enjoyment of sense-pleasures. 

As for sense-pleasures, what is their wretchedness? Now there 
is a son of good family who - for his livelihood - trains to be- 
come proficient in many a field: either in farming or writing or 
[public] service or calculating or pretension to empowerments or 
engraving or courier service or royal service. He does not avoid 
[exposing] his body to heat and cold, [and in his] training he works 
hard and zealously, [taking great] pains and without sparing him- 
self 9 . Becoming rich and making a fortune by taking so much 
trouble - that is great wretchedness for the sake of sense- pleasures. 
In this world all suffering is due to the attachment (sneha)™ to and 
desire (abhidhyd) for them. 

[If], however, that son of good family works so hard but does 
not gain any wealth, he worries too much and his suffering is indes- 
cribable. [In this situation] he thinks to himself: I have achieved 
something that deserves praise; I have applied all methods and 
carried out all plans, and yet I earn no money. If one compares [the 
performance] with its [outcome], one should think of giving up. - 
This points to the desirability of giving up sense-pleasures. 

Furthermore, while carrying out his plans, that son of good 
family may earn money; and with that earned money he may, in an 
intelligent manner, undertake a big [project]. Continually he is on his 
guard for fear that the king might order [his property] to be confis- 
cated, that thieves might secretly steal it, water might sweep it away 
[or] that fire might consume it. It, moreover, occurs to him: [If I] try 
circumspectly to hide [my money] in a [secret] storeroom, [I will] be 
apprehensive about its future loss. [If I] want to invest [my money in 
the hope of making] a profit, [I will] be apprehensive about the risks; 
or a wicked son will grow up in my family and [eventually] squan- 
der my property. - On account of [all] this sense-pleasures [taken to 
require possessions as a prerequisite] create sheer distress 11 . All this 

7 Lit.: duhkhasukhacitta against the Pali sukham somanassam. 

8 I.e. ilfj=. Could this be a sarcastic allusion to the profession of a lawyer? 

9 Lit.: 'not at his own pleasure'. 



10 Cf. BSR 19, 1 (2002), p. 54', n 

11 I.e. ^S Cf. Karashima, p. 18. 



17. 



185: Sti. 'distress, suffering'. 
61 



Buddhist Studies Review 21, 1 (2004) 

[suffering] is due to (pratitya) and has its roots (mula) in sense- 
pleasures which cause this havoc (apaksdla, vikdra). 

Now although that son of good family always concerns him- 
self with safeguarding his money, after some time it is confiscated 
by the king, thieves rob him of it, it is swept away by water, it is 
consumed by fire, it is hidden in a storeroom and thereafter its 
[whereabouts] are uncertain, it is made good use of [by way of] in- 
vestment [for the sake of high] returns, but without getting any, [or] 
a wicked son growing up in his house [eventually] squanders his 
money [so that] of a considerable fortune not even a fraction is 
left. 12 Consequently he worries too much and suffers, beating his 
breast and wailing: The money I had earned before has gone now, it 
is lost. - Accordingly, he is thrown into confusion and becomes 
mentally deranged. This is the meaning of [what has just been said, 
viz.] sense-pleasures create sheer distress. [All] this [suffering] is 
due to and has its roots in sense-pleasures so that one does not attain 
the Unconditioned (asamskrta). 

Furthermore, due to sense-pleasures and being rooted in them, 
[adversaries] put on armour and attack each other. In doing so, they 
face units of [war] elephants, of the cavalry, infantry or war chariots. 
On seeing the cavalry, the [war] elephants, the war chariots or 
infantry they charge at them. They put each other to the sword or 
shoot each other dead; with lances and battleaxes they cause blood 
and gore. As sense-pleasures are related to this [blood and gore], 
they create sheer distress which is due to and has its roots in them, 
causing this havoc. Moreover, due to sense-pleasures and being 
rooted in them, [adversaries] launch fierce attacks either on city gates 
or on its ramparts, putting each other to the sword, shooting each 
other dead, piercing each other with their lances, knocking down 
[and cutting off] each other's heads with iron discs or killing each 
other with molten iron. [As a result of all this,] they suffer too much 
and die in huge numbers. Accordingly, those who enjoy sense- 
pleasures are subject to impermanence. Everybody [one day] meets 
his end (m'-Vv/t), [being subject to] transformation (parindma) with- 
out there being any [real] standstill. Being in the grip of sense-pleas- 



12 Lit.: 'of a very large figure [he] does not get one'. 



Ekottaragama XXXIII 

ures and [therefore] being subject to impermanence and transform- ' 
ation, this is what is called sense-pleasures creating sheer distress. 

How should one give up sense-pleasures? When someone 
succeeds in practising the overcoming of sensuous greed (kdma- 
rdga) , this is called their renunciation. The so-called sramanas and 
brahmin [ascetics] who do not know of sense-pleasures as entailing 
sheer distress, also do not know where to begin [in order to] give 
them up. [Those] sramanas and brahmin [ascetics] do not really 
know of the deportment (iryapatha) pertaining to them; they are not 
[real] sramanas and brahmin [ascetics] and are unable to give rise to 
their realising [the ultimate goal] and perfect mastery over 
themselves^. The sramanas and brahmin [ascetics] who perfectly 
know of sense-pleasures as entailing sheer distress, are capable of 
really and unpretentiously giving them up. They know of the 
deportment pertaining to sramanas and brahmin [ascetics]. They 
have given [rise] to their realising [the ultimate goal] and perfect 
mastery over themselves. This is what is meant by giving up sense- 
pleasures...' 14 

Addendum to EA XVI 

At BSR 11, 1 (1994), pp. 54-62, a translation of the EA version of 
the story of King Mandhatr is given. Mention should be made of D. 
Schlingloff, King Mandhatar' s Rise and Fall, Interpretation of the 
Bagh Painting Based on the Line drawings in J. Marshall, The Bagh 
Caves, 1927, and the Identification of M. Zin in East and West 51 
(2001), Munich 2003. This brochure also contains a comprehensive 
bibliography (literary versions of the Mandhatar story, Pali and 
Sanskrit texts, Chinese and Tibetan translations). Many thanks are 
due to Prof. Schlingloff for offprints of his publications. 



g I.e. gjSIK; cf. Soothill, p. 414b: jffltS - vikrldita; see also BHSD, p. 
482: 'vikrldita something like easy mastery... perfect mastery'. 
14 Cf. M I, p. 83 ff. (Mahadukkhakkhandhasutta); LB. Horner, The Middle 
Length Sayings I (PTS), London 1954, p. 110 ff. ('Greater Discourse on the 
Stems of Anguish"l; Bh. Nanamoli, Bh. Bodhi, The Middle Length Discourses 
of the Buddha. Boston 1995, j). 179 ff. ('The Greater Discourse on the 

Mass of Suffering'). The present EA discourse has two more parallels, viz. at 
Tl, 584c ff. (No. 26, MA, sutra No. 99) and Tl, 846 ff. (No. 53, separate 
SQ tra). Thanks are due to Dr Analayo for kindly having made available his study 
°f the Mahadukkhakkhandha Sutta, being part of his comprehensive comparative 
study of the Pali Nikayas vis-a-vis the Chinese Agamas in preparation. 

63 



EKOTTARAGAMA (XXXIV) 



Ekottaragama (XXXIV) 



Translated from the Chinese Version by 

Thich Huyen-Vi and Bhikkhu Pasadika 

in collaboration with Sara Boin-Webb 

Twelfth Fascicle 

Part 21 
(The Triple Gem) 

9. l '... What is the enjoyment of forms? [Let us] suppose [someone] 
sees a girl either of noble descent (ksatriyajdti), of brahminic descent 
or of a householder's (grhapati) family, fourteen, fifteen or sixteen 
years old, neither tall nor short, neither plump nor thin, neither [too] 
fair nor [too] dark, being respectable and of incomparable [beauty] 
seldom to be found in the world. Hardly has one seen her com- 
plexion when one experiences pleasure and joy (sukhasaumanasya) 
- this is called enjoyment of forms. 

How do forms create sheer distress? If one sees that "girl" 
again after [a time], being eighty, ninety or even a hundred years of 
age, her complexion has totally changed; with the passage of time 
her vigour is gone, her teeth are broken and her hair is as white as 
snow; her body is blotchy2, the skin is flaccid, the face all wrinkles, 
the spine deformed, the body [resembling] a creaking and groaning 
old cart; [with] shaking frame she stumbles along, leaning on a stick. 
What do you think, bhiksus? [The girl endowed with] such a pleas- 
ing (ramya) appearance before and afterwards having totally 
changed, is that not sheer distress? - It is, Exalted One, replied the 
bhiksus. - That is how forms create sheer distress, the Exalted One 
[went on] saying to the bhiksus. 

Moreover, if one sees that woman with her body exposed to 
great affliction, being confined to bed3, incontinent and unable to rise 
and stand, what do you think, bhiksus? [The girl] originally [being 
endowed with] such a pleasing appearance and now exposed to this 



1 See T2, 605M8 ft; Hayashi, p. 201 ff. 

2 ij§ jffi, lit.: 'bounded by stains'; cf. M I, p. 88: tilakahatagattim (Burmese 
and Nalanda readings to be preferred: °gattam): 'with her body affected with 
spots'. 

3 Lit.: 'bed-mattress'. 

216 



affliction, is that not sheer distress? - It is, Exalted One, replied the 
bhiksus. - That is how forms create sheer distress, the Exalted One 
[went on] saying to the bhiksus. 

Furthermore, bhiksus, if one sees that woman's body, broken 
up, lifeless and on its way to the cemetery 4 - how is that, bhiksus? 
Formerly beholding that pleasing form and now - what a transforma- 
tion! When in this [situation one's] mind experiences pleasure and 
pain 5 welling up, is that not sheer distress? - It is, Exalted One, re- 
plied the bhiksus... 

And again, if one sees that woman in one place being dead for 
one day, two, three, four, five, up to seven days, her body being 
bloated, putrid, nauseating and decomposing - how is that, bhiksus? 
That originally pleasing form which has now undergone this trans- 
formation - is that not sheer distress? - It is, Exalted One, replied the 
bhiksus... 

In addition, if one sees [how] crows and magpies, kites and 
vultures come [near], squabbling with [each other] over that woman 
[as their] prey, or [if] one sees [her] either being devoured by foxes, 
dogs, wolves [or] tigers or being [infested and] fed on by mosquito 
larvae, rapidly worming [their way into the flesh, and by other] ex- 
tremely small wriggling worms - how is that, bhiksus? Originally 
she was endowed with such a pleasing appearance, and now she has 
undergone this transformation! When in this [situation one's] mind 
experiences pleasure and pain welling up, is that not sheer distress? 
- It is, Exalted One, replied the bhiksus... 

Additionally, if one sees that woman's body half eaten away 
by birds [of prey] and worms, [with its] bowels, stomach, bloody 
flesh [and various kinds of] impure substances [exposed]... That is 
how forms create sheer distress, the Exalted One [went on] saying to 
the bhiksus. 






4 Lit.: 'grave - intermediate space'. For the Chinese W.M is, of course, an area 
of land for burying the dead whilst the ancient Indian imaiana I susana was 'a 
place where the corpses were left to rot' (after PTSD). 

5 I.e. the ambivalence of feelings due to one's remembering that 'girl of in- 
comparable beauty' and one's being shocked to witness the said transformation. 

217 



Buddhist Studies Review 21, 2 (2004) 

Furthermore, if one sees that woman's body without flesh and 
blood, the bare skeleton with its bones [still] joined together... That 
is how forms create sheer distress... if one sees that woman's body 
without flesh and blood and only [with dry bones] held together by 
tendons [like] a bundle of firewoods... That is how forms create 
sheer distress... if one sees [the remains] of that woman's body, 
[viz.] disconnected bones scattered in different places - here a bone 
of the foot, there a humerus, here a... 7 bone, there (T2, 606a) a hip 
bone, ribs, a shoulder blade, vertebrae of the neck and the skull8... 
That is how forms create sheer distress... if one sees the shining 
white or dove-grey bones of that woman's body... That is how 
forms create sheer distress... if one sees the dry bones of that 
woman, after countless years putrid, rotten and [finally] indistinguish- 
able from earth... That is how forms create sheer distress. 

Moreover, these forms are impermanent (anitya), [subject to] 
change (parindma) and ephemeral (acira); there is nothing that re- 
mains yOung. That is how forms create sheer distress. 

How should one escape from forms? When someone succeeds 
in giving up and getting rid of all stupefaction (murcha) with regard 
to forms, this is called giving up with regard to forms. As for forms, 
the so-called sramanas and brahmin [ascetics] cling to them; they do 
not know of [their entailing] sheer distress, and they do not over- 
come [clinging] because they do not know [forms] in accordance 
with fact (yathdbhutam). They are not [real] sramanas and brahmin 
[ascetics and] do not [really] know of the deportment pertaining to 
them, being unable themselves to realise [the ultimate goal] and per- 
fect mastery over themselves. The sramanas and brahmin [ascetics] 
who, as for forms, do not cling to them, profoundly knowing of 
[their entailing] sheer distress, certainly know [how] to overcome 
[all attachment]. That is what is called with sramanas and brahmin 



6 For a parallel to the present context also containing this simile (not found in 
Pali), see Bh. Pasadika, 'The Smrtyupasthanasutra of the Ekottaragama Trans- 
lated from the Chinese Version', in: C.P. Sinha, K. Prasad et al., Facets of In- 
dian Culture , Gustav Roth Felicitation Vol., Patna 1998, p. 498. 

7 According to CBETA, the character consisting of the radical 1^1 + 4 is a 
doubtful reading which Hayashi (p. 203) replaces by the character consisting of 
the radical (^ + # ( T2, 606, n. 40) ('spleen (bone') (sic)). 

8 CBETA emends® toff. 

218 



Ekottaragama (XXXIV) 

[ascetics their] knowing of the deportment pertaining to them; by 
themselves they realise? [the ultimate goal] and perfect mastery over 
themselves. This is what is meant by giving up [stupefaction] with 
regard to forms. 

What is that which [has been] referred to as enjoyment of feel- 
ings? When there is a bhiksu experiencing a pleasant feeling, he 
knows, "I am experiencing a pleasant feeling." When experiencing a 
painful feeling, he knows, "I am experiencing a painful feeling." 
When experiencing a neither painful nor pleasant feeling, he knows. 
"I am experiencing a neither painful nor pleasant feeling." When ex- 
periencing a pleasant sensual (sdmisa) feeling, he knows, "I am ex- 
periencing a pleasant sensual feeling." When experiencing a painful 
sensual feeling, he knows, "I am experiencing a painful sensual feel- 
ing." When experiencing a neither painful nor pleasant sensual 
feeling, he knows, "I am experiencing a neither painful nor pleas- 
ant^ feeling." [When experiencing] a painful spiritual (nirami$a) 
feeling, he knows, "I am experiencing a painful spiritual feeling." 
[When experiencing] a pleasant spiritual feeling, he knows, "I am 
experiencing a pleasant spiritual feeling." When [experiencing] a 
neither painful nor pleasant spiritual feeling, he knows, "I am ex- 
periencing a neither painful nor pleasant spiritual feeling." 

Moreover, when the bhiksu is experiencing a pleasant feeling, 
he does not experience a painfui feeling; and he does not experience 
a neither painful nor pleasant feeling either; at that time he [knows], 
"I am just experiencing a pleasant feeling." When he is experiencing 
a painful feeling, he does not experience a pleasant feeling; and he 
does not experience a neutral feeling either; [at that time he knows, "I 
am] just experiencing a painful feeling." When the bhiksu is experi- 
encing a neither painful nor pleasant feeling, he does not experience 

9 I e 3;#1^S! (atmana saksat- V ' kr)\ at T2, 605M7 for E^read ~£M (un- 
noticed both in Hayashi and CBETA). Consequently, at BSR 21, 1 (2004), p. 
63, 1. 16, for 'They have given [rise] to their realising...' read 'By themselves 
they realise...' Cf., in this context, M. Hara on J.W. de Jong who 'kept insist- 
ing on the need for a critical edition of the Taisho Tripifaka; see H.W. 
Bodewitz, Minoru Hara (eds.), Gedenkschrift J.W. de Jong, Tokyo 2004, p. 
XIX 

10 Whereas at the beginning of the sentence 'neutral' and 'sensual' were not 
considered incompatible with each other, here 'sensual' is omitted because, 
perhaps, a neutral feeling was thought to exclude a sensual one. 

219 



Buddhist Studies Review 21,2 (2004) 

either a pleasant or a painful feeling; [at that time he knows, "I am] 
just experiencing a neutral feeling."! l Again, feelings are indeed im- 
permanent and subject to change. So considering the impermanence 
of the feelings certainly being subject to change - that is how 
feelings create sheer distress. 

How should one escape from feelings? When someone suc- 
ceeds in giving up and getting rid of all stupefaction with regard to 
feelings, this is called giving up with regard to feelings. As for feel- 
ings, those sramanas and brahmin [ascetics] who cling to them, do 
not know of [their entailing] sheer distress, and they do not over- 
come [clinging] because they do not know [feelings] in accordance 
with fact. They are not [real] sramanas and brahmin [ascetics and] do 
not [really] know of the deportment pertaining to them, being unable 
personally 12 to realise [the ultimate goal] and perfect mastery over 
themselves. The sramanas and brahmin [ascetics] who, as for feel- 
ings, do not cling to them, profoundly knowing of [their entailing] 
sheer distress, certainly know [how] to overcome [all attachment]. 
That is what is called with sramanas and brahmin [ascetics their] 
knowing of the deportment pertaining to them; personally they real- 
ise [the ultimate goal] and perfect mastery over themselves. This is 
what is meant by giving up [stupefaction] with regard to feelings. 

In addition, bhiksus, if a sramana or brahmin [ascetic] does not 
discern (vi- V/na) painful, pleasant or neutral feelings and does not 
know [them] in accordance with fact, but if they teach [other] per- 
sons, such action is improper. If a sramana or brahmin [ascetic] suc- 
ceeds in giving up [clinging to] feelings [by dint of] knowing [them] 
in accordance with fact and if he inspires [other] persons through his 
teachings to become detached from them [too], this is correct and 



1 1 Whilst in the Pali discourse the feelings experienced in the jhdnas are re- 
ferred to, this part of EA, being a close parallel to the EA version of the Smrty- 
upasthanasutra (see above n. 6, op. cit., p. 499) on the contemplation of feel- 
ings, is inconsistent. The two EA paras, on feeling surely represent a textual 
corruption; for 'contemplation of feelings' does by no means correspond to 
'enjoyment of feelings'. 

12 Cf. n. 9 above; here instead of Bit, maybe for the sake of stylistic vari- 
ation, lil^tidtmabhdvena) is found. As for stylistic variation, against Pali 
usage, cf. also BSR 21, 1, p. 60, 'wretchedness' (after Hirakawa, p. 66: M= 
atyaya... , ddinava), and ibid., p. 61 ff., n. 11, 'distress' (Ulti). 

220 



Ekottaragama (XXXIV) 

proper. This is what is meant by giving up [stupefaction] with regard 
to feelings. 

Now, bhiksus, I have availed myself of [the occasion] to speak 
about sense-pleasures, one's clinging to and enjoying them, about 
their creating sheer distress and about those who succeed in giving 
them up. I have spoken likewise about forms, one's clinging to and 
enjoying them, about their creating sheer distress and about [those 
who] succeed in getting rid of [all stupefaction] with regard to 
forms; [I have] availed myself of [the occasion] to speak about 
feelings, one's clinging to... them, ... succeed in giving up [clinging 
to] them. As to what behoves all Tathagatas to do, viz. to teach 
(caus. - pra-^jna), I have discharged [my duty] now. [You should] 
always practise mindfulness; meditate under trees, wisely reflect 
(manasi-^/kr) in empty places, do not be negligent. That is what I 
[would like to] bring home [to you] {sam-anu-^J sas).^ - Having 
listened to the Exalted One's words, the bhiksus were pleased and 
respectfully applied themselves to practice.' 

10. 'Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in Sra- 
vastl, at Jetr's Grove, in Anathapindada's Park. Then the Exalted 
One said to 'the bhiksus: There are three [things] that are inevitably 
insecure. Which three? Inevitably insecure are a) one's body, b) 
one's life and c) one's property. These, bhiksus, are the three 
[things] that are inevitably insecure. Now, bhiksus, in regard to the 
three [things] being inevitably insecure, one should search for [three 
kinds of] skilful means so as to realise three [kinds of] complete 
security. Which are the three? [There are the skilful means of 
someone] in quest of complete security a) [in regard to] one's body, 
b) life and c) property that are inevitably insecure. And what is [the 
skilful means of someone] in quest of complete security a) [in regard 
to] one's body that is inevitably insecure? It is reverence (gaurava), 



, 



13 As for the concluding exhortation addressed to the bhiksus which is not 
found at M I, p. 90, see the Pali parallel at, for instance, A IV, p. 139: yam bhik- 
khave satthdrd karaniyam... katam vo tarn | etdni bhikkhave rukkhamuldm etdni 
sunndgdrdni \ jhdyatha... md pamddattha... ayam vo amhdkam anusdsaniti \ 
Cf. E.M. Hare, Gradual Sayings IV, PTS 1935, p. 94: 'Monks, the work to be 
done by a teacher for his disciples, ... that has been done for you by me... at the 
foot of these trees... (make ye your habitations)! ... Be not slothful! ... This is 
our command to you.' 

221 



Buddhist Studies Review 31,2 (2004) 

worship (vandana) and, in due time (yathdkdlam), enquiring into 
[the Dharma] {pariprcchd)M This is [the skilful means of someone] 
in quest of complete security [in regard to] one's body... 

What is [the skilful means of someone] in quest of complete 
security b) [in regard to] one's life that is inevitably insecure? As for 
[this kind of skilful means, it is spoken of] when a son or daughter 
of good family, as long as life lasts 15 , does not kill any living being, 
does not brandish (pra-y ksip) either a sword or a cudgel, being 
always guided by modesty (lajjd) and with a heart [full of] friend- 
liness (maitri) and compassion (karuna) encompassing all living 
beings; when [he or she], as long as life lasts, does not steal 
[anything], always intent upon generosity (ddna) and with a heart 
unstained by stinginess; 16 when [he or she], as long as life lasts, nei- 
ther is licentious nor [induces] others to be so; ... as long as life lasts, 
does not tell lies, being always intent upon absolute honesty and 
without cheating anybody in the world; 17 ... and does not drink al- 
cohol, [thereby] avoiding getting befuddled and [thus being able] to 
maintain the observance of the Buddha's moral training. This is [the 






14 This first skilful means is reminiscent of v. 8 of the Mangalasutta: gdravo 
ca nivdto ca... kdlena dhammassavanam | As for the 'act of hearing / learning' 
being connected to 'enquiring', see Khuddaka-Pdtha together with its commen- 
tary Paramatthajotikd I (PTS 1915), p. 148: kalydnamitte... te kdlena upasam- 
kamitvd paripucchati paripanhatiti \ 

15 Hfl^H rendering ydvajjivam, seems peculiar to EA. 

16 Cf. D I, pp. 4, 63: pdnatipdtam pahdya pdndtipdtd pativirato... nihita- 
dando nihita-sattho lajjl daydpanno sabba-pdna-bhuta-hitdnukampl viharatlti \ 
... adinndddnam pahdya adinndddnd pativirato... dinndddyl dinna-pdtikankhl 
athenena suci-bhutena attand viharatlti. See M. Walshe, Thus Have I Heard, 
The Long Discourses of the Buddha, London 1987, pp. 68, 99f.: 'Abandoning 
the taking of life, he dwells refraining from taking life, without stick or sword, 
scrupulous, compassionate, trembling for the welfare of all living beings... 
Abandoning the taking of what is not given, ... awaiting what is given, without 
stealing.' - It is noteworthy that in this place, with reference to the second sila, 
EA includes the concept of generosity, being a useful hint relevant to the ques- 
tion of the EA school affiliation. 

17 Ibid.: musd-vddam pahdya musd-vddd pativirato... sacca-vddl sacca-san- 
dho... avisamvddako lokassdti \ Walshe 1987, ibid.: 'Abandoning false 
speech,... dwells refraining from false speech, a truth-speaker, one to be relied 
on,... not a deceiver of the world.' - At Hayashi, p. 205, the second kind of 
skilful means is omitted. 






Ekomtragama (XXXIV) 

skilful means of someone] in quest of complete security [in regard 
to] one's life... 

What is [the skilful means of someone] in quest of complete 
security c) [in regard to] one's property that is inevitably insecure? 
As for [this kind of skilful means, it is spoken of] when a son or 
daughter of good family, as long as life lasts, is always intent upon 
generosity towards sramanas, brahmin [ascetics] and all those living 
in poverty, giving food to those who require it, providing broth^ to 
those who need it, [providing] robes^, food, lodging, medicine for 
treating the sick 20 , accommodation and a place to live [either in ] a 
city [or in] a suburb; [when he or she, as long as life lasts,] supplies 
indeed everything that is needed. Suchlike is [the skilful means of 
someone] in quest of complete security [in regard to] one's property 
that is inevitably insecure. It is, bhiksus, by dint of these [three kinds 
of skilful means] that one aspires to the three [kinds of] complete se- 
curity [in regard to] the three [kinds of] inevitable insecurity just 
mentioned. - Then the Exalted One uttered the following verses: 
Knowing that one's body is inevitably insecure and that, 
Of course, the same holds true of one's life, and that 
One's property is subject to wastage, one should aspire 
To complete security. It is extremely difficult to obtain a 
Human body; before long one's life comes to an 
End and the fate of one's property will be destruction. 
[So] one [should] happily be intent upon generosity. - 
After listening to the Buddha's words, the bhiksus were pleased and 
respectfully applied themselves to practice. '21 



18 For It Hayashi reads $g (encouragement). 

19 Cf. BSR 18, 2 (2001), p. 219, n. 5. 

20 Ibid., n. 6. 

21 Two places in the Vimalaklrtinirdesasutra suggest that the present EA sutra 
might have been their source: 

a) Vimalaklrtinirdesa II, Sanskrit MS of the Vimalaklrtinirdesa preserved at the 
Potala Palace, transliterated by the Taisho University 'Study Group on Buddhist 
Sanskrit Literature', Tokyo 2004, p. 172: asdrdt sdrdddndbhinirhrtah kdyajivi- 
tabhogapratilambhah... b) Ibid., p. 176: yasya ddyakasya ddnapater yddril ta- 
thdgate daksiniyasamjnd tddrsi nagaradaridre nirnandtvena samd mahdkaru- 
nacittena vipdkapratikdmksanatayd parity agah. . . 

See The Teaching of Vimalakirti, from the French translation by Etienne 
Lamotte, rendered into English by Sara Boin, PTS 1976, repr. 1994, pp. 108, 
112: '(the offering of the giving of the Law consists of)... the gains of body, life 

223 



Buddhist Studies Review ?.l, 2(2004) 

Addendum to EA XXVI, XXVII 

As for the narrative of Nayatikrama and Dharmaruci, alias Sumati 
and Mati, in BSR 16, 2 (1999), pp. 207-14, and BSR 17, 1 (2000), 
pp. 39-47, see D. Schlingloff who extensively deals with the topic in 
Buddhist art in his Ajanta - Handbuch der Malereien I Handbook of 
the Paintings, Erzahlende Wandmalereien / Narrative Wall Paint- 
ings, 3 vols., Wiesbaden 2000 - vol. 1, No. 72: Sumati, pp. 407-14. 






and riches (kayajivitabhogalabha) resulting from the action of taking for the 
substantial that which is not substantial (asare saropadanam)... The giver (da- 
yaka) who bestows his gifts on the poor of the town (nagaradaridra) while 
thinking that they are as worthy of offerings (daksiniya) as the Tathagata, the 
giver who gives to all without making distinctions (asambhinnam), impartially 
(samacittena), with great goodwill (mahdmaitri), great compassion (mahdkam- 
na), and without expecting any reward (vipdkanihsprha), this giver, say I, fully 
performs the offering of the giving of the Law (dharmayajnam paripurayati).' 
See also R.A.F. Thurman, The Holy Teaching of Vimalaklrti, University Park 
& London 1976, p. 40 f.: a) '(The Dharma-sacrifice consists) of the gain of 
body, health, and wealth, consummated by the extraction of essence from the 
essenceless... b) The giver who makes gifts to the lowliest poor of the city, 
considering them as worthy of offering as the Tathagata himself, the giver who 
gives without any discrimination, impartially, with no expectation of reward, 
and with great love - this giver, I say, totally fulfills the Dharma-sacrifice.' - 
See also Thurman's n. 34 on p. 122: '... The three indestructibles are infinite 
body, endless life, and boundless wealth... the body, health, and wealth here 
referred to are not mundane in nature, but refer to the true body, etc. of the 
Buddha.' 

The above second passage of the Vimalaklrtinirdesasutra might have been 
inspired by the third kind of skilful means of the EA sutra, consisting of gener- 
osity equally practised towards ascetics and 'all those living in poverty'. 

224 



~ REVIEW ARTICLE ~ 

NOMINAL PERSONS AND THE SOUND 
OF THEIR HANDS CLAPPING 1 

KARMA PHUNTSO 

The butter tea was ready. It was specially prepared for this oc- 
casion by my room teacher (shag rgari). A senior Geshe (dge 
bshes) accompanied me to the abbot's residence. As we entered, I 
made three full prostrations (brkyangs phyag), offered a silk scarf 
(kha dai) and kneeled as instructed while the Geshe presented me 
to the abbot with the flask of tea. Momentarily, the abbot's 
attendant served the tea to all three of us in small china cups. I 
was not supposed to sip it but gulp it down at once. It almost burnt 
my tongue and throat. The abbot asked me few questions, to 
which the Geshe replied on my behalf. The abbot was particularly 
pleased to have a postulant from Bhutan, a country poorly re- 
presented in Geluk (dge lugs) monasteries. With no physical or 
mental unfitness to bar me from the holy community, he gave his 
blessings for my admission to the Jay College of Sera Monastery 2 . 

George Dreyfus's The Sound of Two Hands Clapping gives a 
vivid and extensive account and analysis of the education that fol- 
lows the initiation I have undergone like many tens of thousands 






1 The Sound of Two Hands Clapping. The Education of a Tibetan Buddhist Monk. 
George B.J. Dreyfus. University of California Press, Berkeley 2003. xv, 445 pp. 
Hb i40/$60. ISBN 0-520-23259-3. Pb £17.95/$24.95. ISBN 0-520-23260-7. 

Self, Reality and Reason in Tibetan Philosophy. Tsongkhapa's Quest for the 
Middle Way. Thupten Jinpa. RoutledgeCurzon, London 2002. 248 pp. £45. 
ISBN 0-7007-1279-8. 

The two books relate to Geluk monastic education, the first is concerned 
with pedagogy and educational practices, the second with Madhyamaka, the 
most important content of such education. 

2 The Sera Monastery in exile is located in Byllakuppe, two hours' drive west of 
the city of Mysore, South India. 

225 



OBITUARY 



Thich Huyen-Vi (Le- Van-Huyen) 
8 April 1926 - 15 February 2005 

In spring 2000 Ven. Dr Thich Huyen-Vi, spiritual advisor and sponsor 
of Buddhist Studies Review from 1984 — 2004, suffered a stroke that 
left him almost completely paralysed for nearly five years in spite of 
tremendous rehabilitation efforts. This year in January he was hospital- 
ised again because of serious kidney problems, and shortly after having 
been taken back to his monastery he passed away in the midst of his 
numerous disciples. 

With his death the World Buddhist Sangha Council in general and 
the Vietnamese Buddhist order of monks and nuns in particular as well 
as disciples and lay followers in many parts of the world have lost one of 
the Buddhist leaders of eminence, who was a great scholar, orator, or- 
ganiser and, above all, a compassionate and magnanimous master. 

Thich Huyen-Vi was born at Ninh-Thuan, a site of historical impor- 
tance in the southern part of Central Vietnam. At a tender age he al- 
ready showed a strong inclination for temple life so that, apart from 
secular modern education, he began to study classical Chinese under 
his stern and yet kind-hearted master when he was twelve. Thus, at the 
local temple, he had the unique chance to obtain a good grounding in 
the Sino-Vietnamese education of men of letters, involving intensive 
studies of both the Confucian classics and the Chinese Tripitaka. 

In 1 940 Thich Huyen-Vi was ordained a novice and six years later re- 
ceived the higher bhiksu ordination. At the age of eighteen he already 
taught at a Buddhist primary school. Soon after the higher ordination 
he left his native province in order to enrol on higher Buddhist studies 
at An-Quang Buddhist Institute in Saigon. Simultaneously he again 
acted as teacher at a secondary school run by the Sangha. Apart from 
his academic pursuits and teaching activities now, as later on, he was 

Buddhist Studies Review 22 (2005) , 85—90 



86 OBITUARY 

untiringly engaged in charitable works to help alleviate the sufferings of 
the people who had become victims of the war. In spite of his young age 
he distinguished himself as a brilliant scholar of Buddhist Chinese (he 
specialised in particular in the Chinese versions of the Abhidharma- 
kosabhasya and in Yogacara literature) and Vietnamese literature. On 
account of his remarkable academic success, in the 50s he first became 
a lecturer at An-Quang Buddhist Institute for monks and at Tu-Nghiem 
Buddhist Institute for nuns as well as speaker of the Vietnamese Sangha 
Congregation; thereafter he was elected Vice-President of the General 
Commission for the Propagation of the Dharma in South and Central 
Vietnam and finally was made Director of An-Quang Buddhist Institute. 

Decisive for Ven. Huyen-Vi's later activities at an international level 
was his resolution to leave for India in order to acquaint himself with 
both traditional Indian and Western methods of scientific work. He en- 
rolled at Nalanda Institute of Post-Graduate Studies and Research in 
Pali and Buddhist Learning and began his studies during the summer 
term in ig6i. Thanks to his extraordinary knowledge of Buddhist doc- 
trine as preserved in the Chinese Tripitaka, he was able to acquire pro- 
ficiency in Pali in a relatively short time; already in 1963 he passed the 
Pali-acariya examination, and in 1965 he obtained his BA in English 
(especially for the benefit of foreign students the Nalanda Pali Institute 
offered BA courses in that language). In 1967 he did his MA in Pali 
which he received from Magadh University at Bodh Gaya. His MA thesis 
is entitled The Four Abhidhammic Reals. Thereafter he began to prepare 
his PhD dissertation, being A Critical Study of the Life and Works of 
Sariputta Thera. In May 1971 he successfully defended his dissertation. 
His thesis supervisor and research guide for both his M.A. thesis and 
doctoral dissertation was Professor U. Dhammaratana of Sri Lanka 
whom he held in great esteem. 

Sariputta, one of the chief disciples of the Buddha and noted for his 
wisdom whom tradition considers the originator of the Abhidhamma 
philosophy, was born at Nalanda. This very fact and his own special lik- 
ing for Abhidhamma literature already developed in Vietnam seems to 
have inspired Ven. Huyen-Vi to embark upon A Critical Study of the Life 
and Works of Sariputta Thera. About fifteen years earlier the well-known 
scholar Andre Migot had already published his 'Un grand disciple du 



OBITUARY 87 

Buddha: Sariputra - son role dans l'histoire du bouddhisme et dans le 
developpement de l'Abhidharma' (Paris: BEFEO, 1954). Migot's study 
certainly is a fine scholarly work. However, Thich Huyen-Vi's disserta- 
tion has by no means proved redundant; whilst the former study ap- 
peared as a long article, the latter is a full-scale study in which all rele- 
vant source materials culled from the Pali, Sanskrit and Chinese canoni- 
cal and commentarial literature are evaluated. The outcome of Ven. 
Huyen-Vi's study is not the picture of the stereotype of an ideal ascetic 
as a 'product of the tropical climate of Ancient India', but that of a 
great sage and saint, of a charming and touching personality. As for the 
critical evaluation of the source materials our author seems to have 
reached conclusions similar to those of Migot. 

In his youth Thich Huyen-Vi had already displayed extraordinary 
pedagogic skills. Simultaneously, when writing his dissertation at 
Nalanda, he taught modern Chinese for three years at the institute, 
holding the post of a lecturer. With remarkable success he inspired 
many students to follow the institute's Chinese diploma courses while 
he himself began to study classical Tibetan under the guidance of the 
renowned scholar Rigzin Lhundup. After more than a ten years' stay in 
India he returned to Vietnam. In ig73 he was appointed professor at 
Van-Hanh Buddhist University in Saigon where he lectured on Ch'an 
Buddhism according to Chinese sources. In addition, one year later he 
was appointed professor at Saigon State University to teach Buddhism 
and ancient Vietnamese literature. Due to the well-known political de- 
velopments in that part of the world in 1975 his academic teaching ca- 
reer came to an abrupt end. 

In spite of Ven. Huyen-Vi's prolonged stay in India and the tremen- 
dous difficulties in Vietnam caused by the political situation and the 
war, he had never been out of touch with his mother country. Even be- 
fore his studies in India he had already become one of the Buddhist 
leaders of South Vietnam. In 1964 he was elected President of the Over- 
seas Vietnamese Buddhist Association, and in ig6g he became Hon. 
President of the same organisation, having its headquarters in France. 
Subsequently in 1972, he was elected General Commissioner of the 
united Buddhist Congregation in Saigon, and in 1975 he was invited to 
Paris by the Linh-Son Buddhist Association to act first as its adviser and 



88 OBITUARY 

later on as its president as well as abbot of the newly founded Monastere 
bouddhique Linh-Son (Vulture Peak Monastery), set up at Joinville-le- 
Pont on the outskirts of Paris.With great effort and assisted by just a few 
monks and nuns at that time and thanks to the enthusiastic support of 
his numerous lay followers he established what later on was to become 
the Linh-Son Headquarters of all the Linh-Son branches that in subse- 
quent years were founded under his inspiration and guidance on all 
continents, including Africa. In 1977 the World Fellowship of Bud- 
dhists chose Linh-Son to be its WFB Regional Centre in France. Later 
on Ven. Huyen-Vi was elected one of the World Fellowship of Bud- 
dhists' Vice-Presidents, and in 1979 he became a life member of the 
World Buddhist Sangha Council, having its headquarters in Taipei, and 
ever since he had been supporting that organisation. 

As indicated above, one of Thich Huyen-Vi's chief objectives had al- 
ways been to further the cause of Buddhist education. Thus within a 
relatively short time he managed to convert the Linh-Son Vihara into an 
ordination and training centre for monks and nuns. Since the number 
of Linh-Son branches all over the world kept growing, there had always 
been a great demand of well-trained, competent persons capable of tak- 
ing charge of all those branch institutions. As, before long, Linh-Son 
Headquarters became too small for all the multifarious activities within 
its premises, Ven. Huyen-Vi found ways and means to acquire land and 
deserted buildings in the countryside to the north of Limoges, which 
both Sangha members and keen lay followers - under the guidance of 
their master - converted into what came to be known as Linh-Son Tung 
Lam, freely rendered as Linh-Son Mahavihara or 'Dharmaville'. Ever 
since its inauguration in 1987 this retreat centre has become the venue 
for intensive monastic training especially during the annual summer 
retreats. 

Long before the foundation of Dharmaville, Ven. Huyen-Vi felt the 
urgent need to raise the standards of training monks and nuns. With 
this aim in mind, in 1979 he had already initiated what was called Tnsti- 
tut de recherche bouddhique Linh-Son' at the Joinville-le-Pont head- 
quarters. To start with, in that year he and other graduate Sangha 
members began to teach meditation, Buddhist doctrine in Vietnamese 
and French, Chinese and Pali (grammar, Suttas and Abhidhamma). To 



OBITUARY 89 

support educational activities, in the early 80s printing facilities were 
installed at the headquarters, and as a result numerous brochures, 
booklets and voluminous books - some also in English and French - 
have so far seen the light of day. Right from the beginning of his stay at 
Joinville-le-Pont, Ven. Huyen-Vi had realised the vital importance of 
anastatic reprints of rare Buddhist books in Vietnamese, particularly of 
Vietnamese translations from the Chinese Tripitaka; through his initia- 
tive it had become one of the main objectives of the 'Institut de recher- 
che bouddhique Linh-Son' to reprint and distribute Buddhist literature 
in Vietnamese. To be sure, the major part of the literary output of Linh- 
Son Headquarters is of a homiletic nature, but some Buddhology- 
orientated works are not wanting. It was Thich Huyen-Vi who inspired 
the creation of a quarterly aiming at contributing to Buddhological re- 
search, viz. Linh-Son -publication a" etudes bouddhologiques of which twenty 
numbers appeared between ig77 and ig82. Then, in the following 
year the 'Institut de recherche bouddhique Linh-Son' joined forces with 
the 'Pali Buddhist Union' in London which resulted in the joint bi- 
annual journal called Buddhist Studies Review edited by Russell Webb for 
the last twenty years. Ven. Huyen-Vi's contributions to the latter journal 
were his pieces of Sino- Vietnamese calligraphy and it was also he who 
started translating in instalments parts of the Chinese version of the 
Ekottaragama. Unfortunately his major contributions to Buddhist studies 
remain inaccessible to all those who do not read Vietnamese, viz. com- 
prehensive commentaries inter alia on the Saddharmapundarika, on Pra- 
jndpdramita texts or contributions to the history of the Ch'an school 
which is also deeply rooted in Vietnam. He had been contributing arti- 
cles on Buddhist and Buddhological subjects in numerous Vietnamese 
journals. In 1975 he already founded the quarterly Hoang Phdp (Dhar- 
maduta) which still appears and of which he was the editor-in-chief. 

In view of Thich Huyen-Vi's indefatigable Dharmaduta activities a fe- 
licitation ceremony was organised in his honour jointly with a belated 
celebration of his 70th birthday anniversary in 1997 in Paris. On this 
occasion also a felicitaton volume in his honour was released, entitled 
Dharmaduta: Melanges offerts au Venerable Thich Huyen-Vi, being a collec- 
tion of articles of Buddhological concern by scholars from all over the 
world. 



go OBITUARY 

Finally, by the end of the last century Thich Huyen-Vi had acquired a 
piece of ground with buildings of a former commercial enterprise at 
Vitry in suburban Paris. It was his vision to set up there a Linh-Son 
Academy for both Asians and Westerners to pursue higher Buddhist 
studies and research, and it was just before his death that the World 
Buddhist University in Bangkok has confirmed to recognise the would- 
be Linh-Son Academy at Vitry as one of its affiliated WBU institutes. It is 
a pity that he was not to witness in March this year the laying of the 
foundation-stone ceremony for the construction of the future academy's 
main building. It is only to be hoped that in due course of time his 
dream will come true: a new seat of higher Buddhist studies and of 
other suitable disciplines in which both traditional and modern learn- 
ing will be cultivated and in which meditative practice too should play 
an important role so as to avoid one-sided approaches. Even though 
"Linh-Son" is a somewhat common name of temples in Vietnam, Linh- 
Son Headquarters and its many worldwide branches are a token of Ven. 
Huyen-Vi's ever strong commitment to the ideal of bodhisattvacarya and 
altruism. 

Bhikkhu PAsAdika